[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incidence of Campylobacter infection exhibits a strong seasonal component and regional variations in temperate climate zones. Forecasting the risk of infection regionally may provide clues to identify sources of transmission affected by temperature and precipitation. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess temporal patterns and differences in campylobacteriosis risk among nine climatic divisions of Georgia, USA, (2) compare univariate forecasting models that analyze campylobacteriosis risk over time with those that incorporate temperature and/or precipitation, and (3) investigate alternatives to supposedly random walk series and non-random occurrences that could be outliers. Temporal patterns of campylobacteriosis risk in Georgia were visually and statistically assessed. Univariate and multivariable forecasting models were used to predict the risk of campylobacteriosis and the coefficient of determination (R (2)) was used for evaluating training (1999-2007) and holdout (2008) samples. Statistical control charting and rolling holdout periods were investigated to better understand the effect of outliers and improve forecasts. State and division level campylobacteriosis risk exhibited seasonal patterns with peaks occurring between June and August, and there were significant associations between campylobacteriosis risk, precipitation, and temperature. State and combined division forecasts were better than divisions alone, and models that included climate variables were comparable to univariate models. While rolling holdout techniques did not improve predictive ability, control charting identified high-risk time periods that require further investigation. These findings are important in (1) determining how climatic factors affect environmental sources and reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. and (2) identifying regional spikes in the risk of human Campylobacter infection and their underlying causes.
International Journal of Biometeorology 01/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study objective was to determine the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) and fentanyl on the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane necessary to prevent movement (MACNM) in response to noxious stimulation in dogs. Six healthy, adult, intact male, mixed-breed dogs were used on 3 occasions in a randomized crossover design. After induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, each of the following treatments was randomly administered: fentanyl loading dose (Ld) of 15 μg/kg and infusion of 6 μg/kg per hour [treatment 1 (T1)], 70% N2O (T2), or fentanyl (Ld of 15 μg/kg and infusion of 6 μg/kg per hour) combined with 70% N2O (T3). Each dog received each of the 3 treatments once during the 3-week period. Determination of MACNM was initiated 90 min after the start of each treatment. The values were compared using the baseline MACNM, which had been determined in a previous study on the same group of dogs. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer tests, and expressed as least squares mean ± SEM. The baseline MACNM decreased by 36.6 ± 4.0%, 15.0 ± 4.0%, and 46.0 ± 4.0% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively (P P P ≥ 0.05) between T1 (3.70 ± 0.56 ng/mL) and T3 (3.50 ± 0.56 ng/mL). The combination of fentanyl and N2O resulted in a greater sevoflurane MACNM sparing effect than either treatment alone.
Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 01/2014; 78(3). · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common tumor arising in the periocular and penile areas of horses. Both ultraviolet radiation and papillomaviruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SCC in various species, including the horse. This retrospective study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect papillomavirus DNA in archival biopsy samples from equine periocular and penile SCC from 3 different geographic areas (northeast, southeast, and central United States). Forty-two periocular SCCs were tested; none contained papillomavirus DNA. Twenty-two penile SCCs were tested, and papillomavirus DNA was identified in 10 (43%) cases. Sequencing of the PCR products revealed homology with Equus caballus papillomavirus 2 (EcPV-2). No geographic distribution in the detection of papillomavirus was identified. Penile SCCs were significantly more likely to be papillomavirus positive than the periocular SCCs (P < 0.001). The role of papillomavirus in the development of penile SCC requires further investigation. The differing pathogeneses of periocular and penile SCC suggest that the tumors may respond differently to treatment.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 12/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To determine the effect of intravenous (IV) buprenorphine on the isoflurane (ISO) minimum alveolar concentration (ISOMAC) in dogs. Study designRandomized, crossover, design. AnimalsSix healthy, adult (2–3 years old), intact dogs (two males and four females) weighing 7.4–11.0 kg. Methods
Each dog was studied on three occasions, 1 week apart, and baseline ISOMAC (MACB) was determined on each occasion. ISOMAC was defined as the mean of the end-tidal ISO concentrations that prevented and allowed purposeful movement in response to a noxious stimulus. After MACB determination, dogs were randomly given buprenorphine (BUP) at either 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mg kg−1 IV, and ISOMAC was determined at two time periods after BUP administration. The first post-treatment determination (MACT1) was initiated 45 minutes after BUP administration and the second determination (MACT2) was initiated 4 hours after BUP administration. MAC values were determined in duplicate and the mean values were used for statistical analysis. ResultsIsoflurane minimum alveolar concentration was decreased at 141 minutes (the time of MACT1 determination) by 25%, 35%, and 27% after administration of BUP at 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg kg−1, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). The MAC reductions were not statistically different among doses. The reductions in ISOMAC at 342 minutes (the time of MACT2 determination) ranged from 13 to 16%, and were not statistically different among doses. Conclusions and clinical significanceBuprenorphine at 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg kg−1 significantly decreased ISOMAC in dogs at 141 minutes but not at 342 minutes. When using BUP for MAC reduction re-dosing may be required for procedures of long duration, and there may be no advantage to using the 0.1 mg kg−1 dose.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 12/2013; · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the association of various aspects of veterinary ophthalmology residency training with the first-time pass rate (FTPR) of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ACVO) examination, as well as the individual written, image recognition, animal examination, and surgical sections of the examination.
Program type, resident evaluations, cumulative surgery and case logs, and scores from ACVO examinations from 2007 to 2010 were evaluated.
Data were available for 71 candidates. The overall FTPR was 35% (n = 25). For the different sections of the examination, FTPRs were as follows: written (68%), image recognition (76%), intraocular surgery (80%), extraocular surgery (65%), and animal examination (75%). The overall FTPR among candidates from academic residency (AR) programs was 43% (20 of 47), while the FTPR of residents in private practice (PPR) programs was 21% (5 of 24; P = 0.07). The AR candidates were more likely to pass the written portion than PPR residents (P = 0.02), and AR candidates had significantly more time off clinics (median 25%) vs PPR residents (median 18%; P = 0.007). The AR residents also had a higher reported percentage of direct supervision than PPR residents (95% vs 76%, respectively). Although PPR residents did significantly more surgeries and examined significantly more dogs and cats, those from ARs examined significantly more equine, bovine, avian, camelid, and reptile species.
Overall, AR residents had a higher FTPR and were more likely to pass the written portion of the examination. Total case and surgery numbers were not associated with FTPR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sedation is commonly used during intradermal testing (IDT). Morphine and its derivatives have long been avoided because of their histamine-releasing effects.
Butorphanol, an opioid agonist/antagonist, will not adversely affect IDT in dogs.
Ten client-owned dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis.
Dogs were randomized to be sedated with butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg) or dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg). Routine IDT along with intradermal injections of various dilutions of histamine were performed on the lateral thorax, followed 7 days later by the alternative sedative and IDT on the opposite side. The injection sites were subjectively scored and objectively measured by one investigator, blinded to the sedatives, and compared between groups.
When the mean wheal diameters from the objective measurements of all antigens, including saline and histamine dilutions, were compared, butorphanol was associated with significantly smaller reactions than dexmedetomidine (P = 0.0001). There was a high level of agreement between sedatives when positive reactions subjectively scored as ≥3+ were compared (κ = 0.91). When mean wheal diameters of histamine at concentrations of 1:100,000, 1:400,000, 1:1,600,000 and 1:6,400,000 were compared, there were no significant differences between sedative types. Moreover, the percentage agreement when comparing subjective interpretation of all histamine dilutions between sedations was high (κ = 0.90). However, there was only 69% agreement beyond chance when objective and subjective interpretations of all antigens were compared between sedative groups.
Although butorphanol resulted in significantly smaller wheal size in comparison to dexmedetomidine, it did not affect the overall subjective interpretation of the results of IDT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Masitinib mesylate is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of gross, non-metastatic grade II and III canine mast cell tumours (MCTs). This study evaluated the use of masitinib as a frontline and rescue agent for metastatic and non-metastatic canine MCTs. Identification of toxicities and prognostic factors in these dogs was of secondary interest. Twenty-six dogs were included in this study. The overall response rate to masitinib was 50%. The median survival time for dogs that responded to masitinib was 630 days versus 137 days for dogs that did not respond (P = 0.0033). Toxicity was recorded in 61.5% of treated dogs, but the majority of adverse events were mild and self-limiting. Response to masitinib, not tumour grade, stage or location, was the most significant prognostic factor for survival in dogs with MCTs.
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 07/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO) that prevents purposeful movement, the MAC of ISO at which there is no motor movement (MACNM), and the MAC of ISO at which autonomic responses are blocked (MACBAR) in dogs. Six adult, healthy, mixed-breed, intact male dogs were anesthetized with ISO delivered via mask. Baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR of ISO were determined for each dog using a supra-maximal electrical stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 ms). Nitrous oxide (70%) was then administered and MAC and its derivatives (N2O-MAC, N2O-MACNM, and N2O-MACBAR) were determined using the same methodology. The values for baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR were 1.39 ± 0.14, 1.59 ± 0.10, and 1.72 ± 0.16, respectively. The addition of 70% N2O decreased MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR by 32%, 15%, and 25%, respectively.
Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 04/2013; 77(2):131-135. · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of fentanyl on the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane needed to prevent motor movement (MAC(NM) ) in response to noxious stimulation, and to evaluate if acute tolerance develops. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized cross-over experimental study. ANIMALS: Six healthy, adult (2-3 years old), intact male, mixed-breed dogs weighing 16.2 ± 1.1 kg. METHODS: Six dogs were randomly assigned to receive one of three separate treatments over a 3 week period. After baseline sevoflurane MAC(NM) (MAC(NM-B) ) determination, fentanyl treatments (T) were administered as a loading dose (Ld) and constant rate infusion (CRI) as follows: T1-Ld of 7.5 μg kg(-1) and CRI at 3 μg kg(-1) hour(-1) ; T2-Ld of 15 μg kg(-1) and CRI at 6.0 μg kg (-1) hour(-1) ; T3-Ld of 30 μg kg(-1) and CRI at 12 μg kg(-1) hour(-1) . The MAC(NM) was defined as the minimum end-tidal sevoflurane concentration preventing motor movement. The first post-treatment MAC(NM) (MAC(NM-I) ) determination was initiated 90 minutes after the start of the CRI, and a second MAC(NM) (MAC(NM) (-) (II) ) determination was initiated 3 hours after MAC(NM-I) was established. RESULTS: The overall least square mean MAC(NM-B) for all groups was 2.66%. All treatments decreased (p < 0.05) MAC(NM) , and the decrease from baseline was 22%, 35% and 41% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Percentage change in T1 differed (p < 0.05) from T2 and T3; however, T2 did not differ from T3. MAC(NM-I) was not significantly different from MAC(NM-II) within treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Fentanyl doses in the range of 3-12 μg kg(-1 ) hour(-1) significantly decreased the sevoflurane MAC(NM) . Clinically significant tolerance to fentanyl did not occur under the study conditions.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 01/2013; · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that neutrophil function in tumour-bearing dogs is negatively impacted by chemotherapy. Flow cytometric techniques were used to assess neutrophil oxidative burst and phagocytic activities at baseline, 7 and 21 days after induction chemotherapy in 20 dogs with lymphoma. Dogs had a lower percentage of neutrophils exhibiting oxidative burst activity after stimulation with Escherichia coli (day 7; P = 0.009) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (days 7 and 21; P = 0.0003 and P = 0.01, respectively), compared with healthy controls. From day 0 to 7, the percentage of neutrophils exhibiting oxidative burst activity decreased after stimulation with E. coli (P = 0.016) and PMA (P = 0.0006). Induction chemotherapy suppresses the percentage of neutrophils capable of oxidative burst in dogs with lymphoma, with improvement in phagocytic activity over time (P = 0.03). The impact of neutrophil dysfunction on incidence and severity of sepsis in dogs receiving chemotherapy should be investigated.
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 01/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of repeated intraperitoneal administration of tribromoethanol on various parameters in C57BL/6NHsd mice. Mice (n = 68) were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups to receive tribromoethanol (500 mg/kg IP) on day 0 or days 0 and 8; vehicle (tert-amyl alcohol in sterile water) only on day 0 or days 0 and 8; sterile water injection on day 0 or days 0 and 8; or no treatment. A single dose of tribromoethanol failed to produce loss of pedal reflex and had no effect on median food and water consumption but altered median body weight on days 1 through 4 when compared with that in mice that received vehicle only or no treatment. Median body weight did not differ between mice that received a single dose of tribromoethanol and those that received an injection of water. Among mice given 2 doses of tribromoethanol, induction time, anesthetic duration, and recovery time varied widely. Repeated administration of tribromoethanol had no effect on median food and water consumption or body weight compared with those in controls. Median liver weight was significantly greater in mice that received 2 doses compared with a single dose of tribromoethanol. Median liver weight did not differ between untreated mice and those that received tribromoethanol. No significant organ or tissue pathology was observed in any study animal. Although tribromoethanol did not produce morbidity, mortality, or pathologic changes in treated animals, we urge caution in use of tribromoethanol in C57BL/6NHsd mice due to its variable anesthetic effectiveness.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 01/2013; 52(2):176-9. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i) identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii) investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii) compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR.
Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared.
Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2) were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients.
The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a "one-size-fits-all", approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists' toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.
International Journal of Health Geographics 10/2012; 11:45. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report bronchoscopic placement of nitinol stents (Vet Stent-Trachea®) for improvement of end-stage clinical signs in dogs with tracheal collapse.
Dogs (n = 18).
Medical records (January 1, 2004-October 31, 2008) were searched for dogs with a diagnosis of tracheal collapse; 18 dogs met inclusion criteria. Tracheal diameter was compared before and after stent deployment. Stent dimensions were compared after stent deployment and at radiographic follow-up.
There was a significant difference in the minimum tracheal diameter when initial and post deployment tracheal diameters were compared (P = .003). Stent length was significantly shorter at follow-up when compared to post deployment measurements (P = .004). Owner assessment of outcome was available for all dogs with 11.1% mortality within 60 days. Complications were documented in 9 dogs.
Use of a nitinol stent (Vet Stent-Trachea®) in dogs with end-stage tracheal collapse is associated with a fair to good outcome despite significant temporal stent fore shortening after bronchoscopic placement.
Veterinary Surgery 09/2012; 41(7):807-17. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current report summarizes the incidence and variety of neoplasms in pot-bellied pigs as documented by the pathology group at the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) between 2004 and 2011. Sixty-three pot-bellied pig cases (53 necropsies and 10 surgical biopsies) were identified from the UTCVM case database. Of these, 22 cases from 21 patients (34.9%) were given a diagnosis of neoplasia, including 10 females, 3 spayed females, 2 males, and 7 neutered males. The mean age of affected animals was 11.3 years. The incidence of neoplasia among the necropsy cases was 28% (15/53), and in the surgical biopsy material, the incidence was 70% (7/10). Reproductive and gastrointestinal tissues were most commonly affected, and malignancies were frequently identified, with hepatic and intestinal carcinomas predominating. Multiple neoplasms were often identified in patients submitted for necropsy, and in 4 out of 11 of the necropsy cases, at least 1 of the neoplasms was a malignancy. Six necropsy cases revealed metastatic spread.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 07/2012; 24(5):1008-13. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is common in older horses.
To determine diagnosis frequency, prognostic factors, long-term survival, and owner satisfaction with treatment.
Medical records from horses diagnosed with PPID, 1993-2004.
A retrospective cohort design with data collected from the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) and a cohort of 3 VTHs. Proportional accessions, annual incidence, and demographics were compared for all accessions. During the same period, a subset of medical records (n = 44) was extracted and owners (n = 34) contacted to obtain long-term follow-up information.
Diagnoses of PPID were reported for 217 horses that presented to VTHs and were reported to the VMDB. Proportional diagnosis increased from 0.25/1,000 in 1993 to 3.72/1,000 in 2002. For 44 horses included in the follow-up study, the most commons signs were hirsutism (84%) and laminitis (50%). Of 34 horse owners contacted, the average time from onset of signs to diagnosis was 180 days. Improvement in ≥ 1 signs, 2 months after diagnosis, was reported by 9/22 (41%) of horse owners. Clinical signs and clinicopathologic data were not associated with survival, and 50% of horses were alive 4.6 years after diagnosis. Cause of death among horses (15/20; 85%) was euthanasia, and 11/15 (73%) were euthanized because of conditions associated with PPID. Most horse owners (28/29; 97%) said they would treat a second horse for PPID.
PPID was diagnosed with increasing frequency, and 50% of horses survived 4.5 years after diagnosis. Owners were satisfied with their horses' quality of life and would treat a second horse if diagnosed.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 04/2012; 26(4):1027-34. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of the concurrent administration of 70% N(2)O on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for sevoflurane in dogs, the MAC derivative that blocks motor movement (MAC(NM)), and the MAC derivative that blocks autonomic responses (MAC(BAR)).
7 adult sexually intact male mixed-breed dogs.
For each dog, anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered via a face mask. Initially, the baseline MAC, MAC(NM), and MAC(BAR) for sevoflurane were determined by use of a noxious stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, and 10 milliseconds) applied subcutaneously over a midulnar region. Nitrous oxide (70%) was added to the breathing circuit, and MAC, MAC(NM), and MAC(BAR) were determined again. Percentage changes from the respective baseline concentrations for MAC, MAC(NM)' and MAC(BAR) were calculated after the administration of N(2)O.
Baseline median values for the MAC, MAC(NM), and MAC(BAR) for sevoflurane were 1.75%, 2.00%, and 2.50%, respectively. Addition of 70% N(2)O significantly decreased MAC, MAC(NM), and MAC(BAR) by 24.4%, 25.0%, and 35.2%, respectively, and these values did not differ significantly from each other.
Supplementation with 70% N(2)O caused a clinically important and significant decrease in the MAC, MAC(NM)' and MAC(BAR) for sevoflurane in dogs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2012; 73(3):341-5. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of meticillin- and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in canine pyoderma has been increasing in recent years; thus, treatment of these cases has become challenging.
To compare treatment outcome (clinical resolution and treatment duration), adverse effects of medication, and concurrent diseases and medications in dogs with meticillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) and MRSP pyoderma. ANIMALS/METHODS: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively, and 123 MSSP and 93 MRSP clinical cases between January 2008 and April 2010 were included.
In MSSP infections, cefalexin and cefpodoxime were the most commonly prescribed antimicrobials, accounting for 43.2 and 34.4% of cases, respectively. In MRSP infections, chloramphenicol and doxycycline were most commonly prescribed, accounting for 52.6 and 14.4% of cases, respectively. Adverse effects were reported in seven MSSP and 31 MRSP cases. The most commonly reported adverse effects were gastrointestinal, prompting antibiotic discontinuation in three MSSP and 20 MRSP cases. Chloramphenicol was associated with the highest incidence of adverse reactions (27 of 51 cases). Of 164 cases with follow up, 43 of 88 MSSP infections and 29 of 76 MRSP infections achieved complete clinical resolution at the first recheck examination. Three MSSP and seven MRSP cases failed to improve or resolve at subsequent visits assessed at 3-4 week intervals.
Results from this study showed that the majority of pyodermas resolved regardless of meticillin susceptibility. Although some cases of MRSP pyoderma took longer to treat, this is likely to be because of chronicity and not the organism. In addition, adverse effects were frequently associated with chloramphenicol administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acceptance of feline commercial canned and raw-type moist foods was evaluated in 18 adult cats with and without dietary pre-exposure to the same moist foods in the postweaning period. We hypothesized that cats pre-exposed to moist foods would readily accept canned or raw foods on re-exposure as adults, despite consuming a commercial expanded dry food for a period of 7-23 months. A total of 13 cats were fed 1 of 3 moist foods (commercial canned, commercial raw, or homemade raw foods) exclusively between 9 and 20 weeks of age (exposed), and 5 adult cats were offered only dry food during the postweaning period (unexposed). All 18 cats were offered 1 of 3 moist foods during a re-exposure period as adults. The relative risk, confidence intervals, and P values were determined for weight maintenance and food intake between the exposed and nonexposed cats when they were fed moist foods as adults. Moist food acceptance was generally poor when offered to adult cats accustomed to eating an expanded dry diet for >7 months. There was no difference (P = 0.61) in weight maintenance between those cats fed a moist food or expanded dry food as kittens and the later acceptance of a commercial canned or raw-type moist food as an adult. Similarly, adequacy of food intake measured as a proportion of estimated resting energy expenditure was not different between groups. The shorter the duration of dry food feeding, the greater was the likelihood of weight maintenance on reintroduction of moist foods. Kittens fed canned foods showed greater adaptability and acceptance of both raw and canned foods than those pre-exposed to either of the raw foods.In conclusion, prefeeding kittens a raw or canned food during the postweaning period between 9 and 20 weeks of age, followed by a period of dry foods for >7 months, did not increase later acceptance of the foods as an adult as compared with feeding expanded dry foods alone. Further studies with larger numbers of cats are needed to verify these observations and determine statistical significance.
Journal of Veterinary Behavior-clinical Applications and Research - J VET BEHAV-CLIN APPL RES. 01/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i) compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision), and (ii) identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05) were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data) are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for campylobacteriosis.
Geospatial health 11/2011; 6(1):65-76. · 1.65 Impact Factor