[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substitution of cell-wall components by β-mannosides confers to the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and C. glabrata specific features compared to non pathogenic yeasts. Here, we investigated the enzymatic properties of Bmt1 from C. albicans, a member of the recently identified β-mannosyltransferase family. A recombinant soluble enzyme lacking the N-terminal region was expressed as a secreted protein from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. In parallel, functionalized natural oligosaccharides isolated from S. cerevisiae and a C. albicans mutant strain as well as synthetic α-oligomannosides were prepared and used as potential acceptor substrates. Bmt1p preferentially utilizes substrates containing linear chains of α-1,2 linked mannotriose or mannotetraose. The recombinant enzyme consecutively transfers two mannosyl units onto these acceptors, leading to the production of α-mannosidase resistant oligomannosides. NMR experiments further confirmed the presence of terminal β-1,2-linked mannose unit in the first enzyme product. In the future, a better understanding of specific β-1,2 mannosyltransferases molecular requirements would orient the design of new potential antifungal drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 45/47kDa Apa, an immuno-dominant antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is O-mannosylated at multiple sites. Glycosylation of Apa plays a key role in colonization and invasion of the host cells by M. tuberculosis through interactions of Apa with the host immune system C-type lectins. Mycobacterium marinum (M.ma) a fish pathogen, phylogenetically close to M. tuberculosis, induces a granulomatous response with features similar to those described for M. tuberculosis in human. Although M.ma possesses an Apa homologue, its glycosylation status is unknown, and whether this represents a crucial element in the pathophysiology induced by M.ma remains to be addressed. To this aim, we have identified two concanavalin A-reactive 45/47kDa proteins from M.ma, which have been further purified by a two-step anion exchange chromatography process. Advanced liquid chromatography-nanoESI mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of peptides, derived from either tryptic digestion alone or in combination with the Asp-N endoproteinase, established that M.ma Apa possesses up to seven distinct O-mannosylated sites with mainly single mannose substitutions, which can be further extended at the Ser/Thr/Pro rich region near the N-terminus. This opens the way to further studies focussing on the involvement and biological functions of Apa O-mannosylation using the M.ma/zebrafish model.
Journal of proteomics 07/2012; 75(18):5695-705. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.07.017 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it was identified in the cell wall of several pathogenic mycobacteria, the biological properties of dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol have not been documented yet. In this study an apolar glycolipid, presumably corresponding to dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol, was purified from Mycobacterium marinum and subsequently identified as a 5-O-mycolyl-β-Araf-(1→2)-5-O-mycolyl-α-Araf-(1→1')-glycerol (designated Mma_DMAG) using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses. Lipid composition analysis revealed that mycolic acids were dominated by oxygenated mycolates over α-mycolates and devoid of trans-cyclopropane functions. Highly purified Mma_DMAG was used to demonstrate its immunomodulatory activity. Mma_DMAG was found to induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β) in human macrophage THP-1 cells and to trigger the expression of ICAM-1 and CD40 cell surface antigens. This activation mechanism was dependent on TLR2, but not on TLR4, as demonstrated by (i) the use of neutralizing anti-TLR2 and -TLR4 antibodies and by (ii) the detection of secreted alkaline phosphatase in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the human TLR2 and secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase reporter genes. In addition, transcriptomic analyses indicated that various genes encoding proinflammatory factors were up-regulated after exposure of THP-1 cells to Mma_DMAG. Importantly, a wealth of other regulated genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, including chemokines/cytokines and their respective receptors, adhesion molecules, and metalloproteinases, were found to be modulated by Mma_DMAG. Overall, this study suggests that DMAG may be an active cell wall glycoconjugate driving host-pathogen interactions and participating in the immunopathogenesis of mycobacterial infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A family of nine genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis of β-1,2 mannose adhesins of Candida albicans has been identified. Four of these genes, BMT1-4, encode enzymes acting stepwise to add β-mannoses on to cell-wall phosphopeptidomannan (PPM). None of these acts on phospholipomannan (PLM), a glycosphingolipid member of the mannose-inositol-phosphoceramide family, which contributes with PPM to β-mannose surface expression. We show that deletion of BMT5 and BMT6 led to a dramatic reduction of PLM glycosylation and accumulation of PLM with a truncated β-oligomannoside chain, respectively. Disruptions had no effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis and on PPM β-mannosylation. β-Mannose surface expression was not affected, confirming that β-mannosylation is a process based on specificity of acceptor molecules, but liable to global regulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The "cell wall core" consisting of a mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan (mAGP) complex represents the hallmark of the mycobacterial cell envelope. It has been the focus of intense research at both structural and biosynthetic levels during the past few decades. Because it is essential, mAGP is also regarded as a target for several antitubercular drugs. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin or Mycobacterium marinum to thiacetazone, a second line antitubercular drug, is associated with a severe decrease in the level of a major apolar glycolipid. This inhibition requires MmaA4, a methyltransferase reported to participate in the activation process of thiacetazone. Following purification, this glycolipid was subjected to detailed structural analyses, combining gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance. This allowed to identify it as a 5-O-mycolyl-β-Araf-(1→2)-5-O-mycolyl-α-Araf-(1→1)-Gro, designated dimycolyl diarabinoglycerol (DMAG). The presence of DMAG was subsequently confirmed in other slow growing pathogenic species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DMAG production was stimulated in the presence of exogenous glycerol. Interestingly, DMAG appears structurally identical to the terminal portion of the mycolylated arabinosyl motif of mAGP, and the metabolic relationship between these two components was provided using antitubercular drugs such as ethambutol or isoniazid known to inhibit the biosynthesis of arabinogalactan or mycolic acid, respectively. Finally, DMAG was identified in the cell wall of M. tuberculosis. This opens the possibility of a potent biological function for DMAG that may be important to mycobacterial pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sialic acid, a common terminal substitution of glycoconjugates, has been so far consistently identified in all vertebrates as well as in a growing number of bacterial species. It is assumed to be widely distributed among animal species of the deuterostome phylum, based on its identification in few echinoderm and all vertebrate species. However, whole sections of deuterostome, especially those intermediate species between invertebrates and vertebrates including cephalochordates, urochordates and hemichordates, are still unexplored in term of sialylation capacities. The discovery of functional sialic acid machinery in some of these species may shed new light onto the evolution of glycosylation capacities in deuterostome lineage. In a first approach, we investigated the sialylation pattern of a cephalocordate species, Branchiostoma belcheri, which occupies a strategic phylogenetic position to understand the transition of invertebrates toward vertebrates. Structural analysis of B. belcheri glycoconjugates established that this organism synthesizes large quantities of various sialic acids, some of which present rare or novel structures such as methylated sialic acids. These sialic acids were shown to be mainly associated with mono- and disialylated core 1-type O-glycans. Moreover, screening of the animal organs revealed the existence of exquisite tissue specificity in the distribution of sialic acids. Description of sialylation profiles was then correlated with the expression patterns of key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of major forms of sialic acids, which provides the first complete overview of the sialylation patterns in cephalochordates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, ¹H and ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of α1-4 linked galactose and α1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) bind to galectin-3 to induce TNF-α production in macrophages via Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Here we show that T. gondii GPIs stimulate human macrophages to synthesize matrix metalloproteinase-9 in a TNF-α-dependent pathway and degrade extracellular galectin-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gel forming mucus layer surrounding scleractinian corals play fundamental functions in the maintenance of a favorable microenvironment required for the survival of these organisms. In particular, it harbors a rich partially species-specific symbiotic community through yet poorly understood molecular interactions. However, removal or contamination of this community by exogenous bacteria is closely linked to the worldwide bleaching events that are presently devastating coral colonies. The present study investigates the structure of major high molecular weight glycoconjugates that are responsible for both rheological properties of mucus and sugar-protein interactions with microbial communities. We demonstrated that it is composed by two distinct types of sulfated macromolecules: mucin type glycoproteins densely substituted by short unusual O-linked glycans and repetitive polysaccharides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleolin is a major nucleolar protein involved in fundamental processes of ribosome biogenesis, regulation of cell proliferation and growth. Nucleolin is known to shuttle between nucleus, cytoplasm and cell surface. We have previously found that nucleolin undergoes complex N- and O-glycosylations in extra-nuclear isoforms. We found that surface nucleolin is exclusively glycosylated and that N-glycosylation is required for its expression on the cells. Interestingly, the two N-glycans are located in the RNA-binding domains (RBDs) which participate in the self-association properties of nucleolin. We hypothesized that the occupancy of RBDs by N-glycans plays a role in these self-association properties. Here, owing to the inability to quantitatively produce full-size nucleolin, we expressed four N-glycosylation nucleolin variants lacking the N-terminal acidic domain in a baculovirus/insect cell system. As assessed by heptafluorobutyrate derivatization and mass spectrometry, this strategy allowed the production of proteins bearing or not paucimannosidic-type glycans on either one or two of the potential N-glycosylation sites. Their structure was investigated by circular dichroism and fluorimetry, and their ability to self-interact was analyzed by electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance. Our results demonstrate that all nucleolin-derived variants are able to self-interact and that N-glycosylation on both RBD1 and RBD3, or RBD3 alone, but not RBD1 alone, modifies the structure of the N-terminally truncated nucleolin and enhances its self-association properties. In contrast, N-glycosylation does not modify interaction with lactoferrin, a ligand of cell surface nucleolin. Our results suggest that the occupancy of the N-glycosylation sites may contribute to expression and functions of surface nucleolin.
Structured digital abstract
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1), a human mucin-like glycoprotein, belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, is mainly secreted from mucosal epithelia. It has been shown previously that interaction of hensin, the rabbit ortholog of DMBT1, with galectin 3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, induces a terminal differentiation of epithelial cells. In this paper, we have used surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to analyse the binding of galectin 3 to two purified samples of human DMBT1:recombinant DMBT1 produced in CHO cells and DMBT1 isolated from intestinal tissues. Characterization of their glycosylation profile by nano-ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry showed significant differences in O-glycans between the two DMBT1 samples. Results obtained by SPR demonstrated that the oligosaccharide side chains of DMBT1 are recognized by the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of galectin 3 and modification in the pattern of oligosaccharides modulates the binding parameters of DMBT1 with galectin 3. Moreover, using immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded colonic tissue sections, we could show a co-localisation of DMBT1 and galectin 3 in human intestine, suggesting a potential physiological interaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We showed that the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α by macrophages in response to Toxoplasma gondii glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) requires the expression of both Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, but not of their co-receptor CD14. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding protein with immune-regulatory effects, which associates with TLR2. We demonstrate here by using the surface plasmon resonance method that the GPIs of T. gondii bind to human galectin-3 with strong affinity and in a dose-dependent manner. The use of a synthetic glycan and of the lipid moiety cleaved from the GPIs shows that both parts are involved in the interaction with galectin-3. GPIs of T. gondii also bind to galectin-1 but with a lower affinity and only through the lipid moiety. At the cellular level, the production of TNF-α induced by T. gondii GPIs in macrophages depends on the expression of galectin-3 but not of galectin-1. This study is the first identification of a galectin-3 ligand of T. gondii origin, and galectin-3 might be a co-receptor presenting the GPIs to the TLRs on macrophages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although lipo-oligosaccharides (LOSs) are recognized as major parietal components in many mycobacterial species, their involvement in the host-pathogen interactions have been scarcely documented. In particular, the biological implications arising from the high degree of structural species-specificity of these glycolipids remain largely unknown. Growing recognition of the Mycobacterium marinum-Danio rerio as a specific host-pathogen model devoted to the study of the physiopathology of mycobacterial infections prompted us to elucidate the structure-to-function relationships of the elusive end-product, LOS-IV, of the LOS biosynthetic pathway in M. marinum. Combination of physicochemical and molecular modeling methods established that LOS-IV resulted from the differential transfer on the caryophyllose-containing LOS-III of a family of very unusual N-acylated monosaccharides, naturally present as different diastereoisomers. In agreement with the partial loss of pathogenecity previously reported in a LOS-IV-deficient M. marinum mutant, we demonstrated that this terminal monosaccharide conferred to LOS-IV important biological functions, including macrophage activating properties.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 10/2010; 132(45):16073-84. DOI:10.1021/ja105807s · 12.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall components induce expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) by monocytic cells and levels of MMP-9 in vivo positively correlate with severity of disease. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 mediates cellular responses to acylated molecules but can also mediate responsiveness to diverse molecular structures, including non-acylated native viral and bacterial proteins. MPT/B-83 is a cell-associated lipoglycoprotein common to M. tuberculosis and M. bovis and an important antigen during infection of cattle. Since MPB83 is acylated and glycosylated, we investigated whether MPB83 would induce MMP-9 expression via interaction with TLR2, and assessed the contribution of the lipid, glycan and polypeptide components to its activity. Acylated peptide derived from MPB83 stimulated MMP-9 expression by human macrophage cells via interaction with both TLR2 and TLR1, but not TLR4. Lesser induction was found with secreted (non-acylated, but glycosylated) MPB83 protein purified from culture of M. bovis. Stimulation of cells with MPB83 induced TNF-α production which acted to upregulate MMP-9 expression. Surprisingly, recombinant MPB83 protein devoid of any post-translational modification also induced MMP-9 expression. Direct interaction of RecMPB83 with TLR2 was demonstrated by surface plasmon-resonance. MPB83 may act as a virulence factor through TLR2 mediated induction of MMP-9.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2010; 400(3):403-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.085 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new HPLC method was developed to separate linear from beta(1-6)-branched beta(1-3)-glucooligosaccharides. This methodology has permitted the isolation of the first fungal beta(1-6)/beta(1-3)-glucan branching transglycosidase using a cell wall autolysate of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af). The encoding gene, AfBGT2 is an ortholog of AfBGT1, another transglycosidase of A. fumigatus previously analyzed (Mouyna, I., Hartland, R. P., Fontaine, T., Diaquin, M., Simenel, C., Delepierre, M., Henrissat, B., and Latgé, J. P. (1998) Microbiology 144, 3171-3180). Both enzymes release laminaribiose from the reducing end of a beta(1-3)-linked oligosaccharide and transfer the remaining chain to another molecule of the original substrate. The AfBgt1p transfer occurs at C-6 of the non-reducing end group of the acceptor, creating a kinked beta(1-3;1-6) linear molecule. The AfBgt2p transfer takes place at the C-6 of an internal group of the acceptor, resulting in a beta(1-3)-linked product with a beta(1-6)-linked side branch. The single Afbgt2 mutant and the double Afbgt1/Afbgt2 mutant in A. fumigatus did not display any cell wall phenotype showing that these activities were not responsible for the construction of the branched beta(1-3)-glucans of the cell wall.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A glucuronic acid containing glycerolipid was isolated from the filamentous fungi Aspergillus fumigatus. This acidic glycolipid was extracted from the membrane of mycelium and purified by two successive chromatographic steps on DEAE-Sephadex and Silica columns. Chemical structural analysis was performed using methylation, gas-chromatography, gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry, nano-electrospray mass spectrometry and (1)H/(13)C NMR spectra. The corresponding structure is a 3-(O-alpha-glucuronyl)-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol, where acyl chains are mainly C(16:0), C(18:0), C(18:1), and C(18:2). This alpha-GlcA-diacylglycerol is not present in fungal conidia. This acidic glycerolipid is described here for the first time in a fungal species. Two homologs of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase that convert UDP-glucose into UDP-glucuronic acid, are present in A. fumigatus genome, UGD1 and UGD2. Gene deletion showed that only UGD1 is essential for the biosynthesis of GlcA-DG. However, no particular phenotype has been observed in the Ugd1Delta mutant. Biological function of this acidic glycolipid remains unknown in A. fumigatus.
Carbohydrate research 09/2009; 344(15):1960-7. DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2009.07.012 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and inexpensive method was developed to rapidly define the specificity of mannose-specific lectins toward oligomannoside-type structures. The method involved the interaction of a mixture of N-[(14)C]-acetylated glycoasparagines, prepared by exhaustive pronase digestion of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease B and N-[(14)C]-acetylation with [(14)C]-acetic anhydride and containing all the possible oligomannoside-type N-glycans, with the lectin immobilized on Sepharose-4B. After exhaustive desalting, the obtained fractions were separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography on silica gel plates and visualized by autoradiography with intensifying screen. As an example of the usefulness of this method, the fine specificity of artocarpin, the mannose-specificity lectin isolated from seeds of jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) toward oligomannoside-type structures is presented. On the basis of such a determination, the best oligomannosidic ligand recognized by a mannose-specific lectin can be selected for studies of crystal structures of the lectin in complex with the defined ligand. Furthermore, some of these immobilized lectins, after definition of their precise specificities with the method, could represent valuable tools for the fractionation and characterization of oligomannose-type structures, present in complex mixtures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have reported a role for lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) in sliding motility, biofilm formation, and infection of host macrophages in Mycobacterium marinum. Although a LOS biosynthetic gene cluster has recently been identified in this species, many structural features of the different LOSs (LOS-I-IV) are still unknown. This clearly hampers assessing the contribution of each LOS in mycobacterial virulence as well as structure-function-based studies of these important cell wall-associated glycolipids. In this study, we have identified an M. marinum isolate, M. marinum 7 (Mma7), which failed to produce LOS-IV but instead accumulated large amounts of LOS-III. Local genomic comparison of the LOS biosynthetic cluster established the presence of a highly disorganized region in Mma7 compared with the standard M strain, characterized by multiple genetic lesions that are likely to be responsible for the defect in LOS-IV production in Mma7. Our results indicate that the glycosyltransferase LosA alone is not sufficient to ensure LOS-IV biosynthesis. The availability of different M. marinum strains allowed us to determine the precise structure of individual LOSs through the combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques. In particular, we established the presence of two related 4-C-branched monosaccharides within LOS-II to IV sequences, of which one was never identified before. In addition, we provided evidence that LOSs are capable of inhibiting the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages. This unexpected finding suggests that these cell wall-associated glycolipids represent key effectors capable of interfering with the establishment of a pro-inflammatory response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sialic acids of the platypus, birds, and reptiles were investigated with regard to the occurrence of N-glycolylneuraminic (Neu5Gc) acid. They were released from tissues, eggs, or salivary mucin samples by acid hydrolysis, and purified and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. In muscle and liver of the platypus only N-acetylneuraminic (Neu5Ac) acid was found. The nine bird species studied also did not express N-glycolylneuraminic acid with the exception of an egg, but not tissues, from the budgerigar and traces in poultry. Among nine reptiles, including one turtle, N-glycolylneuraminic acid was only found in the egg and an adult basilisk, but not in a freshly hatched animal. BLAST analysis of the genomes of the platypus, the chicken, and zebra finch against the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase did not reveal the existence of a similar protein structure. Apparently monotremes (platypus) and sauropsids (birds and reptiles) cannot synthesize Neu5Gc. The few animals where Neu5Gc was found, especially in eggs, may have acquired this from the diet or by an alternative pathway. Since Neu5Gc is antigenic to man, the observation that this monosaccharide does not or at least only rarely occur in birds and reptiles, may be of nutritional and clinical significance.
Carbohydrate research 06/2009; 344(12):1494-500. DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2009.05.020 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously suggested that the ability to metabolize deoxyribose, a phenotype encoded by the deoK operon, is associated with the pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli strains. Carbohydrate metabolism is thought to provide the nutritional support required for E. coli to colonize the intestine. We therefore investigated the role of deoxyribose catabolism in the colonization of the gut, which
acts as a reservoir, by pathogenic E. coli strains. Molecular and biochemical characterization of 1,221 E. coli clones from various collections showed this biochemical trait to be common in the E. coli species (33.6%). However, multivariate analysis evidenced a higher prevalence of sugar-metabolizing E. coli clones in the stools of patients from countries in which intestinal diseases are endemic. Diarrhea processes frequently involve
the destruction of intestinal epithelia, so it is plausible that such clones may be positively selected for in intestines
containing abundant DNA, and consequently deoxyribose. Statistical analysis also indicated that symptomatic clinical disorders
and the presence of virulence factors specific to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli were significantly associated with an increased risk of biological samples and clones testing positive for deoxyribose. Using
the streptomycin-treated-mouse model of intestinal colonization, we demonstrated the involvement of the deoK operon in gut colonization by two pathogenic isolates (one enteroaggregative and one uropathogenic strain). These results,
indicating that deoxyribose availability promotes pathogenic E. coli growth during host colonization, suggest that the acquisition of this trait may be an evolutionary step enabling these pathogens
to colonize and persist in the mammalian intestine.
Infection and immunity 02/2009; 77(4):1442-50. DOI:10.1128/IAI.01039-08 · 3.73 Impact Factor