[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actin, a constituent of the cytoskeleton, is now recognized to function in the nucleus in gene transcription, chromatin remodeling and DNA replication/repair. Actin shuttles in and out of the nucleus through the action of transport receptors importin-9 and exportin-6. Here we have addressed the impact of cell cycle progression and DNA replication stress on actin nuclear localization, through study of actin dynamics in living cells. First, we showed that thymidine-induced G1/S phase cell cycle arrest increased the nuclear levels of actin and of two factors that stimulate actin polymerization: IQGAP1 and Rac1 GTPase. When cells were exposed to hydroxyurea to induce DNA replication stress, the nuclear localization of actin and its regulators was further enhanced. We employed live cell photobleaching (FRAP) assays and discovered that in response to DNA replication stress, GFP-actin nuclear import and export rates increased by up to 250%. The rate of import was twice as fast as export, accounting for actin nuclear accumulation. The faster shuttling dynamics correlated with reduced cellular retention of actin, and our data implicate actin polymerization in the stress-dependent uptake of nuclear actin. Furthermore, DNA replication stress induced a nuclear shift in IQGAP1 and Rac1 with enhanced import dynamics. Proximity ligation assays revealed that IQGAP1 associates in the nucleus with actin and Rac1, and formation of these complexes increased after hydroxyurea treatment. We propose that the replication stress checkpoint triggers co-ordinated nuclear entry and trafficking of actin, and of factors that regulate actin polymerization.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IQGAP1 is an important cytoskeletal regulator, known to act at the plasma membrane to bundle and cap actin filaments, and to tether the cortical actin meshwork to microtubules via plus-end binding proteins. Here we describe the novel subcellular localization of IQGAP1 at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope, where it co-located with F-actin. The IQGAP1 and F-actin staining overlapped that of microtubules at the nuclear envelope, revealing a pattern strikingly similar to that observed at the plasma membrane. In detergent-extracted cells IQGAP1 was retained at cytoskeletal structures at the nuclear envelope. This finding has new implications for involvement of IQGAP1 in cell polarization and migration events and potentially in cell cycle-associated nuclear envelope assembly/disassembly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MDC1 (NFBD1) and 53BP1 are critical mediators of the mammalian DNA damage response (DDR) at nuclear foci. Here we show by quantitative imaging assays that MDC1 and 53BP1 are similar in total copy number (~1200 copies per focus), but differ substantially in dynamics at both replication-associated nuclear bodies in normal cells and DNA repair foci in ionizing radiation (IR)-damaged cells. The majority of MDC1 (~80%) is extremely mobile and under continuous exchange, with only a small fraction (~20%) remaining immobile at foci irrespective of IR treatment. By contrast, 53BP1 has a smaller mobile fraction (~35%) and a larger immobile fraction (~65%) at nuclear bodies, and becomes more dynamic (~20% increase in mobile pool) upon IR-induced DNA damage. More specifically, the dynamics of 53BP1 is dependent on a minimal foci-targeting region (1231-1709), and differentially regulated by its N-terminus (1-1231) and C-terminal tBRCT domain (1709-1972). Furthermore, MDC1 knockdown, or disruption of 53BP1-MDC1 interaction, reduced the number of 53BP1 molecules at foci by ~60%, but only modestly affected 53BP1 retention. This novel in vivo evidence reveals distinct dynamics of MDC1 and 53BP1 at different types of nuclear structures, and shows that MDC1 directly recruits and retains a subset of 53BP1 for DNA repair.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 06/2012; 44(9):1398-409. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage causes the accumulation of DNA damage response (DDR) proteins as visible foci in cell nuclei. Despite the identified functional roles in DNA repair, the spatial relationships of different DDR proteins at foci have not been explicitly examined. This study aims to systematically compare the distribution of DDR proteins at IR-induced foci.
MCF-7 cells were treated with IR, stained for γH2AX, MDC1, RNF8, RNF168, 53BP1, Abraxas (CCDC98), BRCA1, BRCC36, Merit40 (NBA1) and RAP80, and then imaged using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) confocal microscopy to assess the relative localization of proteins at foci.
All BRCA1-A complex components displayed strong co-localization, which overlapped significantly with RNF8 and RNF168, but not with γH2AX and MDC1. Intriguingly, 53BP1 co-located well with γH2AX and MDC1, but remained separate from RNF8 and RNF168. These co-localization patterns were consistent for at least 3h after IR.
The foci formations of γH2AX-MDC1-53BP1 and RNF8-RNF168-BRCA1-A complexes are spatially independent. Such divergence was not anticipated from prior studies on the recruitment of these proteins to foci. This information indicates that individual foci may represent distinct sites of DNA repair facilitated by a specific subset of DDR proteins.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 05/2012; 103(3):415-20. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1)-A protein complex assembles at DNA damage-induced nuclear foci to facilitate repair of double-stranded breaks. Here, we describe the first systematic comparison of the dynamics, copy number and organization of its core components at foci. We show that the protein pools at individual foci generally comprise a small immobile fraction (∼20%) and larger mobile fraction (∼80%), which together occupy the same focal space but exist at different densities. In the mobile fraction, Abraxas (CCDC98) and the heterodimer BARD1-BRCA1 share similar rates of dynamic exchange (complete turnover in ∼500 seconds). In contrast, RAP80, which is required for initial foci assembly, was more dynamic with 25-fold faster turnover at mature foci. In addition, Abraxas, BARD1, BRCA1 and Merit40 (NBA1) were stably retained in the immobile fraction of foci under conditions causing loss of BRCC36 and RAP80, suggesting a shift to RAP80-independent localization after foci formation. These results, combined with our finding that RAP80 (∼1200 copies per focus) is twofold more abundant than Abraxas/BARD1/BRCA1 at foci, suggest new models defining the dynamic organization of BRCA1-A complex at mature foci, wherein the unusually fast turnover of RAP80 may contribute to its regulation of BRCA1-dependent DNA repair.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-catenin is the central nuclear effector of the Wnt signaling pathway, and regulates other cellular processes including cell adhesion. Wnt stimulation of cells culminates in the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of target genes that function during both normal and malignant development. Constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway leads to inappropriate nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and gene transactivation, an important step in cancer progression. This has generated interest in the mechanisms regulating β-catenin nuclear accumulation and retention. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding feedback loops that trap β-catenin in the nucleus and provide potential insights into Wnt signaling and the development of anti-cancer drugs.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 03/2012; 44(6):847-50. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1 is a DNA damage response protein and functions in the nucleus to stimulate DNA repair and at the centrosome to inhibit centrosome overduplication in response to DNA damage. The loss or mutation of BRCA1 causes centrosome amplification and abnormal mitotic spindle assembly in breast cancer cells. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer binds and ubiquitinates γ-tubulin to inhibit centrosome amplification and promote microtubule nucleation; however regulation of BRCA1 targeting and function at the centrosome is poorly understood. Here we show that both N and C termini of BRCA1 are required for its centrosomal localization and that BRCA1 moves to the centrosome independently of BARD1 and γ-tubulin. Mutations in the C-terminal phosphoprotein-binding BRCT domain of BRCA1 prevented localization to centrosomes. Photobleaching experiments identified dynamic (60%) and immobilized (40%) pools of ectopic BRCA1 at the centrosome, and these are regulated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1) and BARD1. CRM1 mediates nuclear export of BRCA1, and mutation of the export sequence blocked BRCA1 regulation of centrosome amplification in irradiated cells. CRM1 binds to undimerized BRCA1 and is displaced by BARD1. Photobleaching assays implicate CRM1 in driving undimerized BRCA1 to the centrosome and revealed that when BRCA1 subsequently binds to BARD1, it is less well retained at centrosomes, suggesting a mechanism to accelerate BRCA1 release after formation of the active heterodimer. Moreover, Aurora A binding and phosphorylation of BRCA1 enhanced its centrosomal retention and regulation of centrosome amplification. Thus, CRM1, BARD1 and Aurora A promote the targeting and function of BRCA1 at centrosomes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(10):7701-16. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1 is a DNA damage response protein and functions in the nucleus to stimulate DNA repair and at the centrosome to inhibit
centrosome overduplication in response to DNA damage. The loss or mutation of BRCA1 causes centrosome amplification and abnormal
mitotic spindle assembly in breast cancer cells. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer binds and ubiquitinates γ-tubulin to inhibit
centrosome amplification and promote microtubule nucleation; however regulation of BRCA1 targeting and function at the centrosome
is poorly understood. Here we show that both N and C termini of BRCA1 are required for its centrosomal localization and that
BRCA1 moves to the centrosome independently of BARD1 and γ-tubulin. Mutations in the C-terminal phosphoprotein-binding BRCT
domain of BRCA1 prevented localization to centrosomes. Photobleaching experiments identified dynamic (60%) and immobilized
(40%) pools of ectopic BRCA1 at the centrosome, and these are regulated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 (chromosome region
maintenance 1) and BARD1. CRM1 mediates nuclear export of BRCA1, and mutation of the export sequence blocked BRCA1 regulation
of centrosome amplification in irradiated cells. CRM1 binds to undimerized BRCA1 and is displaced by BARD1. Photobleaching
assays implicate CRM1 in driving undimerized BRCA1 to the centrosome and revealed that when BRCA1 subsequently binds to BARD1,
it is less well retained at centrosomes, suggesting a mechanism to accelerate BRCA1 release after formation of the active
heterodimer. Moreover, Aurora A binding and phosphorylation of BRCA1 enhanced its centrosomal retention and regulation of
centrosome amplification. Thus, CRM1, BARD1 and Aurora A promote the targeting and function of BRCA1 at centrosomes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(10):7701-7716. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BARD1 heterodimerizes with BRCA1, forming an E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions at nuclear foci to repair DNA damage and the centrosome to regulate mitosis. We compared BARD1 recruitment at these structures using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays to measure YFP-BARD1 dynamics in live cells. In nuclei at ionizing radiation-induced foci, 20% of the BARD1 pool was immobile and 80% of slow mobility exhibiting a recovery time >500 s. In contrast, at centrosomes 83% of BARD1 was rapidly mobile with extremely fast turnover (recovery time ~20s). The ~25-fold faster exchange of BARD1 at centrosomes correlated with BRCA1-independent recruitment. We mapped key targeting sequences to a combination of the N and C-termini, and showed that mutation of the nuclear export signal reduced centrosome localization by 50%, revealing a role for CRM1. Deletion of the sequence 128-550 increased BARD1 turnover at the centrosome, consistent with a role in transient associations. Conversely, the cancer mutation Q564H reduced turnover by 25%. BARD1 is one of the most highly mobile proteins yet detected at the centrosome, and in contrast to its localization at DNA repair foci, which requires dimerization with BRCA1, targeting of BARD1 to the centrosome occurs prior to heterodimerization and its rapid turnover may provide a mechanism to regulate dimer formation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to a higher risk of breast/ovarian cancer. The BRCA1 tumor suppressor is a 1863 amino acid protein with multiple protein interaction domains that facilitate its roles in regulating DNA repair and maintenance, cell cycle progression, transcription, and cell survival/apoptosis. BRCA1 was first identified as a nuclear phosphoprotein, but has since been shown to contain different transport sequences including nuclear export and nuclear localization signals that enable it to shuttle between specific sites within the nucleus and cytoplasm, including DNA repair foci, centrosomes, and mitochondria. BRCA1 nuclear transport and ubiquitin E3 ligase enzymatic activity are tightly regulated by the BRCA1 dimeric binding partner BARD1 and further modulated by cancer mutations and diverse signaling pathways. This paper will focus on the transport, dynamics, and multiple intracellular destinations of BRCA1 with emphasis on how regulation of these events has impact on, and determines, a broad range of important cellular functions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic mutations of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) predispose to high risk of human colon cancer. APC is a large tumor suppressor protein and truncating mutations disrupt its normal roles in regulating cell migration, DNA replication/repair, mitosis, apoptosis, and turnover of oncogenic β-catenin. APC is targeted to multiple subcellular sites, and here we discuss recent evidence implicating novel protein interactions and functions of APC in the nucleus and at centrosomes and mitochondria. The ability of APC to shuttle between these and other cell locations is hypothesized to be integral to its cellular function.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 12/2011; 64(3):209-14. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Catenin transduces the Wnt signal from the membrane to nucleus, and certain gene mutations trigger its nuclear accumulation leading to cell transformation and cancer. β-Catenin shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm independent of classical Ran/transport receptor pathways, and this movement was previously hypothesized to involve the central Armadillo (Arm) domain. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays were used to delineate functional transport regions of the Arm domain in living cells. The strongest nuclear import/export activity was mapped to Arm repeats R10-12 using both in vivo FRAP and in vitro export assays. By comparison, Arm repeats R3-8 of β-catenin were highly active for nuclear import but displayed a comparatively weak export activity. We show for the first time using purified components that specific Arm sequences of β-catenin interact directly in vitro with the FG repeats of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) components Nup62, Nup98, and Nup153, indicating an independent ability of β-catenin to traverse the NPC. Moreover, a proteomics screen identified RanBP2/Nup358 as a binding partner of Arm R10-12, and β-catenin was confirmed to interact with endogenous and ectopic forms of Nup358. We further demonstrate that knock-down of endogenous Nup358 and Nup62 impeded the rate of nuclear import/export of β-catenin to a greater extent than that of importin-β. The Arm R10-12 sequence facilitated transport even when β-catenin was bound to the Arm-binding partner LEF-1, and its activity was stimulated by phosphorylation at Tyr-654. These findings provide functional evidence that the Arm domain contributes to regulated β-catenin transport through direct interaction with the NPC.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 287(2):819-31. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor traffics between nucleus and cytoplasm to perform distinct functions. Here we identify a specific role for APC in the DNA replication stress response. The silencing of APC caused an accumulation of asynchronous cells in early S phase and delayed S phase progression in cells released from hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed a selective binding of APC to replication protein A 32kDa subunit (RPA32), and the APC-RPA32 complex increased at chromatin after hydroxyurea treatment. Interestingly, APC knock-down prevented accumulation at chromatin of the stress-induced S33- and S29-phosphorylated forms of RPA32, and reduced the expression of ATR-phosphorylated forms of S317-phospho-Chk1 and γ-H2AX. Using RPA32-inducible cells we showed that reconstitution of RPA32 diminished the S-phase delay caused by loss of APC. In contrast to full-length APC, the truncated APC mutant protein expressed in SW480 colon cancer cells was impaired in its binding and regulation of RPA32, and failed to regulate cell cycle after replication stress. We propose that APC associates with RPA at stalled DNA replication forks and promotes the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of RPA32, Chk1 and γ-H2AX in response to DNA replication stress, thereby influencing the rate of re-entry into the cell cycle.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 05/2011; 43(9):1354-64. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear localization of β-catenin is integral to its role in Wnt signaling and cancer. Cellular stimulation by Wnt or lithium chloride (LiCl) inactivates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), causing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and transactivation of genes that transform cells. β-catenin is a shuttling protein; however, the mechanism by which GSK-3β regulates β-catenin nuclear dynamics is poorly understood. Here, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays were used to measure the β-catenin-green fluorescent protein dynamics in NIH 3T3 cells before and after GSK-3β inhibition. We show for the first time that LiCl and Wnt3a cause a specific increase in β-catenin nuclear retention in live cells and in fixed cells after detergent extraction. Moreover, LiCl reduced the rate of nuclear export but did not affect import, hence biasing β-catenin transport toward the nucleus. Interestingly, the S45A mutation, which blocks β-catenin phosphorylation by GSK-3β, did not alter nuclear retention or transport, implying that GSK-3β acts through an independent regulator. We compared five nuclear binding partners and identified LEF-1 as the key mediator of Wnt3a and LiCl-induced nuclear retention of β-catenin. Thus, Wnt stimulation triggered a LEF-1 positive feedback loop to enhance the nuclear chromatin-retained pool of β-catenin by 100-300%. These findings shed new light on regulation of β-catenin nuclear dynamics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IQGAP1 is a plasma membrane-associated protein and an important regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, contributing to cell migration, polarity and adhesion. In this study, we demonstrate the nuclear translocation of IQGAP1 using confocal microscopy and cell fractionation. Moreover, we identify a specific pool of IQGAP1 that accumulates in the nucleus during late G1-early S phase of the cell cycle. The nuclear targeting of IQGAP1 was facilitated by N- and C-terminal sequences, and its ability to slowly shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm/membrane was partly regulated by the CRM1 export receptor. The inhibition of GSK-3β also stimulated nuclear localization of IQGAP1. The dramatic nuclear accumulation of IQGAP1 observed when cells were arrested in G1/S phase suggested a possible role in cell cycle regulation. In support of this, we used immunoprecipitation assays to show that the nuclear pool of IQGAP1 in G1/S-arrested cells associates with DNA replication complex factors RPA32 and PCNA. More important, the siRNA-mediated silencing of IQGAP1 significantly delayed cell cycle progression through S phase and G2/M in NIH 3T3 cells released from thymidine block. Our findings reveal an unexpected regulatory pathway for IQGAP1, and show that a pool of this cytoskeletal regulator translocates into the nucleus in late G1/early S phase to stimulate DNA replication and progression of the cell cycle.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 09/2010; 43(1):65-73. · 4.89 Impact Factor