Balázs Dóra

Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary

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Publications (129)364.22 Total impact

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    Balázs Dóra, Ferenc Simon
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamic spin susceptibility (DSS) has a ubiquitous Lorentzian form in conventional materials with weak spin orbit coupling, whose spectral width characterizes the spin relaxation rate. We show that DSS has an unusual non-Lorentzian form in topological insulators, which are characterized by strong SOC. At zero temperature, the high frequency part of DSS is universal and increases in certain directions as $\omega^{d-1}$ with $d=2$ and 3 for surface states and Weyl semimetals, respectively, while for helical edge states, the interactions renormalize the exponent as $d=2K-1$ with $K$ the Luttinger-liquid parameter. As a result, spin relaxation rate cannot be deduced from the DSS in contrast to the case of usual metals, which follows from the strongly entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom in these systems. These parallel with the optical conductivity of neutral graphene.
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    B. Dóra, F. Pollmann
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the Loschmidt echo, the overlap of the initial and final wavefunctions of Luttinger liquids after a spatially inhomogeneous interaction quench. In studying the Luttinger model, we obtain an analytic solution of the bosonic Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations after quenching the interactions within a finite spatial region. As opposed to the power law temporal decay following a potential quench, the interaction quench in the Luttinger model leads to a finite, hardly time dependent overlap, therefore no orthogonality catastrophe occurs. The steady state value of the Loschmidt echo after a sudden inhomogeneous quench is the square of the respective adiabatic overlaps. Our results are checked and validated numerically on the XXZ Heisenberg chain.
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    Szabolcs Vajna, Balázs Dóra
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamical phase transitions (DPT) are characterized by nonanalytical time evolution of the dynamical free energy. For general 2-band systems in one and two dimensions (eg. SSH model, Kitaev-chain, Haldane model, p+ip superconductor, etc.), we show that the time evolution of the dynamical free energy is crucially affected by the ground state topology of both the initial and final Hamiltonians, implying DPTs when the topology is changed under the quench. Similarly to edge states in topological insulators, DPTs can be classified as being topologically protected or not. In 1D systems the number of topologically protected non-equilibrium time scales are determined by the difference between the initial and final winding numbers, while in 2D no such relation exists for the Chern numbers. The singularities of dynamical free energy in the 2D case are qualitatively different from those of the 1D case, the cusps appear only in the first time derivative.
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    ABSTRACT: Topological excitations keep fascinating physicists since many decades. While individual vortices and solitons emerge and have been observed in many areas of physics, their most intriguing higher dimensional topological relatives, skyrmions (smooth, topologically stable textures) and magnetic monopoles -- emerging almost necessarily in any grand unified theory and responsible for charge quantization -- remained mostly elusive. Here we propose that loading a three-component nematic superfluid such as $^{23}$Na into a deep optical lattice and thereby creating an insulating core, one can create topologically stable skyrmion textures and investigate their properties in detail. We show furthermore that the spectrum of the excitations of the superfluid and their quantum numbers change dramatically in the presence of the skyrmion, and they reflect the presence of a trapped monopole, as imposed by the skyrmion's topology.
    Scientific Reports 03/2014; 5. DOI:10.1038/srep07692 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A (single flavor) quadratic band crossing in two dimensions is known to have a generic instability towards a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) ground state for infinitesimal repulsive interactions. Here we introduce a generalization of a quadratic band crossing which is protected only by rotational symmetry. By focusing on the representative case of a parabolic and flat band touching, which also allows for a straightforward lattice realization, the interaction induced nematic phase is found generally to compete successfully with the QAH insulator, and to become the dominant instability in certain parts of the phase diagram already at weak coupling. The full phase diagram of the model, together with its topological properties, is mapped out using a perturbative renormalization group, strong coupling analysis, the mean-field theory. Interestingly, the Berry flux varies continuously in the single flavour limit with various control parameters.
    Physical Review B 02/2014; 90(4). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045310 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    Szabolcs Vajna, Balázs Dóra
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamical phase transitions (DPT) occur after quenching some global parameters in quantum systems and are signalled by the non-analytical time evolution of the dynamical free energy, which is calculated from the Loschmidt overlap between the initial and time evolved states. In a recent letter (M. Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{110}, 135704 (2013)), it was suggested that DPTs are closely related to equilibrium phase transitions (EPT) for the transverse field Ising model. By studying a minimal model, the XY chain in transverse magnetic field, we show analytically that this connection does not hold generally. We present examples where DPT occurs without crossing any equilibrium critical lines by the quench, and a nontrivial example with no DPT but crossing a critical line by the quench. Albeit the non-analyticities of the dynamical free energy on the real time axis do not indicate the presence or absence of an EPT, the structure of Fisher-lines for complex times reveal a qualitative difference.
    Physical Review B 01/2014; 89(16). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.89.161105 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spintronics is an emerging paradigm with the aim to replace conventional electronics by using electron spins as information carriers. Its utility relies on the magnitude of the spin-relaxation, which is dominated by spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Yet, SOC induced spin-relaxation in metals and semiconductors is discussed for the seemingly orthogonal cases when inversion symmetry is retained or broken by the so-called Elliott-Yafet and D'yakonov-Perel' spin-relaxation mechanisms, respectively. We unify the two theories on general grounds for a generic two-band system containing intra- and inter-band SOC. While the previously known limiting cases are recovered, we also identify parameter domains when a crossover occurs between them, i.e. when an inversion symmetry broken state evolves from a D'yakonov-Perel' to an Elliott-Yafet type of spin-relaxation and conversely for a state with inversional symmetry. This provides an ultimate link between the two mechanisms of spin-relaxation.
    Scientific Reports 11/2013; 3:3233. DOI:10.1038/srep03233 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Ádám Bácsi, Balázs Dóra
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    ABSTRACT: We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of the Luttinger model after a quantum quench, when the initial state is a finite temperature thermal equilibrium state. The diagonal elements of the density matrix in the steady state show thermal features for high temperature initial states only, otherwise retain highly non-thermal character. The time evolution of Uhlmann fidelity, which measures the distance between the time evolved and initial states, is evaluated for arbitrary initial temperatures and quench protocols. In the long time limit, the overlap between the time evolved and initial system decreases exponentially with the temperature with a universal prefactor. Within perturbation theory, the statistics of final total energy and work are numerically evaluated in the case of a sudden quench, which yield identical distributions at zero temperature. In both statistics, temperature effects are more significant in small systems. The Dirac-delta peak at the adiabatic ground state energy remains present in the probability distribution of the total energy, but disappears from the work distribution at non-zero initial temperatures.
    Physical Review B 07/2013; 88(15). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.88.155115 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the many-body generalization of the orthogonality catastrophe by studying the generalized Loschmidt echo of Luttinger liquids (LLs) after a global change of interaction. It decays exponentially with system size and exhibits universal behavior: the steady state exponent after quenching back and forth n times between 2 LLs (bang-bang protocol) is 2n times bigger than that of the adiabatic overlap and depends only on the initial and final LL parameters. These are corroborated numerically by matrix-product state based methods of the XXZ Heisenberg model. An experimental setup consisting of a hybrid system containing cold atoms and a flux qubit coupled to a Feshbach resonance is proposed to measure the Loschmidt echo using rf spectroscopy or Ramsey interferometry.
    Physical Review Letters 07/2013; 111(4):046402. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.046402 · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    Doru Sticlet, Balázs Dóra, Jérôme Cayssol
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    ABSTRACT: The persistent current in strictly one-dimensional Dirac systems is investigated within two different models, defined in the continuum and on a lattice, respectively. The object of the study is the effect of a single magnetic or nonmagnetic impurity in the two systems. In the continuum Dirac model, an analytical expression for the persistent current flowing along a ring with a single delta-like magnetic impurity is obtained after regularization of the unbounded negative energy states. The predicted decay of the persistent agrees with the lattice simulations. The results are generalized to finite temperatures. To realize a single Dirac massless fermion, the lattice model breaks the time-reversal symmetry, and, in contrast with the continuum model, a pointlike nonmagnetic impurity can lead to a decay in the persistent current.
    Physical Review B 07/2013; 88(20). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.88.205401 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The manipulation and movement of Dirac points in the Brillouin zone by the electron-electron interaction is considered within leading order perturbation theory. At the merging point, an infinitesimal interaction is shown to cause opening of the gap or splitting of the Dirac points, depending on the inter- or intrasublattice nature of the merging and the sign of the interaction. The topology of the spectrum can therefore be efficiently changed by simply tuning the interaction between particles, as opposed to the usual careful band structure engineering. This is illustrated around the merging transition of one, two, and three dimensional Dirac-Weyl fermions. A simple Weyl-like Hamiltonian that describes the quadratic band-crossing in three dimensions is also proposed, and its stability under interactions is addressed.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 05/2013; 88(7). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.88.075126 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lattices, such as the dice or the Lieb lattice, possess Dirac cones and a flat band crossing the Dirac point, whose effective model is the pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl equation. We investigate the fate of the flat band in the presence of disorder by focusing on the density of states (DOS) and dc conductivity. While the central hub-site does not reveal the presence of the flat band, the sublattice resolved DOS on the non-central sites exhibits a narrow peak with height ~ 1/\sqrt{g} with g the dimensionless disorder variance. Although the group velocity is zero on the flat band, the dc conductivity diverges as ln(1/g) with decreasing disorder due to interband transitions around the band touching point between the propagating and the flat band. Generalizations to higher pseudospin are given.
    Physical Review B 05/2013; 88(16). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.88.161413 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Topological insulators represent unique phases of matter with insulating bulk and conducting edge or surface states, immune to small perturbations such as backscattering due to disorder. This stems from their peculiar band structure, which provides topological protections. While conventional tools (pressure, doping etc.) to modify the band structure are available, time periodic perturbations can provide tunability by adding time as an extra dimension enhanced to the problem. In this short review, we outline the recent research on topological insulators in non equilibrium situations. Firstly, we introduce briefly the Floquet formalism that allows to describe steady states of the electronic system with an effective time-independent Hamiltonian. Secondly, we summarize recent theoretical work on how light irradiation drives semi-metallic graphene or a trivial semiconducting system into a topological phase. Finally, we show how photons can be used to probe topological edge or surface states.
    physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters 02/2013; 7(1-2). DOI:10.1002/pssr.201206451 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    Frank Pollmann, Masudul Haque, Balázs Dóra
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    ABSTRACT: We study variable-rate linear quenches in the anisotropic Heisenberg (XXZ) chain, starting at the XX point. This is equivalent to switching on a nearest neighbour interaction for hard-core bosons or an interaction quench for free fermions. The physical observables we investigate are: the energy pumped into the system during the quench, the spin-flip correlation function, and the bipartite fluctuations of the z component of the spin in a box. We find excellent agreement between exact numerics (infinite system time-evolving block decimation, iTEBD) and analytical results from bosonization, as a function of the quench time, spatial coordinate and interaction strength. This provides a stringent and much-needed test of Luttinger liquid theory in a non-equilibrium situation.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 11/2012; 87(4). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.041109 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a unified treatment of the Elliott-Yafet (EY) and the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) spin-relaxation mechanisms using the Mori-Kawasaki formula, which gives the spin-relaxation rate to lowest order in the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) but to infinite order in the quasi-particle scattering rate, Gamma. We consider a four-state Hamiltonian of the conduction and a nearby (valence) band with spin degeneracy, including SOC between adjacent bands (inter-SOC) and within the same band (intra-SOC). We find in agreement with the expectations that intra-SOC yields the DP- whereas the inter-SOC the EY-like result. However, we identify parameter domains of Gamma and the band structure where a crossover occurs between the two types of spin-relaxation mechanisms. The result ultimately connects the EY and the DP spin-relaxation mechanisms into a unified description and it leads to a better understanding of spin-relaxation in strongly correlated systems and where band degeneracy plays a role such as e.g. in graphene.
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    ABSTRACT: The subtle interplay of randomness and quantum fluctuations at low temperatures gives rise to a plethora of unconventional phenomena in systems ranging from quantum magnets and correlated electron materials to ultracold atomic gases. Particularly strong disorder effects have been predicted to occur at zero-temperature quantum phase transitions. Here, we demonstrate that the composition-driven ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr(1-x)Ca(x)RuO3 is completely destroyed by the disorder introduced via the different ionic radii of the randomly distributed Sr and Ca ions. Using a magneto-optical technique, we map the magnetic phase diagram in the composition-temperature space. We find that the ferromagnetic phase is significantly extended by the disorder and develops a pronounced tail over a broad range of the composition x. These findings are explained by a microscopic model of smeared quantum phase transitions in itinerant magnets. Moreover, our theoretical study implies that correlated disorder is even more powerful in promoting ferromagnetism than random disorder.
    Physical Review Letters 05/2012; 108(18):185701. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.185701 · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature dependent electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements are reported on stage 1 potassium doped graphite, a model system of biased graphene. The ESR linewidth is nearly isotropic and although the g-factor has a sizeable anisotropy, its majority is shown to arise due to macroscopic magnetization. Albeit the homogeneous ESR linewidth shows an unusual, non-linear temperature dependence, it appears to be proportional to the resistivity which is a quadratic function of the temperature. These observations suggests the validity of the Elliott-Yafet relaxation mechanism in KC8 and allows to place KC8 on the empirical Beuneu-Monod plot among ordinary elemental metals.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 03/2012; 85(23). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.85.235405 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    Balázs Dóra, Ádám Bácsi, Gergely Zaránd
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the probability distribution function (PDF) of work done on a Luttinger liquid for an arbitrary finite duration interaction quench and show that it can be described in terms a generalized Gibbs ensemble. We construct the corresponding density matrix with explicit intermode correlations, and determine the duration and interaction dependence of the probability of an adiabatic transition and the PDF of non-adiabatic processes. In the thermodynamic limit, the PDF of work exhibits a non-Gaussian maximum around the excess heat, carrying almost all spectral weight. In contrast, in the small system limit most spectral weight is carried by a delta peak at the energy of the adiabatic process, and an oscillating PDF with dips at energies commensurate to the quench duration and with an exponential envelope develops. Relevance to cold atom experiments is also discussed.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 03/2012; 86(16). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.86.161109 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Time-periodic perturbations can be used to engineer topological properties of matter by altering the Floquet band structure. This is demonstrated for the helical edge state of a spin Hall insulator in the presence of monochromatic circularly polarized light. The inherent spin structure of the edge state is influenced by the Zeeman coupling and not by the orbital effect. The photocurrent (and the magnetization along the edge) develops a finite, helicity-dependent expectation value and turns from dissipationless to dissipative with increasing radiation frequency, signalling a change in the topological properties. The connection with Thouless' charge pumping and nonequilibrium zitterbewegung is discussed, together with possible experiments.
    Physical Review Letters 02/2012; 108(5):056602. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.056602 · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Time-periodic perturbations can be used to engineer topological properties of matter by altering the Floquet band structure. This is demonstrated for the helical edge state of a spin Hall insulator in the presence of monochromatic circularly polarized light. We first demonstrate that the inherent spin structure of the edge state is influenced by the Zeeman coupling and not by the orbital effect. The photocurrent (and the magnetization along the edge) develops a finite, helicity dependent expectation value and turns from dissipationless to dissipative with increasing radiation frequency, signalling a change in the topological properties. The connection with Thouless' charge pumping and non-equilibrium Zitterbewegung is discussed, together with possible experiments. B. Dora, J. Cayssol, F. Simon, and R. Moessner, Optically engineering the topological properties of a spin Hall insulator, arXiv:1105.5963

Publication Stats

970 Citations
364.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • Budapest University of Technology and Economics
      • Department of Physics
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2007–2012
    • Hungarian Academy of Sciences
      • Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2011
    • University of Vienna
      • Faculty of Physics
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2009
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2008–2009
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006–2009
    • Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems
      Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
    • Hallym University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2003
    • Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany