[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood management is a concept that adopts a principle of improving patient outcome by integrating all available techniques to ensure safety, availability, and appropriate allocation of blood products. This constitutes a model of multidisciplinary care where the changes in culture are system directed on the basis of evidence-based medicine. There are about 14% US hospitals where any kind of blood management program exists, although the idea remains the same but the programs vary in their execution, implementation, and ultimately providing the value to patients. In this article, we have described our experience of creating a patient-centric, cost-effective, evidence-based, and multipronged program creation with scalable results. The use of data, education, process improvement, engagement, and accountability of caregivers have resulted in sustained results and helped in creating a comprehensive blood management program.
Quality management in health care 09/2011; 20(4):311-21.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incorporating serum sodium concentrations into the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score may increase its sensitivity for identifying priority patients for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We, therefore, evaluated and compared the ability of the sodium MELD and MELD scores to predict graft and patient survival after OLT.
The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry includes all US adult OLTs performed between January 2000 and August 2008. For 15,156 patients who met inclusion criteria, MELD score was calculated; for 6,193 patients whose serum sodium concentrations was between 120 and 135 mEq/dl, immediately before OLT, sodium MELD score was calculated. The corresponding hazard ratios (HR) for MELD and sodium MELD on graft and patient survival were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards regression models. The concordance probability estimate (CPE) was used to evaluate predictive ability of each time-to-event model.
MELD and sodium MELD scores were both significant predictors in univariable Cox regression models for graft failure [HR (95% CI) for every 10 units increase in the predictor: 1.10 (1.04, 1.17), P = 0.001, and 1.05 (1.00, 1.10), P = 0.03, respectively], and for mortality (1.14 (1.07, 1.21), P < 0.001, and 1.07 (1.02, 1.12), P = 0.01, respectively), with CPE of 0.52-0.53.
While MELD and sodium MELD were each significantly associated with survival after OLT, their predictive abilities were poor. The sodium MELD score does not improve prediction accuracy over the MELD score. Weak prediction may result from unaccounted variability in recipient and donor status, as well as surgical and postoperative factors.
Hepatology International 02/2011; 5(3):841-9. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic-type biliary stricture (ITBS) occurs in up to 50% after liver transplantation (LT) from donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors. Thrombus formation in the peribiliary microcirculation is a postulated mechanism. The aim was to describe our experience of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) administration in DCD-LT. TPA was injected into the donor hepatic artery on the backtable (n = 22). Two recipients developed ITBS including one graft failure. Although excessive postreperfusion bleeding was seen in 14 recipients, the amount of TPA was comparable between those with and without excessive bleeding (6.4 ± 2.8 vs. 6.6 ± 2.8 mg, p = 0.78). However, donor age (41 ± 12 vs. 29 ± 9 years, p = 0.02), donor BMI (26.3 ± 5.5 vs. 21.7 ± 3.6 kg/m(2) , p = 0.03), previous laparotomy (50% vs. 0%, p = 0.02) and lactate after portal reperfusion (6.3 ± 4.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.9 mmol/L, p = 0.005) were significantly greater in recipients with excessive bleeding. In conclusion, the use of TPA may lower the risk of ITBS-related graft failure in DCD-LT. Excessive bleeding may be related to poor graft quality and previous laparotomy rather than the amount of TPA. Further studies are needed in larger population.
American Journal of Transplantation 12/2010; 10(12):2665-72. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluid management during orthotopic liver transplantation poses unique challenges for the anesthesiologist. Maintenance of hypovolemia as indicated by low central venous pressure has been associated with reduced blood loss and improved outcomes in some studies, but with higher 30-day mortality and increased incidence of renal dysfunction in others. The primary aim was to evaluate the association of central venous pressure management after liver allograft reperfusion with immediate postoperative patient outcomes.
This was a retrospective investigation evaluating the intraoperative and postoperative records of 144 consecutive patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation at a single institution.
We did not find any important association between central venous pressure management after graft reperfusion and postoperative patient outcomes. Specifically, these data do not support the hypothesis that maintenance of lower central venous pressure during the post-anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation is associated with improved immediate postoperative allograft function (except for a steeper decrease in post operative days 1-3 in 2 of the 3 liver function test: alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin) or overall patient survival, graft survival, composite graft/patient survival, intensive care length of stay, hospital length of stay or the occurrence of infections.
Maintaining a lower central venous pressure during the post-anhepatic phase during orthotopic liver transplantation is not associated with any benefit in terms of immediate postoperative allograft function, graft survival or patient survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent heat-balance study in volunteers suggested that greater efficacy of circulating-water garments (CWGs) results largely from increased heat transfer across the posterior skin surface since heat transfer across the anterior skin surface was similar with circulating-water and forced-air. We thus tested the hypothesis that the combination of a circulating-water mattress (CWM) and forced-air warming prevents core temperature reduction during major abdominal surgery no worse than a CWG does.
Fifty adult patients aged between 18 and 85 yr old, undergoing major abdominal surgery, were randomly assigned to intraoperative warming with a combination of forced-air and a CWM or with a CWG (Allon ThermoWrap). Core temperature was measured in the distal oesophagus. Non-inferiority of the CWM to the CWG on change from baseline to median intraoperative temperature was assessed using a one-tailed Student's t-test with an equivalency buffer of -0.5°C.
Data analysis was restricted to 16 CWG and 20 CWM patients who completed the protocol. Core temperature increased in both groups during the initial hours of surgery. We had sufficient evidence (P=0.001), to conclude that the combination of a CWM and forced-air warming was non-inferior to a CWG in preventing temperature reduction, with mean (95% CI) difference in the temperature change between the CWM and the CWG groups (CWM-CWG) of 0.46°C (-0.09°C, 1.00°C).
The combination of a CWM and forced-air warming is significantly non-inferior in maintaining intraoperative core temperature than a CWG. Trial registry: This trial has been registered at clinical trials.gov, identifier: NCT 00651898.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 10/2010; 105(4):466-70. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) were enrolled in this study, with the noninvasive indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) measured both during and after OLT to assess the relationship between ICG-PDR and the ability of patients to achieve therapeutic postoperative tacrolimus immunosuppressant blood levels. Liver function was determined at both 2 and 18 hours post reperfusion with the ICG-PDR k value (1/min). Postoperative standard serum measures of liver function as well as liver biopsies were also collected and analyzed. The median ICG-PDR k value for the study group at 2 hours post reperfusion was 0.20 (0.16, 0.27), whereas at 18 hours post reperfusion, it was 0.22 (0.18, 0.35). The median change in the k value between the two ICG-PDR measurements was 0.05 (-0.02, 0.07) with P = 0.02. There was an interaction between the postoperative day 1 (18 hours post reperfusion) ICG-PDR k value and the linear increase in the tacrolimus blood level, such that the greater the k value was, the more gradual the observed rise was in tacrolimus over time [that is, the longer it took to achieve a therapeutic blood level (>12 ng/mL), P = 0.003]. Of the 16 patients that received tacrolimus, comparable dosing on a per kilogram body weight basis was observed. Also, no significant association between ICG-PDR k values and postoperative liver biopsy results was seen. This study demonstrates that the ICG-PDR measurement is a modality with the potential to assist in achieving adequate blood levels of tacrolimus following OLT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that donor hypernatremia and possibly recipient hyponatremia negatively impact graft function after orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). The purpose of this retrospective investigation was to determine whether measured differences in serum sodium values between cadaveric donors and OLT recipients (DeltaNa(+)) influence immediate postoperative allograft function and short-term patient outcomes. Two hundred and fifty patients that underwent OLT from January 2001 to December 2005 were included in this study. The DeltaNa(+) for each donor recipient pair was correlated with standard postoperative liver function tests as well as recipient length of intensive care unit stay (LOICUS), length of hospital stay (LOHS) and recipient survival. The relationship between donor hypernatremia (serum sodium >or= 155 mEq/mL), recipient hyponatremia (serum sodium level <or= 130 mEq/mL), and postoperative outcomes were analyzed as well. Adjustments were made for baseline potential confounders, including model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, preservation solution used (HTK vs. UW), recipient and donor demographics and cold ischemia time (CIT). DeltaNa(+) as well as donor hypernatremia and recipient hyponatremia were not found to be associated with immediate postoperative allograft function, intraoperative blood product usage, LOICUS, LOHS or short-term patient survival. However, both the preoperative MELD score and HTK preservation solution used were significantly associated with several patient outcomes. A higher MELD score was associated with both increased red blood cell (RBC) (P < 0.001) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) usage (P = 0.002), elevated postoperative total bilirubin levels (P < 0.001), increased LOHS (P = 0.04), and a higher 30-day post transplant mortality (P = 0.02). The use of HTK preservation solution was associated with higher mean postoperative aspartate aminotransferase levels (P = 0.02) and decreased mean RBC (P < 0.001) and FFP usage (P = 0.009) compared to UW preservation solution use.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 22-year-old, 980-lb (445 kg) man with a body mass index of 163 kg/m(2), who needed intubation for tracheotomy surgery, as he was profoundly hypercarbic and reliant on a tight-fitting continuous positive airway pressure mask. Attempts at oral and nasal fiberoptic intubation during topical anesthesia were unsuccessful because of poor patient cooperation and epistaxis. Thus, after awake placement of a size 5 Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSeal LMA; (LMA North America, San Diego, CA), we induced anesthesia using sevoflurane. Then we placed an Aintree stylet (Cook Critical Care, Bloomington, IN) over a fiberoptic bronchoscope, and both were introduced through the LMA into the trachea. We then removed the fiberoptic bronchoscope followed by the LMA. A Parker size 7.5 endotracheal tube was then "railroaded" over the Aintree catheter into the trachea.
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 09/2007; 19(5):367-9. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six Sigma methodology is a data management process that can be used to achieve a goal of near perfection in process performance. An audit of 615 surgeries over 2 mo revealed only 38% of noncardiac patients admitted on the day of surgery at our institution received perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis within the target interval of < or =60 min before incision.
Six Sigma methodology was used to improve our process of timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis administration. A multidisciplinary team was assembled which identified seven process inputs by which patients receive antimicrobial prophylaxis. Interventions for improvement included reinforcement of use of preoperative antibiotic order forms, eliminating administration of antibiotics in the preoperative admission area, and sending appropriate antibiotics and IV tubing with the patient to the operating room. We concurrently developed a control plan to sustain this improvement using a recently deployed electronic anesthesia record keeping system using real-time measurement and reporting capabilities of antimicrobial prophylaxis administration. After defining the new process and undertaking a system-wide educational effort, implementation was begun with data collection and analysis occurring over the next 7 mo.
For the 8-mo postintervention interval, there was a significant improvement with 86% of 1716 surgical patients receiving their antibiotic prophylaxis within the specified time frame (P < 0.01). The time interval for antibiotic administration before surgical incision also decreased from a preintervention mean of 88 (CI 56-119 min) to 38 min (CI 25-51 min) (P < 0.01).
We conclude that Six Sigma methods were used to successfully improve our process for timing of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis before surgical incision. An electronic anesthesia record keeping system is a useful tool to monitor this process improvement.
Anesthesia and analgesia 01/2007; 104(1):140-6. · 3.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 53 year-old man with Laennec's and hepatitis C-related cirrhosis was found to have dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction during routine evaluation for orthotopic liver transplantation. The outflow tract obstruction gradient was quantified as being 155 to 189 mmHg maximally during dobutamine stress echocardiography. The patient subsequently underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation at our institution. We discuss here the use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography to detect early signs of dynamic outflow tract obstruction and provide a rational guide for fluid and hemodynamic management. We conclude that the measured pressure across the left ventricular outflow tract during dobutamine stress testing does not necessarily predict either intraoperative hemodynamic perturbations such as obstruction or outcome in these patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After initiating a living donor liver transplant program at our institution, we observed that donor patients experienced significant postoperative pain despite the use of thoracic patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) infusion catheters. We retrospectively compared patients who underwent right lobe donor hepatectomy (RLDH, n = 15) with patients who had undergone major hepatic resection for tumor (MHRT, n = 15) to elucidate the cause for this observation. All patients had preoperative thoracic epidural catheters placed, and both groups had similar surgical exposure. Demographic information, intraoperative variables, intensity of postoperative pain by visual analog pain score (VAPS), side effects, total number of requested and delivered PCEA doses, and the total amount of bupivacaine (mg) and volume (mL) of PCEA solution administered through 48 h postoperatively were collected and analyzed. The RLDH group had a significantly longer surgical duration than did the MHRT group. The RLDH group patients had higher postoperative pain scores (P = 0.034), and were 2.76 (1.12-6.82, 95% CI) times more likely to have pain than those patients in the MHRT group. There was no significant difference between patient groups for the amount of bupivacaine and volume of PCEA solution administered. These observations may be explained, in part, by the longer duration of surgery in the RLDH group. The possible role of preemptive analgesia via PCEA infusion and better perioperative teaching of PCEA use are discussed; these may lead to improved early postoperative pain control in RLDH patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a rare occurrence during pregnancy with only five cases described in the literature since 1900. Even in the general population, the frequency of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is extremely low and the etiology unclear. Several theories exist for the cause of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma, however, none has gained uniform acceptance. A case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma during pregnancy in a 27-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, female at term with 36 hours duration of both paresthesia and progressive weakness of the lower extremities is presented. In addition, all previous known cases are summarized, including outcome. We hypothesize that the cause of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is multifactorial, and pregnancy-induced structural changes in arterial walls and hemodynamic changes may play a role. In addition, we postulate that the origin of the bleeding is arterial, rather then venous. Lastly, the symptoms, diagnosis, and management of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma during pregnancy are discussed.
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 09/2004; 16(5):371-5. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evaluation of patients before surgery is a component of anesthesia practice that must be performed to ensure the safe delivery of anesthesia for every patient. How an anesthesia group performs this evaluation differs from institution to institution as the structure of preoperative clinics in hospitals across the country can be quite variable. However, the major question that anesthesiologists must ask when approaching this area of practice is: "Can a system for preoperative evaluation that uses the expertise of anesthesiologists,surgeons, and internists to deliver high quality, cost conscious, and efficient patient preparation for surgery be developed.
Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 04/2004; 22(1):155-75.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of intraoperative leukocyte reduction of administered blood products on the incidence of acute cellular rejection and postoperative patient outcome.
Prospective, nonrandomized, historical control study.
Academic tertiary medical center.
The study group (Group 1) consisted of 30 consecutive adult patients with end-stage liver disease scheduled to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between 1998 and 2000. The historical control group (Group 2) consisted of 30 adult patients with end-stage liver disease matched to study group patients as closely as possible for age, gender, and etiology of liver disease who underwent OLT between 1995 and 1999.
Group 1 patients had all intraoperative allogeneic and cell salvaged blood products leukocyte reduced before administration. Group 2 patients underwent OLT without leukocyte filtration of any administered blood products.
Demographic data were collected for both patient groups and included age, gender, etiology of liver disease, and both intraoperative and postoperative immunosuppression. Demographic allograft donor data for both patient groups were collected and included age, gender, use of vasopressors during procurement, and cold and warm donor organ ischemic times. Outcome variables measured included incidence of acute cellular rejection, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and length of hospital stay, incidence of both graft loss and retransplantation, and mortality.
The incidence of acute cellular rejection was 40% in Group 1 and 66.7% in Group 2 (p = 0.037). Length of ICU stay was 3.0 (2.0, 5.0) days in Group 1 and 4.0 (3.0, 6.0) days in Group 2 (p = 0.16). Length of hospital stay was 14.0 (11.0, 18.0) days in Group 1 and 18.0 (14.0, 27.0) days in Group 2 (p = 0.035). One allograft was lost in Group 2 because of primary nonfunction requiring retransplantation (p = 0.31), and three postoperative deaths occurred in Group 1 as a result of multisystem organ failure (p = 0.08).
Coincident with leukocyte reduction of all administered blood products during OLT, an improved outcome was observed in Group 1 patients as demonstrated by both a decreased incidence of acute cellular rejection and length of hospital stay.
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 03/2004; 16(1):18-24. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of implementing an ambulatory and same-day surgery preoperative evaluation patient triage system over a 3-year period.
Retrospective analysis of 63,941 ambulatory surgical patients presenting for elective surgery.
Tertiary care, academic medical institution.
The following preoperative evaluation model components were implemented over a 3-year period: HealthQuest, which is an outpatient preoperative assessment computer program developed by the Department of General Anesthesiology; a general internal medicine clinic designated specifically for preoperative evaluation and medical optimization; disease specific algorithms for both preoperative patient assessment and management; and a preoperative anesthesia clinic that no longer performs preoperative medical optimization.
During the 3-year study period ambulatory and same-day surgical case volume increased 34.7%. A total of 50,967 patients used HealthQuest as part of their preoperative evaluation. Of these patients 22,744 (35.6%) did not need to see an anesthesiologist until the day of surgery as guided by both a computer-assigned HealthQuest score and surgical classification scheme. Also, 41,197 patients were evaluated in our anesthesia preoperative clinic with a cost per evaluation of $24.86, which increased only 0.9% per year. In addition, both patient interview time and patient dissatisfaction with the preoperative process decreased over the 3-year period. There were 20, 088 patient encounters in the general internal medicine clinic for patient medical evaluation and optimization. The average monthly preoperative surgical delay rate decreased 49% during the study period. Finally, significant monetary saving resulted due to decreased unnecessary laboratory testing.
Efficient, cost-effective patient care can be provided by using this preoperative evaluation model. Some institutions may find portions of this preoperative model applicable to their current situation.
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 09/2000; 12(5):350-6. · 1.15 Impact Factor