[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) has been reported to evoke cellular responses via hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) but without substantial performance benefits in endurance athletes, we hypothesized that repeated sprint training in hypoxia could enhance repeated sprint ability (RSA) performed in normoxia via improved glycolysis and O(2) utilization. 40 trained subjects completed 8 cycling repeated sprint sessions in hypoxia (RSH, 3000 m) or normoxia (RSN, 485 m). Before (Pre-) and after (Post-) training, muscular levels of selected mRNAs were analyzed from resting muscle biopsies and RSA tested until exhaustion (10-s sprint, work-to-rest ratio 1∶2) with muscle perfusion assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. From Pre- to Post-, the average power output of all sprints in RSA was increased (p<0.01) to the same extent (6% vs 7%, NS) in RSH and in RSN but the number of sprints to exhaustion was increased in RSH (9.4±4.8 vs. 13.0±6.2 sprints, p<0.01) but not in RSN (9.3±4.2 vs. 8.9±3.5). mRNA concentrations of HIF-1α (+55%), carbonic anhydrase III (+35%) and monocarboxylate transporter-4 (+20%) were augmented (p<0.05) whereas mitochondrial transcription factor A (-40%), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (-23%) and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (-36%) were decreased (p<0.01) in RSH only. Besides, the changes in total hemoglobin variations (Δ[tHb]) during sprints throughout RSA test increased to a greater extent (p<0.01) in RSH. Our findings show larger improvement in repeated sprint performance in RSH than in RSN with significant molecular adaptations and larger blood perfusion variations in active muscles.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56522. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to play a role in the progression and severity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The regulation of transcriptional co-activators involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ALS is not well known. When compared with healthy control subjects, patients with ALS, but not neurogenic disease (ND), had lower levels of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA and protein and estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα) and mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) mRNA. PGC-1β, nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and Mfn1 mRNA as well as cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) mRNA and protein were lower in patients with ALS and ND. Both patient groups had reductions in citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activity. Similar observations were made in skeletal muscle from transgenic ALS G93A transgenic mice. In vitro, PGC-1α and PGC-1β regulated Mfn1 and Mfn2 in an ERRα-dependent manner. Compared to healthy controls, miRNA 23a, 29b, 206 and 455 were increased in skeletal muscle of ALS patients. miR-23a repressed PGC-1α translation in a 3' UTR dependent manner. Transgenic mice over expressing miR-23a had a reduction in PGC-1α, cytochome-b and COXIV protein levels. These results show that skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS patients is associated with a reduction in PGC-1α signalling networks involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function, as well as increases in several miRNAs potentially implicated in skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction regeneration. As miR-23a negatively regulates PGC-1α signalling, therapeutic inhibition of miR-23a may be a strategy to rescue PGC-1α activity and ameliorate skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in ALS.
Neurobiology of Disease 09/2012; 49C:107-117. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of skeletal muscle mitochondrial network genes and miRNAs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Neurobiology of Disease (2012), doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2012.08.015 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Neurobiology of Disease 08/2012; · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue mitochondria express the unique thermogenic uncoupling protein-1. Recently, brown adipocyte progenitors have been identified in the CD34+ cell population of human skeletal muscle. The aims of this study were firstly to determine if obesity and diabetes have altered amounts of muscle brown adipocyte progenitors and, secondly, to establish if the latter are correlated with clinical parameters of obesity and diabetes. Body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides as well as homeostasis model assessment were measured in lean (n=10), obese (n=18) and obese-diabetic (n=15) subjects and muscle biopsies were taken from the rectus abdominus. CD34 being also expressed on endothelial cells, we measured CD31, another endothelial marker, and expressed the brown adipocyte progenitors, as the CD34/CD31 mRNA ratio. The latter was significantly reduced in the obese vs lean subjects suggesting a smaller pool of brown adipocyte progenitors. More strikingly, for lean and obese subjects negative correlations were observed between the CD34/CD31 mRNA ratios and BMI, fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment. These correlations highlight the potential physiological relevance of the muscle CD34/CD31 mRNA ratio.
International journal of obesity (2005) 04/2011; 36(1):155-8. · 4.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs in many chronic diseases and disuse conditions. Its severity reduces patient recovery, independence and quality of life. The discovery of two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx/atrogin-1 and Muscle RING Finger-1 (MuRF1), promoted an expectation of these molecules as targets for therapeutic development. While numerous studies have determined the conditions in which MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA levels are regulated, few studies have investigated their functional role in skeletal muscle. Recently, studies identifying new target substrates for MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1, outside of their response to the initiation of muscle atrophy, suggest that there is more to these proteins than previously appreciated. This review will highlight our present knowledge of MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in skeletal muscle atrophy, the impact of potential therapeutics and their known regulators and substrates. Finally, we will comment on new approaches that may expand our knowledge of these two molecules in their control of skeletal muscle function.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 03/2011; 461(3):325-35. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function throughout the entire lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent
living. While skeletal muscle has an amazing ability for self-renewal and regeneration, its capacity to perform these tasks
declines with age. The age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is a major contributor
to the increase in falls and fractures in the elderly. As such, it impacts dramatically upon the quality of life and independence
of our aged community and places considerable stain on healthcare systems. At present there are no treatments which stop sarcopenia.
Considerable research has focused on identifying the molecular signals which regulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis, degradation
and regeneration and how these signals may be perturbed during the ageing process. Regulation of signalling hormones including
growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1), as well as the Akt (protein kinase B) and serum response factor
(SRF) signalling pathways have been implicated in age-related changes in muscle protein synthesis and degradation. These factors,
as well as those governing muscle stem cell renewal, are presently considered as potential therapeutic targets to combat age-related
muscle wasting. This chapter will provide an overview of the age-related regulation of these molecular targets in skeletal
KeywordsAkt signalling-Muscle protein synthesis-Myogenesis-Sarcopenia
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with severe skeletal muscle atrophy as well several atrophy and physical-inactivity–related comorbidity factors such as diabetes, obesity, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Intracellular mechanisms associated with chronic complete SCI-related muscle atrophy are not well understood, and thus their characterization may assist with developing strategies to reduce the risk of comorbidity factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether there was an increase in catabolic signaling targets, such as atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1), forkhead transcription factor (FoXO), and myostatin, and decreases in anabolic signaling targets, such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-β (GSK-3β), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and p70s6kinase in chronic complete SCI patients. In SCI patients, when compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in mRNA levels of atrogin-1 (59%; P < 0.05), MuRF1 (55%; P < 0.05), and myostatin (46%; P < 0.01), and in protein levels of FoXO1 (72%; P < 0.05), FoXO3a (60%; P < 0.05), and atrogin-1 (36%; P < 0.05). Decreases in the protein levels of IGF-1 (48%; P < 0.001) and phosphorylated GSK-3β (54%; P < 0.05), 4E-BP1 (48%; P < 0.05), and p70s6kinase (60%; P = 0.1) were also observed, the latter three in an Akt- and mTOR-independent manner. Reductions in atrogin-1, MuRF1, FoXO, and myostatin suggest the existence of an internal mechanism aimed at reducing further loss of muscle proteins during chronic SCI. The downregulation of signaling proteins that regulate anabolism, such as IGF, GSK-3β, and 4E-BP1, would reduce the ability to increase protein synthesis rates. Muscle Nerve 40: 69–78, 2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a severe consequence of ageing, neurological disorders and chronic disease. Identifying the intracellular signalling pathways controlling changes in skeletal muscle size and function is vital for the future development of potential therapeutic interventions. Striated activator of Rho signalling (STARS), an actin-binding protein, has been implicated in rodent cardiac hypertrophy; however its role in human skeletal muscle has not been determined. This study aimed to establish if STARS, as well as its downstream signalling targets, RhoA, myocardin-related transcription factors A and B (MRTF-A/B) and serum response factor (SRF), were increased and decreased respectively, in human quadriceps muscle biopsies taken after 8 weeks of both hypertrophy-stimulating resistance training and atrophy-stimulating de-training. The mRNA levels of the SRF target genes involved in muscle structure, function and growth, such as alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain IIa (MHCIIa) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), were also measured. Following resistance training, STARS, MRTF-A, MRTF-B, SRF, alpha-actin, MHCIIa and IGF-1 mRNA, as well as RhoA and nuclear SRF protein levels were all significantly increased by between 1.25- and 3.6-fold. Following the de-training period all measured targets, except for RhoA, which remained elevated, returned to base-line. Our results show that the STARS signalling pathway is responsive to changes in skeletal muscle loading and appears to play a role in both human skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy.
The Journal of Physiology 04/2009; 587(Pt 8):1795-803. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rodent brown adipose tissue (BAT) is considered the main effector of adaptative thermogenesis as it contains a unique mitochondrial uncoupling protein, termed as uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). The emergence of ectopic brown adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT), called recruitment, might play an important role in the prevention of obesity. The recruitment phenomenon has until now been investigated mostly in vivo.
This study is an attempt to mimic in vitro the recruitment phenomenon. It consisted in culturing the stroma vascular fractions of mouse BAT and WAT in a brown adipocyte differentiation medium. The multilocular cells obtained, referred to as BAT(B) and WAT(B) adipocytes, respectively, were compared.
The BAT(B) and WAT(B) adipocytes were morphologically different. The expressions of UCP1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), leptin and resistin mRNAs were low in WAT(B) adipocytes as compared with those in BAT(B) adipocytes. The expressions of UCP1 and PGC-1alpha proteins were, however, much higher in WAT(B) adipocytes, amounting 51% and 36% of those in BAT(B) adipocytes. The patterns of expression of UCP1, PGC-1alpha and leptin in the BAT(B) and in WAT(B) adipocytes were different with a higher relative expression of PGC-1alpha in the latter. Rosiglitazone increased UCP1 mRNA expression 4.5-fold in the BAT(B) and significantly more, 7.9-fold, in the WAT(B) adipocytes. Retinoic acid and triiodothyronine increased UCP1 mRNA expression in the BAT(B) adipocytes 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively but, surprisingly, slightly decreased UCP1 mRNA expression in the WAT(B) adipocytes.
The study suggests that the nature and possibly the origin of WAT brown adipocytes is different from that of BAT brown adipocytes. It proposes an in vitro approach that could prove very useful to better characterize the WAT brown adipocyte-like cells.
International journal of obesity (2005) 04/2009; 33(6):680-6. · 4.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) plays a major role in the control of energy balance in rodents. It has long been thought, however, that there is no physiologically relevant UCP1 expression in adult humans. In this study we show, using an original approach consisting of sorting cells from various tissues and differentiating them in an adipogenic medium, that a stationary population of skeletal muscle cells expressing the CD34 surface protein can differentiate in vitro into genuine brown adipocytes with a high level of UCP1 expression and uncoupled respiration. These cells can be expanded in culture, and their UCP1 mRNA expression is strongly increased by cell-permeating cAMP derivatives and a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist. Furthermore, UCP1 mRNA was detected in the skeletal muscle of adult humans, and its expression was increased in vivo by PPARgamma agonist treatment. All the studies concerning UCP1 expression in adult humans have until now been focused on the white adipose tissue. Here we show for the first time the existence in human skeletal muscle and the prospective isolation of progenitor cells with a high potential for UCP1 expression. The discovery of this reservoir generates a new hope of treating obesity by acting on energy dissipation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related skeletal muscle sarcopenia is linked with increases in falls, fractures, and death and therefore has important socioeconomic consequences. The molecular mechanisms controlling age-related muscle loss in humans are not well understood, but are likely to involve multiple signaling pathways. This study investigated the regulation of several genes and proteins involved in the activation of key signaling pathways promoting muscle hypertrophy, including GH/STAT5, IGF-1/Akt/GSK-3beta/4E-BP1, and muscle atrophy, including TNFalpha/SOCS-3 and Akt/FKHR/atrogene, in muscle biopsies from 13 young (20 +/- 0.2 years) and 16 older (70 +/- 0.3 years) males. In the older males compared to the young subjects, muscle fiber cross-sectional area was reduced by 40-45% in the type II muscle fibers. TNFalpha and SOCS-3 were increased by 2.8 and 1.5 fold, respectively. Growth hormone receptor protein (GHR) and IGF-1 mRNA were decreased by 45%. Total Akt, but not phosphorylated Akt, was increased by 2.5 fold, which corresponded to a 30% reduction in the efficiency of Akt phosphorylation in the older subjects. Phosphorylated and total GSK-3beta were increased by 1.5 and 1.8 fold, respectively, while 4E-BP1 levels were not changed. Nuclear FKHR and FKHRL1 were decreased by 73 and 50%, respectively, with no changes in their atrophy target genes, atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Myostatin mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated by 2 and 1.4 fold. Human sarcopenia may be linked to a reduction in the activity or sensitivity of anabolic signaling proteins such as GHR, IGF-1, and Akt. TNFalpha, SOCS-3, and myostatin are potential candidates influencing this anabolic perturbation.
Rejuvenation Research 03/2008; 11(1):163-175B. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation causes neuromuscular disease. To investigate the muscle-specific pathophysiology of mitochondrial disease, rhabdomyosarcoma transmitochondrial hybrid cells (cybrids) were generated that retain the capacity to differentiate to myotubes. In some cases, striated muscle-like fibres were formed after innervation with rat embryonic spinal cord. Myotubes carrying A3243G mtDNA produced more reactive oxygen species than controls, and had altered glutathione homeostasis. Moreover, A3243G mutant myotubes showed evidence of abnormal mitochondrial distribution, which was associated with down-regulation of three genes involved in mitochondrial morphology, Mfn1, Mfn2 and DRP1. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondria with ultrastructural abnormalities and paracrystalline inclusions. All these features were ameliorated by anti-oxidant treatment, with the exception of the paracrystalline inclusions. These data suggest that rhabdomyosarcoma cybrids are a valid cellular model for studying muscle-specific features of mitochondrial disease and that excess reactive oxygen species production is a significant contributor to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is amenable to anti-oxidant therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. In wasted animals, muscle mass is regulated by several AKT-related signaling pathways.
To measure the protein expression of AKT, forkhead box class O (FoxO)-1 and -3, atrogin-1, the phosphophrylated form of AKT, p70(S6K) glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and the mRNA expression of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger (MuRF) protein 1, and FoxO-1 and -3 in the quadriceps of 12 patients with COPD with muscle atrophy and 10 healthy control subjects. Five patients with COPD with preserved muscle mass were subsequently recruited and were compared with six patients with low muscle mass.
Protein contents and mRNA expression were measured by Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively.
The levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA, and of phosphorylated AKT and 4E-BP1 and FoxO-1 proteins, were increased in patients with COPD with muscle atrophy compared with healthy control subjects, whereas atrogin-1, p70(S6K), GSK-3beta, and FoxO-3 protein levels were similar. Patients with COPD with muscle atrophy showed an increased expression of p70(S6K), GSK-3beta, and 4E-BP1 compared with patients with COPD with preserved muscle mass.
An increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA and FoxO-1 protein content was observed in the quadriceps of patients with COPD. The transcriptional regulation of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 may occur via FoxO-1, but independently of AKT. The overexpression of the muscle hypertrophic signaling pathways found in patients with COPD with muscle atrophy could represent an attempt to restore muscle mass.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2007; 176(3):261-9. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle size is tightly regulated by the synergy between anabolic and catabolic signalling pathways which, in humans, have not been well characterized. Akt has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy in rodents and cells. Here we measured the amount of phospho-Akt and several of its downstream anabolic targets (glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), mTOR, p70(s6k) and 4E-BP1) and catabolic targets (Foxo1, Foxo3, atrogin-1 and MuRF1). All measurements were performed in human quadriceps muscle biopsies taken after 8 weeks of both hypertrophy-stimulating resistance training and atrophy-stimulating de-training. Following resistance training a muscle hypertrophy ( approximately 10%) and an increase in phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK-3beta and phospho-mTOR protein content were observed. This was paralleled by a decrease in Foxo1 nuclear protein content. Following the de-training period a muscle atrophy (5%), relative to the post-training muscle size, a decrease in phospho-Akt and GSK-3beta and an increase in Foxo1 were observed. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 increased after the hypertrophy and decreased after the atrophy phases. We demonstrate, for the first time in human skeletal muscle, that the regulation of Akt and its downstream signalling pathways GSK-3beta, mTOR and Foxo1 are associated with both the skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy processes.
The Journal of Physiology 12/2006; 576(Pt 3):923-33. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms influencing muscle atrophy in humans are poorly understood. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, two ubiquitin E3-ligases, mediate rodent and cell muscle atrophy and are suggested to be regulated by an Akt/Forkhead (FKHR) signaling pathway. Here we investigated the expression of atrogin-1, MuRF1, and the activity of Akt and its catabolic (FKHR and FKHRL1) and anabolic (p70(s6k) and GSK-3beta) targets in human skeletal muscle atrophy. The muscle atrophy model used was amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). All measurements were performed in biopsies from 22 ALS patients and 16 healthy controls as well as in G93A ALS mice. ALS patients had a significant increase in atrogin-1 mRNA and protein content, which was associated with a decrease in Akt activity. There was no difference in the mRNA and protein content of FKHR, FKHRL1, p70(s6k), and GSK-3beta. Similar observations were made in the G93A ALS mice. Human skeletal muscle atrophy, as seen in the ALS model, is associated with an increase in atrogin-1 and a decrease in Akt. The transcriptional regulation of human atrogin-1 may be controlled by an Akt-mediated transcription factor other than FKHR or via another signaling pathway.
The FASEB Journal 04/2006; 20(3):583-5. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Mitofusin (Mfn) proteins regulate the biogenesis and maintenance of the mitochondrial network, and when inactivated, cause a failure in the mitochondrial architecture and decreases in oxidative capacity and glucose oxidation. Exercise increases muscle mitochondrial content, size, oxidative capacity and aerobic glucose oxidation. To address if Mfn proteins are implicated in these exercise-induced responses, we measured Mfn1 and Mfn2 mRNA levels, pre-, post-, 2 and 24 h post-exercise. Additionally, we measured the expression levels of transcriptional regulators that control mitochondrial biogenesis and functions, including PGC-1alpha, NRF-1, NRF-2 and the recently implicated ERRalpha. We show that Mfn1, Mfn2, NRF-2 and COX IV mRNA were increased 24 h post-exercise, while PGC-1alpha and ERRalpha mRNA increased 2 h post-exercise. Finally, using in vitro cellular assays, we demonstrate that Mfn2 gene expression is driven by a PGC-1alpha programme dependent on ERRalpha. The PGC-1alpha/ERRalpha-mediated induction of Mfn2 suggests a role of these two factors in mitochondrial fusion. Our results provide evidence that PGC-1alpha not only mediates the increased expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes but also mediates alterations in mitochondrial architecture in response to aerobic exercise in humans.
The Journal of Physiology 09/2005; 567(Pt 1):349-58. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects were compared of exercise in the fasted state and exercise with a high rate of carbohydrate intake on intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and glycogen content of human muscle. Using a randomized crossover study design, nine young healthy volunteers participated in two experimental sessions with an interval of 3 weeks. In each session subjects performed 2 h of constant-load bicycle exercise ( approximately 75% ), followed by 4 h of controlled recovery. On one occasion they exercised after an overnight fast (F), and on the other (CHO) they received carbohydrates before ( approximately 150 g) and during (1 g (kg bw)(-1) h(-1)) exercise. In both conditions, subjects ingested 5 g carbohydrates per kg body weight during recovery. Fibre type-specific relative IMTG content was determined by Oil red O staining in needle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis before, immediately after and 4 h after exercise. During F but not during CHO, the exercise bout decreased IMTG content in type I fibres from 18 +/- 2% to 6 +/- 2% (P = 0.007) area lipid staining. Conversely, during recovery, IMTG in type I fibres decreased from 15 +/- 2% to 10 +/- 2% in CHO, but did not change in F. Neither exercise nor recovery changed IMTG in type IIa fibres in any experimental condition. Exercise-induced net glycogen breakdown was similar in F and CHO. However, compared with CHO (11.0 +/- 7.8 mmol kg(-1) h(-1)), mean rate of postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis was 3-fold greater in F (32.9 +/- 2.7 mmol kg(-1) h(-1), P = 0.01). Furthermore, oral glucose loading during recovery increased plasma insulin markedly more in F (+46.80 microU ml(-1)) than in CHO (+14.63 microU ml(-1), P = 0.02). We conclude that IMTG breakdown during prolonged submaximal exercise in the fasted state takes place predominantly in type I fibres and that this breakdown is prevented in the CHO-fed state. Furthermore, facilitated glucose-induced insulin secretion may contribute to enhanced muscle glycogen resynthesis following exercise in the fasted state.
The Journal of Physiology 05/2005; 564(Pt 2):649-60. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three pairs of parental (rho+) and established mitochondrial DNA depleted (rho0) cells, derived from bone, lung and muscle were used to verify the influence of the nuclear background and the lack of efficient mitochondrial respiratory chain on antioxidant defences and homeostasis of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial DNA depletion significantly lowered glutathione reductase activity, glutathione (GSH) content, and consistently altered the GSH2 : oxidized glutathione ratio in all of the rho0 cell lines, albeit to differing extents, indicating the most oxidized redox state in bone rho0 cells. Activity, as well as gene expression and protein content, of superoxide dismutase showed a decrease in bone and muscle rho0 cell lines but not in lung rho0 cells. GSH peroxidase activity was four times higher in all three rho0 cell lines in comparison to the parental rho+, suggesting that this may be a necessary adaptation for survival without a functional respiratory chain. Taken together, these data suggest that the lack of respiratory chain prompts the cells to reduce their need for antioxidant defences in a tissue-specific manner, exposing them to a major risk of oxidative injury. In fact bone-derived rho0 cells displayed the highest steady-state level of intracellular ROS (measured directly by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin, or indirectly by aconitase activity) compared to all the other rho+ and rho0 cells, both in the presence or absence of glucose. Analysis of mitochondrial and cytosolic/iron regulatory protein-1 aconitase indicated that most ROS of bone rho0 cells originate from sources other than mitochondria.
European Journal of Biochemistry 10/2004; 271(18):3646-56. · 3.58 Impact Factor