V K Khosla

Biomedical Informatics Centre, Chandigarh, Chandīgarh, India

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Publications (76)91.74 Total impact

  • K R Rathi, B D Radotra, V K Khosla
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    ABSTRACT: The accurate grading of astrocytic tumours is of prime importance because it is critical to the patient management and survival/outcome. Although internationally accepted WHO grading system of CNS tumours is based on histological features of H&E stained sections, yet there are cases where differentiation between grade II and grade III is difficult particularly when the biopsy is small. Proliferative index derived from MIB-1 immunostaining has been found to be useful in the distinction between various grades of malignancy. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 90 cases of astrocytic tumours, 30 each of low-grade astrocytoma (grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), and glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV), were immunostained by standard indirect immunoperoxidase technique using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. MIB-1 labeling index (MIB-1 LI) was calculated. The mean MIB-1 LI values of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas were 1.75 +/- 1.5%, 8.74 +/- 6.2%, and 20.54 +/- 12.2% respectively and there was statistically significant difference between grade II and III (Unpaired "t" test, T value 5.907, p value < 0.001) and grade III and grade IV (T value 4.734, p value < 0.001). The statistical analysis also revealed that the mean MIB-1 LI increased with histological grade of malignancy (One way ANOVA test, p value < 0.001). This investigation further reinforces and corroborates the findings that MIB-1 LI is useful tool in assigning grading to the astrocytic tumours and hence in treatment modalities and should be used routinely.
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 10/2007; 50(4):754-8. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central neurocytomas are benign neuronal tumours generally found in the lateral or third ventricles. They are rare, comprising < 1% of all brain tumours. It is frequently confused with other tumours of the central nervous system particularly oligodendroglioma. The present study was done to analyse the histopathological features including immunohistochemical profile of these rare tumours. Eight cases were taken up for the study. Seven of the cases had an intraventricular location and one was located outside the ventricles. Increased intracranial pressure was the most common presenting symptom. Microscopically all tumours were composed of small uniform cells with perinuclear halos and regular round nuclei. The tumour in extraventricular location showed atypical features. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for neuronal markers. The present series highlights the characteristic clinical and pathological findings of this rare brain tumour. Immunostaining for neuronal markers are essential for distinguishing them from other small round cell tumours of the brain.
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 10/2006; 49(4):543-5. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of a contralateral epidural haematoma during or immediately after cranial surgery is a well-described entity. However, in a case of acute subdural haematoma where the brain is usually tense, postoperative development of contralateral extradural haematoma is uncommon. We report two cases of contralateral extradural haematoma after decompressive surgery for acute subdural haematoma. We recommend routine postoperative CT immediately after cranial surgery for head trauma. This would help in timely detection and treatment of such a complication.
    British Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2006; 19(6):490-4. · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of wound drains in surgical practice, very often falls into the realm of habit, rather than science. The utility of a prophylactic drain in surgical wounds may be questionable, but this practice is not uncommon, despite complications. We report a case of fatal haemorrhage from the superior sagittal sinus, due to a closed negative suction drain of the craniotomy wound in an infant operated upon for a growing fracture skull.
    British Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2005; 19(4):352-4. · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the central nervous system (CNS) is uncommon. We report cases of two young patients of MFH arising from the cranial meninges and involving the adjacent skull and scalp. There was infiltration of the brain in one case. Both the lesions were excised and primary scalp repair was performed.
    Neurology India 10/2004; 52(3):387-90. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The standard surgical approaches described for excision of anterior or anterolaterally placed foramen magnum (FM) tumours are the far lateral approach, the extreme lateral approach and the transoral approach. In general the posterior midline approach is considered not suitable for these lesions. We have operated on 27 patients with benign anterior/anterolaterally placed FM tumours in the last 8 years. Thirteen of these were operated via the posterior midline approach. All these 13 patients had large or giant tumours displacing the cervicomedullary region posteriorly and laterally. This allowed adequate access through this approach with minimal handling of neural tissue. For small lesions, the far lateral approach was used. Most of the patients improved significantly neurologically. We recommend the standard midline posterior approach for large/giant FM tumours as the tumour size itself provides enough working space for the surgeon. For small lesions, the far lateral approach is preferred.
    British Journal of Neurosurgery 05/2004; 18(2):164-7. · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the central nervous system (CNS) is uncommon. We report cases of two young patients of MFH arising from the cranial meninges and involving the adjacent skull and scalp. There was infiltration of the brain in one case. Both the lesions were excised and primary scalp repair was performed.
    Neurology India (ISSN: 0028-3886) Vol 52 Num 3. 01/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is seen predominantly in two forms: (a) pulmonary and (b) cerebromeningeal. Skeletal cryptococcosis is uncommon. There have been only occasional case reports of thoracic vertebral cryptococcosis presenting as cord compression. A young female had cervical lymphadenopathy diagnosed as tuberculosis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and was on antitubercular therapy (ATT) for 5 months. She developed rapidly progressive paraparesis and imaging demonstrated a destructive vertebral body lesion involving T2-3 with a paraspinal abscess producing cord compression. A costotransversectomy with excision of the diseased bone and bone grafting was done. Histopathological examination revealed cryptococcosis. The patient was put on antifungal medication, but expired 2 weeks after surgery. Radiological, magnetic resonance imaging and surgical finding of vertebral cryptococcosis can mimic tuberculosis. The definite diagnosis of cryptococcosis depends upon microscopic identification of the organism. A high index of suspicion leading to early surgical confirmation and institution of anti fungal therapy is necessary to reduce the mortality and morbidity.
    British Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2004; 17(6):556-9. · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • K K Mukherjee, R Chhabra, V K Khosla
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial hypertension secondary to cerebral edema is the cause of death in 50%-80% of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). This is rarely seen in chronic hepatic failure. The genesis of cerebral edema in FHF is poorly understood. The grade of encephalopathy and coagulopathy are the most important predictors of outcome in FHF. However, it is important to emphasize that intracranial pressure (ICP) may not reflect clinical course. Decerebrate posturing may be seen with ICP recording of 16 mmHg, while a quarter of the patients may have brain damage without clinical signs of raised ICP. ICP monitoring is therefore vital. The gold standard for ICP monitoring is the intraventricular method. Non-invasive methods like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging have poor correlation with ICP. Other methods like transcranial Doppler and jugular venous oximetry measurement of brain metabolites need evaluation. The main indications for ICP monitoring in FHF are (a) patients in grade III or IV encephalopathy and (b) patients undergoing liver transplantation. Generally, patients with an ICP >40 mmHg with cerebral perfusion pressure <50 mmHg for over 2 hours are poor subjects for liver transplant.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2003; 22 Suppl 2:S62-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Subependymomas are highly differentiated slow growing gliomas. They are one of the few gliomas which are biologically benign. They are extremely rare in children. However, after going through the histopathology records of our department of fourteen years (1983-1997) we found that five (20%) cases of subependymomas have been diagnosed in children out of a total of twenty-six subependymomas. Two of our cases showed the presence of osseous metaplasia, a hitherto undescribed finding.
    Neurology India 04/2003; 51(1):98-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) constitutes only 1.0 to 1.5% of all brain tumors. Their incidence has gone up over tenfold in the last 25 years. Though, there has been an association of PCNSL with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), yet the increased incidence of PCNSL appears to be real and unrelated to AIDS and organ transplantation. This increased incidence could be because of improvement in diagnostic technology and practice. The outcome remains gloomy despite surgical resection, radiotherapy and intensive adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, as majority of the patients succumb to the disease, with only 30-40% survival in patients under 70 years of age.
    Neurology India 01/2003; 50(4):424-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was addressed to find out the expression of Bcl2 proto-oncogene in tumor tissues derived from 25 patients with primary central nervous system tumors. Brain parenchyma in 8 cases, with deeply located tumor, was also examined for Bcl2 expression which served as control. Both benign and malignant tumors (confirmed by histopathological examination) expressed Bcl2 gene product. Tumors exhibited 2-6 fold increase in Bcl2 expression as compared to the normal parenchyma adjacent to some of these tumors studied. However, no correlation was found between the histopathological types of tumor, glial fibrillary acidic protein positivity and degree of Bcl2 expression. Based on this study, we propose that the overexpression of Bcl2 gene product found in primary CNS tumors may be an important molecular event which is known to make the various types of tumor resistant to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
    Neurology India 10/2002; 50(3):290-4. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calvarial tuberculosis is rare, even in areas where tuberculosis is endemic. Primary calvarial tuberculosis, with no evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere in the body is a rarer entity. Seven cases of calvarial tuberculosis are presented. The relevant clinicoradiological features and management are discussed. Two cases of primary calvarial tuberculosis could only be diagnosed after surgery. The other cases were diagnosed with the help of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and biopsy. A high index of suspicion and awareness of this condition may lead to more cases being diagnosed early. Surgery may be avoided in selected cases that can be treated primarily with antitubercular therapy.
    Surgical Neurology 04/2002; 57(3):195-202; discussion 202-3. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • S K Gupta, B S Sharma, A Pathak, V K Khosla
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery was performed, through single flap fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic approach in 22 patients with skull base lesions. In two of these patients, this approach was combined with a transpetrosal approach. The pathological spectrum consisted of trigeminal neurofibromas (5), spheno-orbital meningiomas (4), carotico-ophthalmic aneurysms (4), basilar top aneurysms (2), cavernous sinus haemangiomas (2), invasive pituitary tumours (2) and one patient each of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the cavernous sinus, transcranial fungal granuloma and tubercular granuloma of the cavernous sinus. Of the 14 tumours, 10 were excised totally/near totally while a subtotal excision was achieved in four. Removal of the anterior clinoid process facilitated the clipping of all the carotico-ophthalmic aneurysms. One basilar top aneurysm was wrapped and the other clipped. One patient of fungal granuloma died of fungal meningitis and one patient of basilar top aneurysm expired as a result of thalamic infarct. The advantages of this approach included excellent exposure of the skull base lesions, making the dissection distance shorter and wider, minimal brain retraction and easy replacement of the single bone flap.
    Neurology India 10/2001; 49(3):247-52. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • M S Sharma, B S Sharma, A Yadav, V K Khosla
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    ABSTRACT: A posterior fossa dermoid cyst in association with the Klippel-Feil syndrome, in a 4 year old child is reported. Early diagnosis to prevent complications like neural compression, cyst rupture and staphylococcal meningitis justifies investigation for posterior fossa dermoids in cases of Klippel-Feil syndrome. Their embryological basis is discussed.
    Neurology India 07/2001; 49(2):210-2. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty five consecutive patients with CT proven pure traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH) were studied, prospectively over a 6 month period. They constituted 2% of all head injuries. Most of the patients (88%) had a mild or moderate head injury at the time of admission, with a mean glasgow comma scale (GCS) of 10.68. The CT scan findings were divided into 3 grades. Grade 1 - blood in hemispheric region only (n=4), grade 2 - blood in basal region only (n=11), grade 3 - blood in both hemispheric as well as basal region (n=10). Transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD) velocities were recorded in all patients by insonating the middle cerebral artery, internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery on both sides. All patients were also subjected to digital substraction angiography (DSA). All patients with mild head injury had normal TCD velocity (<100 cm/sec), while TCD velocities of more than 150 cm/sec were seen only in one patient with severe head injury. Patients with severe head injury were found to have grade 3 tSAH on CT. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CT grade and TCD velocities. Angiographic vasospasm was found in 2 patients with severe head injury only. 90.2% of patients had good outcome at discharge.
    Neurology India 07/2001; 49(2):138-43. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three cases of dorsal intramedullary cysticercosis presenting as spastic paraparesis or paraplegia are reported. A definite preoperative diagnosis, using MRI, was made in two cases while in the third it was strongly suspected. One paraplegic patient regained full function whereas in the other two the deficit persisted even after successful cyst excision. The pathogenesis and recovery are discussed in the light of the MRI findings.
    Neurology India 04/2001; 49(1):71-4. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A child with a right parieto-occipital astrocytoma, caped by a large acute pyogenic abscess with flimsy capsule, detected at emergency craniotomy, is presented. Patient succumbed to the disease three hours following surgery.
    Neurology India 04/2001; 49(1):91-3. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • S K Gupta, V K Khosla, B S Sharma
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    ABSTRACT: In extensive skull base lesions involving the spheno-ethmoido-clival region and extending into both the cavernous sinuses and infratemporal regions, a combination of approaches is usually required, either in the same operation or at a second stage. The bilateral fronto-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy described in this report is a combination of an extended frontal approach and fronto-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy. This gives a wide exposure of the spheno-ethmoido-clival regions of both the cavernous sinuses and both the infratemporal regions. The exposure is thus greatly improved with minimal frontal lobe retraction. The single bone piece can be speedily replaced obviating the need for a complicated reconstruction technique and gives a superior cosmetic result. The operative technique is described in detail.
    Neurology India 01/2001; 48(4):361-4. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A totally calcified mid third falcine meningioma in an elderly male patient is presented. An uneventful enmasse excision was performed. Advantages of positioning on ipsilateral side for paramedian extracerebral lesions are highlighted.
    Neurology India 10/2000; 48(3):285-7. · 1.04 Impact Factor