[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 is an inducible enzyme expressed at sites of inflammation and in a variety of malignant solid tumors such as endometrial cancer (EC). In EC patients, its over-expression is correlated with progressive disease and poor prognosis. The expression is encoded by a polymorphic gene, called PTGS2. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that rs5275 polymorphism of PTGS2 influence the prognosis of EC patients. This paper is a retrospective cohort study. Clinical and pathological data were extrapolated and genotypes were assessed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded non-tumor tissues. A total of 159 type I EC patients were included in the final analysis. Univariate analysis indicated that patients with rs5275 genotype CC have a lower risk to develop a grade (G) 2-3 endometrial cancer. rs5275 effect on EC grading was confirmed by multivariate analysis also after data adjusting for age, BMI, parity, hypertension, and diabetes. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) confirmed that patients with rs5275 genotype CC have a risk 80 % lower (OR = 0.20, P = 0.009) to develop a G2 and/or G3 EC in comparison with patients with TT or TC genotype. Differentiation of the type 1 EC is significantly and independently influenced by rs5275 polymorphism. rs5275 CC patients have a lower risk to present a G2-G3 EC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HNF1B (formerly known as TCF2) gene encodes for a transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in normal mesodermal and endodermal developments. A close association between rs4430796 polymorphism of HNF1B gene and decreased endometrial cancer (EC) risk has been demonstrated. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that rs4430796 polymorphism can influence the prognosis of EC patients.
Retrospective cohort study. Clinical and pathological data were extrapolated and genotypes were assessed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded non-tumour tissues. The influence of patients' genotype on overall survival and progression free survival were our main outcome measures.
A total of 191 EC patients were included in the final analysis. Overall survival differed significantly (P = 0.003) among genotypes. At multivariate analysis, a significant (P < 0.05) effect on overall survival was detected for histology, myometrial invasion, FIGO stage, adjuvant therapy, and rs4430796 polymorphism of HNF1B gene. After grouping EC patients according to adjuvant treatment, rs4430796 polymorphism resulted significantly (P < 0.001) related to overall survival only (vs. radiotherapy alone) in subjects who received radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. A significant (P = 0.014) interaction between rs4430796 polymorphism and chemo-radiotherapy was also detected. Finally, only a trend (P = 0.090) towards significance was observed for rs4430796 polymorphism effect on progression free survival.
rs4430796 polymorphism of HNF1B gene influences independently the prognosis of EC patients with a potential effect on tumor chemo-sensitivity.
BMC Cancer 04/2015; 15(1):229. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1246-5 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is a key enzyme in the metabolic catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its derivatives (capecitabine and tegafur). Complete or partial deficiency of DPD activity has been demonstrated to induce severe toxicities in cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidine therapy. We analyzed 180 individuals that were candidates for a treatment with 5-FU class drugs for the most common DPD mutation, IVS14+1G>A, and detected four heterozygous patients. We recorded the toxicities for all 180 individuals after the first two chemotherapy cycles and found that three of the four patients, although they were treated with a dose reduction in 50 % on the basis of the genetic analysis, all showed severe toxicities that resulted in hospitalization of patient and premature discontinuation of treatment. One patient with mutated DPD was not treated with chemotherapy upon the clinician's decision because of his DPD mutated genotype and the presence of microsatellite instability. Our data suggest that greater dose reductions or alternative therapies are needed for patients with DPD IVS14+1G>A mutations.
Internal and Emergency Medicine 04/2013; 8(5). DOI:10.1007/s11739-013-0936-8 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (RSV), a plant-derived stilbene, induces cell death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)-derived L-428 cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 27 μM, trypan blue exclusion assay). At a lower range (25 μM), RSV treatment for 48 hr causes arrest in the S-phase of the cell cycle, while at a higher concentration range (50 μM), apoptosis can be detected, with activation of caspase-3. The histone/protein deacetylase SIRT1 has been described as a putative target of RSV action in other model systems, even though its role in cancer cells is still controversial. Here we show that RSV, at both concentration ranges, leads to a marked increase in p53, while a decrease of SIRT1 expression level, as well as enzyme activity, only occurred at the higher concentration range. Concomitantly, however, treatments at both concentration ranges resulted in a marked increase in K373-acetylated p53 and lysine-acetylated FOXO3a. Immunohistochemical stainings of human lymph nodes show a preferential distribution of SIRT1 in the germinal center of the follicles while the mantle zone shows nearly no staining to few positive cells. The classical HL-affected lymph nodes show a strong positivity of the diagnostic Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells. Notably, both the HL-derived cell lines and the Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells of the affected lymph nodes derive from germinal center-derived B cells. The study of SIRT1 distribution and expression on a larger number of biopsies might disclose a novel role for this histone/protein deacetylase as therapeutic target.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 132(5). DOI:10.1002/ijc.27748 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and significant organ involvement. Localizing the genetic association between HLA-B*51 and Behçet's disease and exploring additional susceptibility loci in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are complicated by the strong linkage disequilibrium in this region. We genotyped 8,572 variants in the extended HLA locus and carried out imputation and meta-analysis of 24,834 variants in 2 independent Behçet's disease cohorts from 2 ancestry groups. Genotyped SNPs were used to infer classical HLA alleles in the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 loci. Our data suggest that the robust HLA-B*51 association in Behçet's disease is explained by a variant located between the HLA-B and MICA genes (rs116799036: odds ratio (OR) = 3.88, P = 9.42 × 10(-50)). Three additional independent genetic associations within PSORS1C1 (rs12525170: OR = 3.01, P = 3.01 × 10(-26)), upstream of HLA-F-AS1 (rs114854070: OR = 1.95, P = 7.84 × 10(-14)) and with HLA-Cw*1602 (OR = 5.38, P = 6.07 × 10(-18)) were also identified and replicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of excess aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism (PA) remain poorly understood, although a role for circulating factors has been hypothesized for decades. Agonistic autoantibodies against type-1 angiotensin-II receptor (AT1AA) are detectable in malignant hypertension and preeclampsia and might play a role in PA. Moreover, if they were elevated in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and not in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), they might be useful for discriminating between these conditions. To test these hypotheses, we measured the titer of AT1AA in serum of 46 patients with PA (26 with APA, 20 with IHA), 62 with primary hypertension (PH), 13 preeclamptic women, and 45 healthy normotensive blood donors. We found that the AT1AA titer was higher (P<0.05) in both PA and PH patients (2.65±1.55 and 1.86±0.63, respectively) than in normotensive subjects (1.00±0.20). In APA, it was 2-fold higher than in IHA patients (3.43±1.20 versus 1.64±1.39, respectively, P<0.001), despite similar blood pressure values. Of note, it allowed effective discrimination of APA from either PH or IHA, as shown by Receiver Operator Characteristics curve analysis. Moreover, after captopril challenge, plasma aldosterone concentration fell more in AT1AA-positive than in AT1AA-negative PA patients (-32.4% [21.1-42.9] versus 0.0% [0.0-22.6], P=0.015), suggesting an agonistic role for these autoantibodies. Thus, a higher serum AT1AA titer in patients with APA than in IHA and PH patients can be useful in differentiating APA patients from either PH or IHA, and thus in selecting PA patients to be submitted to adrenal vein sampling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haptoglobin (H) is a glycoprotein that regulates the immune response. Serum haptoglobin levels are significantly higher in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with poor survival. Different isoforms of haptoglobin have been found in the serum of patients with EOC. We studied the genetic susceptibility and outcome of patients with EOC correlated to H phenotypes.
Analyses of the H phenotypes were performed on sera from patients stored at -70°C. A modified method based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of sera was used, followed by western blotting.
Seventy-nine consecutive patients with EOC and 63 healthy women were enrolled. Their mean (±S.D.) age was 58.9±12.46 years. Overall survival was 66 months (95% confidence interval=37.7-94.2). Similar distribution of haptoglobin phenotypes was observed in EOC and in healthy women. No significant correlation was found between haptoglobin phenotype, overall survival and time-to-progression. Fewer G3 tumors were found in patients with H2-2 compared with those with H1-2 (84.2% and 90.6%, respectively, p<0.04). No significant correlation was found between H phenotype and tumor markers or number of relapses.
Although ours is a preliminary study based on a small population with scant significant findings, we hypothesize that patients with EOC with haptoglobin 2-2, might have a better prognosis because they present fewer G3 tumors and they may present a stronger immune response than patients with 1-1 and 1-2 phenotypes. Larger studies should be performed to assess the predictive value of haptoglobin phenotype in patients with EOC.
Anticancer research 10/2012; 32(10):4353-8. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To evaluate the potential role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)Δ32 polymorphism in the susceptibility to giant cell arteritis (GCA) in a cohort of Italian patients.
176 consecutive Italian patients with biopsy-proven GCA and 180 healthy age- and sex-matched blood donors were molecularly genotyped for the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism.
No statistically significant difference in the Δ32CCR5 allele frequency between GCA patients (5.1 %) and controls (2.8 %) was observed (p = 0.109). Carriers of the CCR5Δ32 allele (Δ32/Δ32 + CCR5/Δ32) were similarly represented in the two groups.
Our results do not support a role for the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism in determining susceptibility to GCA.
Modern Rheumatology 09/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10165-012-0751-5 · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To evaluate the potential role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)Δ32 polymorphism in the susceptibility to and clinical expression of Behçet's disease (BD) in a cohort of Italian patients.Methods. One hundred and ninety-six consecutive Italian patients satisfying the ISG criteria for BD were followed up for 8 years, and 180 healthy age- and sex-matched blood donors were molecularly genotyped for the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism. A standard microlymphocytotoxicity technique was used to serotype HLA-B51. The patients were subgrouped on the basis of the presence or absence of clinical manifestations.Results. The distribution of the CCR5Δ32 genotype differed between BD patients and controls (P = 0.02). The CCR5Δ32 allele was more common in BD patients than in controls [P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) 2.28 (95% CI 1.1, 4.8)]. Carriers of the CCR5Δ32 allele (Δ32/Δ32 + CCR5/Δ32) were significantly more common in BD patients than in controls [P = 0.02, OR 2.37 (95% CI 1.1, 5.1)]. Population-attributable risk was 7.1%. In categorizing patients according to gender, the association between CCR5Δ32 polymorphism and BD was similar in females and males (ORs 2.76 and 2.0, respectively). No significant differences were found when the frequencies of clinical manifestations were compared between CC5RΔ32 allele carriers and non-carriers.Conclusion. CCR5Δ32 polymorphism is associated with an increased susceptibility to develop BD. Chemokines may have a role in the pathophysiology of BD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic variability of IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes on an in-depth phenotypically characterized northern Italian Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) case-control cohort, in search for associations specific to different PsA clinical sub-phenotypes. We examined 118 patients with PsA according to CASPAR criteria (mean age 57 ± 13, female 38.4 %, mean disease duration 13.9 ± 8.6 years, peripheral disease 83.8 %, axial manifestations 34.5 %, radiological erosive disease 49 %) compared with 248 controls of the same ethnic origin matched for age and sex. The presence of axial disease was defined by the clinical axial involvement and/or the presence of radiological alteration consistent with spondyloarthropathy according to New York criteria. The presence of peripheral disease (arthritis and/or enthesitis) was defined only on clinical basis. A total of 40 SNPs, mapping within the genes mentioned above, were genotyped in both groups and used to perform association analyses by subdividing the PsA sample into subgroups according to different clinical manifestations on the basis of axial and peripheral involvements. No differences between patients and controls were found in the distribution of the IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants. Comparing patients with axial disease versus those without, we found that axial manifestations were significantly associated with the presence of IL-23R rs12401432 GG homozygosity (26.8 % vs. 5.3 %, p (corr) = 0.019, OR 2.63 [95 % CI 1.13-6.16]). No differences in distribution of the allelic variants were found comparing patients with versus those without peripheral disease or patients with versus without radiological peripheral erosions. In PA patients of northern Italian origin, IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants are not associated with disease susceptibility. However, a strong association with the IL-23RA rs12401432 GG genotype is associated with axial involvement of the disease.
Rheumatology International 09/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00296-012-2501-6 · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spastic paraplegia 3A is the second most common form of hereditary autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia. This form is mainly associated with an early age of onset and pure phenotype, although recently complicated forms were reported. We describe a patient carrying a new C>T P344S>CT mutation in exon 10 of the spastic paraplegia 3A gene with unusual, complicated, and extremely severe phenotype. At the last neurologic examination performed at 17 years of life, the patient disclosed spastic tetraparesis, sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, cognitive and cranial nerve impairment, mild pes cavus, and distal amyotrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a genome-wide association scan and DNA pooling, we previously identified 5 novel genetic susceptibility loci for Behçet's disease. We undertook this study to establish the genetic effect within the UBAC2 gene, in the course of which we replicated this genetic association and identified a functional variant within this locus.
We studied a total of 676 Behçet's disease patients and 1,096 controls. The discovery set included 156 patients and 167 controls from Turkey, and the replication sets included 376 patients and 369 controls from Turkey and 144 patients and 560 controls from Italy. Genotyping of 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and around UBAC2 was performed using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.
The genetic association between Behçet's disease and UBAC2 was established, replicated, and confirmed (meta-analysis odds ratio 1.84, P = 1.69 × 10(-7) ). Haplotype analysis identified both a disease-risk haplotype and a protective haplotype (P = 0.00014 and P = 0.0075, respectively). Using conditional haplotype analysis, we identified the SNP rs7999348 (A/G) within UBAC2 as the most likely SNP with a genetic effect independent of the haplotypic effect formed by the remaining associated SNPs in this locus. Indeed, we demonstrated that rs7999348 tags a functional variant associated with increased messenger RNA expression of a UBAC2 transcript variant in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals homozygous for the Behçet's disease-associated "G" allele. Further, our data suggested the possibility of multiple genetic effects that increase susceptibility to Behçet's disease in the UBAC2 locus.
We established and confirmed the genetic association between UBAC2 and Behçet's disease in 3 independent sets of patients and controls. We identified the minor allele in rs7999348 as a disease-risk allele that tags altered UBAC2 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate potential associations between the PlA1/A2 polymorphism of the platelet glycoprotein receptor IIIA (GpIIIa) gene and venous thrombosis and other clinical manifestations in Italian patients with Behçet's disease (BD).
Two hundred consecutive Italian patients satisfying the International Study Group criteria for BD who were followed up for seven years and 241 healthy Italian age- and gender-matched blood donors were molecularly genotyped for the PlA1/A2 polymorphism of the platelet GpIIIa gene; 118 and 117 of the 200 BD patients were also respectively genotyped for factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphisms. A standard microlymphocytotoxicity technique was used to type serological HLA class B51. The patients were grouped on the basis of the presence or absence of clinical manifestations. The diagnoses of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and superficial thrombophlebitis were initially made clinically, and then confirmed by means of ultrasonography or contrast venography. The distribution of the PlA1/A2 genotype was investigated, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
The allele and genotype frequency of the PlA1/A2 polymorphism were not significantly different in the BD patients and controls, but the PlA2 allele was significantly more frequent in the BD patients with DVT than the controls (p=0.023; Pcorr=0.046; OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7). There were no associations between thrombotic events and the PlA1/A2 polymorphism in the BD patients carrying factor V Leiden or prothrombin gene G20210A mutations. The PlA2 allele was significantly less frequent in the BD patients with genital genital ulcers than in those without (26.9% vs. 43.2%; p=0.022; P corr 0.044; OR 0.48, CI 0.27-0.88).
The PlA1/A2 polymorphism of the GpIIIa gene was associated with DVT in our Italian BD patients, but does not seem to increase the risk of DVT due to factor V Leiden or prothrombin gene G20210A mutations. There was a negative association between the A2 allele and genital ulcers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic periaortitis (CP) is a rare disease characterized by a fibro-inflammatory tissue surrounding the abdominal aorta, and includes non-aneurysmal [idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF)] and aneurysmal forms [inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA)]. We investigated whether CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)Δ32 polymorphism confers susceptibility to CP.
One hundred CP patients and 180 healthy controls were genotyped for CCR5Δ32 polymorphism by molecular methods. The patients were subgrouped according to the type of CP (IRF or IAAA) and the presence of established atherosclerotic disease (ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease).
The distribution of the CCR5Δ32 genotype differed between CP patients and controls (P = 0.01). The CCR5Δ32 allele was more frequent in CP patients than in controls [P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) 2.8 (95% CI 1.2, 6.4)]. The distribution of the CCR5Δ32 genotype did not differ significantly between IRF patients and controls, whereas the CCR5Δ32 allele was more frequent in IAAA patients than in controls [P = 0.0001, OR 10.0 (95% CI 3.7, 27.3)]. Furthermore, the CCR5Δ32 allele occurred more frequently in IAAA than in IRF patients [P = 0.001, OR 6.4 (95% CI 2.1, 19.1)]. The CCR5Δ32 allele frequency was higher in IAAA patients without established atherosclerotic disease compared with controls [66.7 vs 5.6%, P = 0.00001, OR 34.0 (95% CI 7.4, 156.3)], but not in IAAA patients with atherosclerotic disease and IRF patients with or without atherosclerotic disease.
The CCR5Δ32 polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk of developing the aneurysmal form of CP, IAAA, particularly in patients without established atherosclerotic disease. Chemokines may have a role in the pathophysiology of CP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liddle's syndrome (LS) is a monogenic form of hypertension simulating a mineralocorticoid excess, and is currently suspected in young hypokalemic hypertensives. The aims of the study were: (i) to evaluate the clinical phenotype of LS in a newly identified Italian family of Sicilian origin carrying a gain-of-function mutation of the β subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) (P617L) previously reported by our group in an apparently unrelated Sicilian patient presenting the typical phenotype of LS including hypokalemia; (ii) to determine whether an unknown biological relationship exists between the newly identified family and the family of the proband previously reported.
Genetic analysis was performed in the present family, in the individual in which the βP617L mutation was first observed, and in his relatives.
βP617L mutation was identified in the proband and in three maternal relatives. None of them showed hypokalemia. Mild to severe early onset hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy were present in all of them. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome profiles in the present family and in the proband's family previously reported showed the absence of a relationship between them. The availability of only one carrier of the mutation in one of the two families meant that a genetic analysis able to assess a founder effect was not feasible.
LS should be considered in all cases of early onset hypertension, independently of the plasma potassium concentration. The incidence of LS may be greater than is currently thought, because hypokalemia is not invariably present.
American Journal of Hypertension 04/2011; 24(8):930-5. DOI:10.1038/ajh.2011.76 · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clusterin (also called APOJ, SGP-2, XIP8) has thus far been only partially characterized in lymphomas contrary to other types of cancer. Its expression has been reported only for anaplastic large cell lymphomas and, more recently, in mycosis fungoides. Here, we demonstrate an up-regulation of intracellular clusterin in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL)-derived cell lines L-428, KM-H2 and L-540, caused by different stimuli such as IFN-γ, doxorubicin and X-rays. These stimuli are relevant for the pathophysiology and therapy of HL and represent a first step in the characterisation of this glycoprotein known to have a role in drug chemoresistance. p53 up-regulation accompanies increases in clusterin levels accordingly with the onset of apoptosis. We also show that the cells secrete more clusterin after treatment with doxorubicin, which is consistent with the observed intracellular increase. These observations suggested that the levels of circulating clusterin should also be measured in the peripheral blood from HL patients both at the time of diagnosis and after two cycles of chemotherapy. In a preliminary study on patient sera we observed that an increase in clusterin is correlated with positron emission tomography (PET) positivity after two cycles of chemotherapy.
International Journal of Oncology 03/2011; 38(3):677-84. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2011.907 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterisation of molecular mechanisms that control tumour invasion is a crucial step for the identification of molecular markers to apply in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this work, we have investigated the role of Id1 in thyroid tumours. We demonstrate that Id1 participates to tumour progression by powering the invasion capacity of cancer cells. We prove that the overexpression of Id1 in thyroid tumour cells profoundly alters cell morphology and growth, increasing migration and invasion properties of the cells. Analysis in human thyroid tumours reveals that Id1 is expressed in invading cells and its expression is associated with an increased metastatic potential of non-anaplastic tumours. The gene expression study supports these observations demonstrating that Id1 modulates a number of genes known to control invasion, aggressiveness and pharmacological resistance in different type of human tumours. Finally, we demonstrate that the pro-invasive effect of Id1 is accompanied by the acquisition of mesenchymal features in thyroid tumour cells. This suggests that the trans-differentiation towards a more immature condition is the mechanism through which Id1 promotes thyroid tumour metastatic spreading. This study identifies Id1 as part of the pro-metastatic programme of thyroid cancer and suggests its possible utilisation as a prognostic marker.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 12/2010; 47(6):934-45. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.11.009 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate potential associations of the ICAM-1 gene polymorphisms and Fuchs uveitis in a cohort of Italian patients.
Seventy-one consecutive Italian patients affected by Fuchs uveitis were observed at the Ocular Immunology Unit, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova (Reggio Emilia, Italy) from 2002 to 2008. Two hundred twenty-six healthy Italian blood donors from the same geographic area were selected as the control group. All Fuchs uveitis patients and control subjects were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and allele-specific oligonucleotide techniques for ICAM-1 polymorphisms at codon 241 (exon 4).
The frequency of the ICAM-1 G/R 241 polymorphism was significantly higher in Fuchs uveitis than in the control subjects (16.9% vs. 5.8%; P=0.006, Pcorr=0.012; odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-7.7). No significant association between clinical features and ICAM-1 polymorphisms was found.
This study demonstrates for the first time that the ICAM-1 G/R 241 polymorphism may represent a candidate gene for Fuchs uveitis susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel drugs targeting TNF-alpha are available for treatment of RA. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) play a fundamental role in RA progression, through their expansion caused in part by resistance to cell death induction. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of different anti-TNF-alpha agents on FLS apoptosis.
FLS from patients with either RA or OA were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and incubated with various drugs for 6 days. Subsequently, apoptosis induction was detected by Nucleosome ELISA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Western blot was used to determine the activation of the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway as well as Bax and Bcl-2 levels. Immunoprecipitation was used for studying phosphorylation of transmembrane TNF-alpha (tmTNF-alpha).
All the tested drugs induced apoptosis of FLSs in the presence of PBMCs obtained from the same patient only when the two cell populations were in direct contact by activating the PTEN-FAK pathway and increasing Bax levels. This effect was not due to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Only the two antibodies infliximab and adalimumab were able to up-regulate Bcl-2.
Etanercept is more effective in inducing FLS apoptosis compared with the other drugs tested. This induction is dependent on the presence of PBMCs, and involves the activation of PTEN-FAK pathway. Bcl-2 increase induced by the monoclonal antibodies infliximab and adalimumab may play a protective role and thus counteract their pro-apoptotic effect on FLSs.