Beatrice De Vos

University of Limpopo, Pietersburg, Limpopo, South Africa

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Publications (20)160.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a cause of great public health concern in developing countries. The current study evaluated the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of RIX4414 vaccine in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (clinical stages I and II according to WHO classification) HIV-infected South African infants. a total of 100 HIV-positive infants aged 6 to 10 weeks enrolled in this double-blind, 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled study were allocated into 2 groups to receive 3 doses of RIX4414 vaccine/placebo according to a 0-, 1-, and 2-month schedule. Routine vaccines were concomitantly administered. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms were recorded for 15 and 31 days after each dose, respectively. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study period. Serum antirotavirus IgA concentrations (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cut-off ≥ 20 U/mL) and the immunodeficiency status were determined at screening and 2 months post-Dose 3. Stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at predetermined points and during diarrhea episodes. all symptoms (solicited and unsolicited) occurred at a similar frequency in both groups. Six fatal serious adverse events in RIX4414 and 9 in placebo groups were reported. At 2 months post-Dose 3, the seroconversion rates were 57.1% (95% CI: 34-78.2) in RIX4414 and 18.2% (95% CI: 5.2-40.3) in the placebo group. The mean absolute CD4 cell count, CD4 percentage, and HIV-1 viral load were comparable in both groups at screening and 2 months post-Dose 3. Rotavirus shedding peaked at Day 7 after Dose 1 of RIX4414 with prolonged shedding was observed in 1 infant only. : Three doses of RIX4414 vaccine was tolerated well by the South African HIV-positive infants. A satisfactory immune response was mounted without aggravating their immunologic or HIV condition.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 02/2011; 30(2):125-30. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in South Africa during 2003-2004 to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of 2 regimens of the live attenuated oral human rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 when coadministered with the Expanded Program on Immunization childhood vaccines, including oral polio vaccine. Healthy infants were randomized (2:2:1) to receive either 2 doses of RIX4414 (n = 190; at 10 and 14 weeks, with placebo at 6 weeks), 3 doses of RIX4414 (n = 189; at 6, 10, and 14 weeks), or 3 doses of placebo (n = 96), all with concomitant routine vaccinations. The antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 2 months after the last dose of RIX4414 or placebo. Antipolio types 1, 2, and 3 antibodies were measured using a virus neutralization assay. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 15 days after each dose. The antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rates were similar in the RIX4414 2- and 3-dose groups (44.3% and 44.4%, respectively; P = .544, by 1-sided Fisher exact test) and antirotavirus IgA geometric mean concentrations were also comparable. Seroprotection rates for antipolio types 1, 2, and 3 antibodies were high (93%-100%) and were not significantly different among groups. Solicited symptoms reported within 15 days after vaccination were similar in all groups. The immune seroconversion response to the RIX4414 vaccine with 3 doses was not superior to the 2-dose regimen. There was no interference by either regimen with antibody response to oral polio vaccine, and RIX4414 was well tolerated when given with routine vaccinations.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2010; 202 Suppl:S93-100. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus annually results in an estimated 611,000 deaths among infants and young children <5 years of age worldwide, and these deaths primarily occur in developing countries. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also common among young children in many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The need for a vaccine to reduce the number of deaths caused by rotavirus infection among children in developing countries is substantial, but current rotavirus vaccines comprise live attenuated oral viruses, the behaviors of which are unknown in HIV-infected children. Therefore, we reviewed available data on natural rotavirus infection in HIV-infected children and examined unpublished data on a small group of HIV-infected infants in South Africa who were given a live rotavirus vaccine. Together, these data suggest that vaccination programs against rotavirus infection could include HIV-infected populations. However, studies addressing the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of rotavirus vaccines in an HIV-infected population are urgently needed.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2009; 200 Suppl 1:S57-62. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : The 2-dose, oral live attenuated human G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) is highly effective against rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by circulating G1 and non-G1 types. An integrated analysis on vaccine efficacy was undertaken to obtain more precise estimates of the overall protective effect of the RIX4414 vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis due to common rotavirus types (G1, G3, G4, G9, P[8]) and less commonly encountered strains such as G2P[4] across heterogenous settings. : The studies used in the integrated analysis were all previously reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II and III trials with at least 1 report of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the efficacy follow-up period (up to 1 year of age or end of first RV epidemic season after vaccination). The integrated analysis was performed for all circulating rotavirus strains sharing G and/or P genotype and not sharing G or P genotype with the vaccine strain. Vaccine efficacy was estimated as 1 minus rate of rotavirus gastroenteritis relative to placebo, using exact Poisson rate ratio stratified by study. : The integrated estimates for vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were 87.43% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.89-92.86) for G1P[8] strains, 71.42% (95% CI: 20.12-91.11) for G2P[4] strains, 90.19% (95% CI: 55.51-98.94) for G3P[8] strains, 93.37% (95% CI: 51.50-99.85) for G4P[8] strains, and 83.76% (95% CI: 71.18-91.28) for G9P[8] strains. The integrated estimates for vaccine efficacies against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity were 82.57% (95% CI: 73.91-88.56) for G1P[8] strains, 81.04% (95% CI: 31.58-95.76) for G2P[4] strains, 87.66% (95% CI: 34.57-98.76) for G3P[8] strains, 84.86% (95% CI: 50.92-96.41) for G4P[8] strains, and 60.64% (95% CI: 38.15-74.96) for G9P[8] strains. : Two doses of RIX4414 provide overall good clinical protection against all cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis and comparable, high clinical protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by circulating rotavirus strains with and without G and P genotypes shared with the vaccine strain, such as G2P[4].
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 05/2009; 28(4):261-6. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial (e-Track 444563-014/NCT00346892) was conducted in South Africa to evaluate the co-administration of RIX4414 (live-attenuated human G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) administered simultaneously. Healthy infants (n=450) were randomized into three groups (RIX4414+OPV, RIX4414+IPV or Placebo+OPV) to receive two oral doses of RIX4414/placebo with OPV or IPV using two vaccination schedules (6-10 weeks and 10-14 weeks). Serum anti-rotavirus IgA antibodies (ELISA) and neutralizing antibodies (micro-neutralization assay) to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were measured. Co-administration of RIX4414 with OPV did not result in a decrease in the high sero-protection rates against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 detected after the third OPV dose (98-100%). The anti-rotavirus IgA antibody sero-conversion rates were higher for the 10-14 weeks schedule (55-61%) compared to the 6-10 weeks schedule (36-43%). Solicited symptoms were reported at similar rates between RIX4414 and placebo groups and no serious adverse events related to RIX4414 were reported. This study provided evidence that RIX4414 can be co-administered with routine EPI immunizations including OPV and that two doses of RIX4414 were well tolerated and immunogenic in South African infants.
    Vaccine 10/2008; 28(39):6542-8. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peak incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is seen in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. We therefore aimed to assess the 2-year efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe gastroenteritis in infants. 15 183 healthy infants aged 6-13 weeks from ten Latin American countries randomly assigned in a 1 to 1 ratio to receive two oral doses of RIX4414 or placebo at about 2 and 4 months of age in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study were followed up until about 2 years of age. Primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy from 2 weeks after dose two until 1 year of age. Treatment allocation was concealed from investigators and parents of participating infants. Efficacy follow-up for gastroenteritis episodes was undertaken from 2 weeks after dose two until about 2 years of age. Analysis was according to protocol. This study is registered with, number NCT00140673 (eTrack444563-023). 897 infants were excluded from the according-to-protocol analysis. Fewer cases (p<0.0001) of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were recorded for the combined 2-year period in the RIX4414 group (32 [0.4%] of 7205; 95% CI 0.3-0.6) than in the placebo group (161 [2.3%] of 7081; 1.9-2.6), resulting in a vaccine efficacy of 80.5% (71.3-87.1) to 82.1% (64.6-91.9) against wild-type G1, 77.5% (64.7-86.2) against pooled non-G1 strains, and 80.5% (67.9-88.8) against pooled non-G1 P[8] strains. Vaccine efficacy for hospital admission for rotavirus gastroenteritis was 83.0% (73.1-89.7) and for admission for diarrhoea of any cause was 39.3% (29.1-48.1). No cases of intussusception were reported during the second year of follow-up. Two doses of RIX4414 were effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in a Latin American setting. Inclusion of RIX4414 in routine paediatric immunisations should reduce the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide.
    The Lancet 04/2008; 371(9619):1181-9. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a double blind trial, 319 fully immunized children received two doses of either placebo or 10(6.7) focus-forming units of the attenuated RIX4414 human rotavirus (RV) vaccine ("all-in-one" formulation). Plasma RV-specific IgA (RV IgA), stool RV IgA, and circulating total and RV memory B cells (CD19+ IgD+/- CD27+) with an intestinal homing phenotype (alpha4beta7+ CCR9+/-) were measured, after the first and second doses, as potential correlates of protection. After the first and/or second dose, 54% of vaccinees and 13% of placebo recipients had plasma RV IgA. Before vaccination, most (95%) of the children (of both study groups) were breast-fed and had stool RV IgA (68.64%). Coproconversion (4-fold increase) after the first and/or second dose was observed in 32.7% of vaccinees and 17.4% of placebo recipients. No significant difference was seen when comparing the frequencies of any subset of memory B cells between vaccinees and placebo recipients. Statistically significant weak correlations were found between plasma RV IgA titers and coproconversion, and several subsets of memory B cells. The vaccine provided 74.8% protection (95% confidence interval, 30.93-92.62) against any RV gastroenteritis and 100% protection (95% confidence interval, 14.53-100) against severe RV gastroenteritis. When vaccinees and placebo recipients were considered together, a correlation was found between protection from disease and plasma RV IgA measured after dose 2 and RV memory (IgD- CD27+ alpha4beta7+ CCR9+) circulating B cells measured after dose 1. However, the correlation coefficients for both tests were low (<0.2), suggesting that other factors are important in explaining protection from disease.
    Viral Immunology 06/2007; 20(2):300-11. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An oral, human-derived monovalent (G1P1A) rotavirus vaccine, strain RIX4414, has been developed by GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium. The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of this vaccine were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase IIb trial conducted in Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. Healthy infants were given two doses of vaccine (104.7, 105.2 or 105.8 ffu) or placebo at age 2 and 4 months, with routine DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines. OPV was given separately, at least 2 weeks before or after administration of the study vaccine. A total of 2155 infants were enrolled, of whom 1618 received one of the three vaccine viral concentrations and 537 were given placebo. Analysis of efficacy included diarrheal episodes occurring from 2 weeks after second dose until one year of age. Efficacy rates against any rotavirus gastroenteritis, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalizations for rotavirus disease were as high as 70% (46-84%; 95%CI), 86% (63-96%; 95%CI), and 93% (54-100%; 95%CI), respectively. For non-G1 (mainly G9) serotypes, RIX4414 vaccine conferred protection as high as 83% (40-97%; 95%CI) against severe gastroenteritis. A decrease was noted in the incidence of severe rotavirus-related gastroenteritis after first dose. It is demonstrated that two doses of RIX4414 are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalization, including disease caused by non-G1 strains, namely G9 serotypes.
    Vaccine 06/2006; 24(18):3784-5. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Singapore, we conducted a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose ranging study using an attenuated human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414. Altogether, 2464 healthy infants were recruited. Two oral doses of vaccine at 104.7, 105.2 or 106.1 ffu or placebo were administered with routine immunizations at 3 and 4 months of age. Seroconversion and 'vaccine take' in the vaccine groups 1-month post dose 2 varied from 76 to 91% and 98 to 100% respectively. Vaccine was well tolerated and did not interfere with response of concomitantly administered vaccines.
    Vaccine 06/2006; 24(18):3782-3. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Vaccine 06/2006; 24(18):3779. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Vaccine 06/2006; 24(18):3777-8. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intussusception, a potentially lethal condition with poorly understood etiology, is the most common cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children younger than 5 years old. In some cases, the condition has been associated with administration of the first licensed rotavirus vaccine, the reassortant rhesus-human tetravalent rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV; RotaShield). No such association has to date been reported from large phase III safety trials with new rotavirus vaccines. As 2 new, live-attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines are currently under review for approval by the European Union regulatory authorities, a review of the clinical, etiologic and epidemiologic aspects of intussusception in Europe is urgently needed. We conducted a review of Medline literature, published from 1995 onwards on intussusception in the World Health Organization's European Region. The results are compared with data from previous reviews and other regions. The classic triad of intussusception symptoms (abdominal pain, abdominal mass, bloody stools) was present in 29-33% of patients according to the medical literature reviewed. Conservative treatment (barium, air or saline enema) was the rule (81% of cases), and few complications were observed during treatment. Treatment outcome was generally favorable, with recurrence occurring in approximately 1 in 10 patients, and only 1 death reported. Structural lead points were seen in 3% of patients; no other reliable data on the etiology of intussusception were found. The incidence of acute intussusception in young children in Europe, according to 6 heterogeneous hospital-based studies, ranged from 0.66 to 2.24 per 1000 children in inpatient departments and from 0.75 to 1.00 per 1000 children in emergency departments. Peak incidences were found in children 3-9 months of age. There are still gaps in our knowledge of intussusception with respect to its etiology and especially by which mechanisms RRV-TV might have caused it to occur. Data from regions outside Europe showed that rotavirus infection and disease are not associated with intussusception. As new rotavirus vaccines become available for use in Europe, postlicensure surveillance for intussusception is indicated and may be instrumental in further understanding the epidemiology of this condition and in further assessing the safety of future vaccines.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 02/2006; 25(1 Suppl):S22-9. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy of an attenuated G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were tested in a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial. We studied 63,225 healthy infants from 11 Latin American countries and Finland who received two oral doses of either the HRV vaccine (31,673 infants) or placebo (31,552 infants) at approximately two months and four months of age. Severe gastroenteritis episodes were identified by active surveillance. The severity of disease was graded with the use of the 20-point Vesikari scale. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in a subgroup of 20,169 infants (10,159 vaccinees and 10,010 placebo recipients). The efficacy of the vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was 85 percent (P<0.001 for the comparison with placebo) and reached 100 percent against more severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Hospitalization for diarrhea of any cause was reduced by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 53 percent; P<0.001). During the 31-day window after each dose, six vaccine recipients and seven placebo recipients had definite intussusception (difference in risk, -0.32 per 10,000 infants; 95 percent confidence interval, -2.91 to 2.18; P=0.78). Two oral doses of the live attenuated G1P[8] HRV vaccine were highly efficacious in protecting infants against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, significantly reduced the rate of severe gastroenteritis from any cause, and were not associated with an increased risk of intussusception. ( numbers, NCT00139347 and NCT00263666.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2006; 354(1):11-22. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children causes significant morbidity worldwide and substantial deaths in developing countries. Hence, a live attenuated vaccine Rotarix was developed with human strain RIX4414 of G1P1A P[8] specificity. RIX4414 trials in infants have begun in developed and developing countries worldwide. An overview of RIX4414 in developed and developing countries and prospects with this vaccine in Asia are presented. Completed RIX4414 trials have been reviewed. Two oral doses of RIX4414 were well tolerated with a reactogenicity profile similar to placebo. RIX4414 was also highly immunogenic, e.g., in a dose-ranging study conducted in Singapore, 98.8% to 100% of infants had a vaccine take after 2 doses. RIX4414 did not affect the immune response of simultaneously administered routine infant vaccines. RIX4414 significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in settings where multiple serotypes including the emerging G9 type co-circulated. These encouraging results warrant further evaluation of the vaccine worldwide and especially in developing countries with the highest need. Therefore, evaluation of the Rotarix vaccine is continuing in large phase III trials in Asia and worldwide.
    Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 01/2006; 35(1):38-44. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A live attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 was developed with a human strain of G1P1A P[8] specificity to reduce the rotavirus burden in children. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy, immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of 2 oral doses of RIX4414 (10(4.7), 10(5.2) or 10(5.8) focus-forming units) at 2 and 4 months coadministered with routine vaccinations and oral poliovirus vaccine given for study purposes at least 14 days apart. The 2155 infants (1618 vaccine/537 placebo) enrolled in Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela were followed until 1 year of age. Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rates 2 months after dose 2 ranged between 61% (10(4.7) ffu group) and 65% (10(5.8) ffu group), and most of the infants had seroprotective levels of antibodies to coadministered routine vaccinations. The reactogenicity profile of RIX4414 was similar to that of the placebo, and no vaccination-related serious adverse events were reported. Protective efficacy against severe and any rotavirus gastroenteritis from 15 days post-dose 2 was highest in the 10(5.8) ffu group [86%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 63-96% and 70% (95% CI 46-84%), P < 0.001, 2-sided Fisher's exact test]. The efficacy against hospitalization was 79% (95% CI 48-92%) for pooled vaccine groups. Multiple rotavirus serotypes [G1 (50%), G9 (40%), G2, G3 and G4] were identified from gastroenteritis stools (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) during the study period. For severe gastroenteritis caused by G9 serotypes, the protection reached 77% (95% CI 18-96%) in the 10(5.8) ffu group, providing proof of concept that the monovalent G1P1A P[8] human rotavirus vaccine elicits cross-protection against the G9 strain. A reduction in any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was already observed at post-dose 1 (period: day of dose 1 to 14 days post-dose 2) in vaccinees compared with placebo recipients. Two doses of RIX4414 are highly efficacious, providing cross-protection (G1 and G9 strains, prevalent during this study) and early protection against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalization to infants in Latin America.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10/2005; 24(9):807-16. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At present, no rotavirus vaccine is commercially available for use worldwide. Hence, a live, attenuated monovalent vaccine was developed with human strain RIX4414 (G1P1A P[8] specificity). Vaccination trials involving infants are ongoing in developed and developing countries. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at pediatric hospitals and polyclinics in Singapore for the evaluation of the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and efficacy of 2 oral doses of RIX4414. In total, 2464 healthy infants (who were 11-17 weeks old when the first dose was administered, which is in accordance with the local immunization schedule) were enrolled to receive RIX4414 at 3 concentrations of virus (10(4.7), 10(5.2), or 10(6.1) focus-forming units) or placebo at 1-month intervals, concomitantly with routinely administered infant vaccines. The RIX4414 vaccine was highly immunogenic, and virtually all vaccine recipients (98%-100%) experienced "vaccine take" (i.e., a combined immunogenicity end point based on seroconversion and/or shedding of RIX4414 in postvaccination stool samples) after receipt of 2 doses at all 3 dosage levels. Depending on the virus concentration, the anti-rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate varied from 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68%-83%) to 91% (95% CI, 85%-95%). Two doses of RIX4414 were well tolerated, with no increase in high fever, severe diarrhea, or vomiting after either dose or with increased viral concentration, compared with placebo. There was no observed interference with routine vaccinations of infants when RIX4414 was coadministered. The calculated efficacy of RIX4414 against rotavirus gastroenteritis was 82% (P = .046); however, this result was considered to be of limited conclusive value because of the low number of rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes identified during the follow-up period. The live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) was well tolerated and highly immunogenic in Singaporean infants. The immunogenicity of routinely administered infant vaccines was not impaired by concomitant administration of RIX4414 vaccine.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2005; 192 Suppl 1:S6-S16. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for more than 500,000 physician visits, 50,000 hospitalizations and 20 deaths in the United States each year. To compare the safety and immunogenicity of 2 dosages of a live attenuated oral monovalent G1 human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine in healthy infants. In this randomized, double blind trial conducted in the United States and Canada, 529 healthy infants 5-15 weeks of age received HRV vaccine containing either 10 or 10 focus-forming units or placebo. Two doses were administered orally at a 2-month interval concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines. Symptoms of fever, irritability/fussiness, diarrhea, vomiting, loss of appetite and cough/runny nose were solicited for 15 days postvaccination, nonserious adverse events for 43 days postvaccination and serious adverse events throughout the study. Vaccine take was defined as appearance of serum antirotavirus IgA in postimmunization sera at a titer of > or =20 units/mL or vaccine virus shedding in any stool sample collected between the first dose and 2 months after the second dose. No serious adverse events considered related to vaccine were reported. The incidence of solicited symptoms was similar among treatment groups during the 15-day postvaccination surveillance periods. No significant difference in vaccine take after 2 doses (88.0% in high dose group and 81.5% in low dose group) was seen between vaccine groups (P = 0.153). Two doses of either dosage level of HRV vaccine administered concurrently with routine childhood vaccines to healthy infants 5-15 weeks of age were well-tolerated and were highly immunogenic.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2005; 24(6):481-8. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The need for safe and effective vaccines to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by rotavirus gastroenteritis in children is well-known. A live attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) containing human rotavirus strain RIX4414 of G1P1A P[8] specificity is being developed to meet the global need. An overview of RIX4414 trials in developed and developing settings is presented for 3 selected trials conducted in Finland (pilot study), Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela) and Singapore involving 5024 infants. The vaccine was well-tolerated, with no increase in any solicited symptoms as compared with the placebo. After 2 doses, 61-91% of vaccinated infants developed rotavirus-specific IgA antibodies. There was no interference with immunogenicity of coadministered routine pediatric vaccines. Rotarix significantly reduced rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes and rotavirus-related hospitalizations in vaccinated infants compared with placebo recipients (P < 0.05). Vaccine efficacy was observed against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1 and non-G1 types including the emerging G9 type (P < 0.05) in Latin America. These results show prospects for widespread use of Rotarix to reduce rotavirus disease burden and warrant continued worldwide evaluation.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11/2004; 23(10 Suppl):S179-82. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotavirus gastroenteritis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, is a vaccine-preventable disease. New safe and effective candidate rotavirus vaccines are needed to replace the withdrawn rhesus rotavirus-based oral vaccine. We evaluated a monovalent human rotavirus vaccine, serotype G1, strain RIX4414, for efficacy, immunogenicity and safety in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial in Finland. We randomly allocated 405 healthy infants to receive 2 doses of vaccine or placebo (ratio 2:1) at approximately 2 and 4 months of age. The infants were followed during 2 rotavirus epidemic seasons (2000-2002) for acute gastroenteritis. Rotaviruses in diarrheal stool samples were primarily detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed and G-typed by reverse transciption-polymerase chain reaction. The vaccine was well-tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were observed during the study period. Rotavirus IgA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) seroconversion rate was 80% after 2 doses. Thirty-eight cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were detected during the entire follow-up period; 35 of these were of the G1 type. RIX4414 vaccine significantly decreased the occurrence of any rotavirus compared with placebo. Efficacy during the first rotavirus epidemic season was 73% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 27-91%] and 90% (95% CI 10-100%) against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively, and during the entire follow-up period 72% (95% CI 42-87%) against any and 85% (95% CI 42-97%) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). RIX4414 strain of G1 human rotavirus vaccine was well-tolerated, immunogenic and efficacious in infants against rotavirus gastroenteritis during a 2-year period. To further increase vaccine "take" and efficacy, a higher dose of this vaccine may be considered for future efficacy trials.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10/2004; 23(10):937-43. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A live attenuated human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine, strain RIX4414, was tested sequentially in adults, previously infected toddlers, and previously uninfected infants. A single dose was given to adults and toddlers and found well tolerated. Next, a dose ranging (three different viral concentrations) safety and immunogenicity study was conducted in rotavirus IgA antibody negative infants (N= 192), who received two doses of RIX4414 vaccine or placebo at 2 and 4 months of age. No side effects were seen after vaccination. Specifically, administration of RIX4414 vaccine was not temporally associated with fever, diarrhea, or increase in liver transaminases. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion ranged from 50 to 88% after one dose and from 73 to 96% after two doses, depending on vaccine titer. After the first dose, on days 7-9 post vaccination, between 38 and 60% of the infants shed the vaccine virus, whereas after the second dose only 0 to 13% of the vaccinees shed the vaccine virus. It is concluded that RIX4414 strain HRV vaccine is virtually non-reactogenic and, at high titer, highly immunogenic in susceptible infants.
    Vaccine 08/2004; 22(21-22):2836-42. · 3.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
160.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2010
    • University of Limpopo
      Pietersburg, Limpopo, South Africa
  • 2006
    • Instituto Evandro Chagas
      Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil
    • KK Women's and Children's Hospital
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2004–2006
    • University of Tampere
      • Medical School
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland
  • 2005
    • Instituto de Biomedicina
      Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela
    • Rhode Island Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States