[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine the frequency by which breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information that influences the surgical management of patients with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From August 2006 to December 2008, contrast-enhanced bilateral breast MRI was performed on 68 patients, all of whom exhibited highly suspicious imaging findings (BI-RADS category 4 or 5). Patients were grouped according to their histopathological diagnosis and type of breast parenchyma. All of the enrolled patients were believed to be candidates for breast conservation on the basis of physical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography. The patients were reevaluated with the MRI examination as to whether they were still candidates for breast conservation therapy. RESULTS: The MRI findings changed the previous management plans in 19.1% of the 68 patients. With respect to the surgical approach, no statistically significant difference was observed between the histopathology groups (P = 0.403). In terms of the breast parenchymal pattern, however, surgical planning was changed in 53.8% of the patients who exhibited a dense pattern, which was significantly different from the rates of the other groups (P = 0.006). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the MRI for additional malignant lesion detection and identification were 85%, 98%, 92%, and 96%, respectively. The agreement test revealed 86% agreement (very good) between the additional findings observed on the MRI and the histopathological results. CONCLUSION: If breast-conserving surgery is planned, an MRI should be performed in all women with suspected breast cancer, especially those exhibiting dense or heterogeneously dense breast parenchyma, for which the sensitivity of both ultrasonography and mammography is low.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the mammographic findings of the sternalis muscle and discuss appropriate diagnostic approaches.
Ten years of records from our mammography unit were retrospectively examined for the presence of the sternalis muscle. This variant was seen in 10 women out of the 52,930 examined, and the mammograms of these patients were reevaluated. The size, shape and contours of the muscle were reviewed on the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. Yearly mammograms were assessed to evaluate follow-up changes. Extra examinations were reviewed, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The prevalence of the sternalis muscle was 0.018%. Its contours were well-defined, irregular or spiculated, and the diameter ranged from 3-4 mm to 15 mm. The shape of the muscle varied from slightly bulging to round or triangular. The muscle was detected on MLO projections in three patients as an inferior soft tissue density at the posterior edge of the breast, continuous with the pectoralis muscle. Distinct pulling of the breast led to variations in the appearance of the muscle on yearly mammograms. US examinations were normal in all patients. CT and MRI showed the muscle clearly.
The appearance of the sternalis muscle may vary on CC views. It may also be detected on MLO projections. The ability to visualize the muscle depends on proper positioning. Knowledge of its detectability on mammograms will prevent the misdiagnosis of a mass and prevent further unnecessary investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To evaluate the necessity and direct cost effectiveness of screening and staging procedures in breast cancer patients having ≥4 positive axillary lymph nodes and to identify further possible biopathological risk factors associated with increased risk of metastasis.
We reviewed the demographic and clinicopathological data from the medical records of 1897 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Patients having ≥4 positive axillary lymph nodes after primary surgery for breast cancer and who had staging examinations for metastasis were eligible. The impact of staging procedures (thoracoabdominal CT, bone scan etc.) for detecting metastasis, decision of adjuvant treatment and direct costs were analyzed in 329 patients with operable breast cancer.
Thirty-five (10.6%) patients were found with metastasis at diagnosis. Seven (20.0%) among them had multiple metastases. Eighteen (51.4%) had lung, 17 (48.6%) bone, and 7 (20.0%) liver metastasis. Twenty-one (60.0%) patients needed further radiological investigation for metastasis confirmation. Treatment decision was changed in 27 (77.1%) patients. No statistically significant risk factor was identified among the metastatic patients by means of conventional demographic and biopathological parameters. The cost of screening was lower when compared to the cost of treatment without any screening procedure.
Since the conventional clinicopathological data seems not sufficient to define the risk of developing metastasis in breast cancer patients with ≥4 axillary lymph node involvement, all of them should undergo full staging examinations until new parameters based on genomic level are defined. Staging procedures need modification for high risk breast cancer patients.
Journal of B.U.ON.: official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology 07/2010; 15(3):561-7. · 0.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography is an efficient modality for guidance in interventional procedures in the breast. It is inexpensive and well tolerated by patients, and the risks are rare. Ultrasonographically guided breast core biopsy is commonly used in many centers as an accurate alternative to surgical biopsy for suspicious lesions. The advantages include decreased cost, absence of surgical scarring, no need for general anesthesia, and speed of the procedure. A good imaging–histologic correlation is necessary to decrease false-negative results. Other interventional procedures like cyst aspiration and needle localization can also be performed easily under ultrasound guidance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have performed 221 radioisotope synovectomy (RS) in more than 150 children and young adults with haemophilia, age ranging 3-30 years (mean 15) in Ege Hemophilia Center, Izmir, Turkey for last 7 years. We always preferred to use Yttrium 90 (Y(90)) for knees; however, since 2005, we started using rhenium 186 (Re(186)) for medium-sized joints with respect to safety. In this article, we have evaluated long-term experience ranging from 6 months to 3 years (mean 18 months) with Re(186) for elbows (n = 35), ankles (n = 26) and shoulders (n = 2) in total of 63 RS procedures for 49 patients. Their age range was 3-30 years and mean age was 15.5. Two mCi of Re(186) intra-articularly injected for treating target joints and chronical synovitis. After RS, joint bleedings were decreased for all patients. The best results were obtained for all joints in patients with grade-II synovitis as like earlier experience with Y(90). Excellent rates (no bleeding) were observed in grade-II synovitis in 81% and 46% for elbows vs. 86% and 57% for ankles after 6 months and after 1 year follow-up of patients, respectively. In grade-III synovitis, excellent rates were 53% and 25% for elbows and 44% and 29% for ankles, respectively. In five joints for five patients, repeated injections were needed for better outcome. No adverse events such as radioisotope leakage, local inflamatory reactions or malignancy development were observed during and after RS. For medium-sized joints, RS with Re(186) seems to be either effective or safe treatment method. Our results confirm those previously published by others on the value of Re(186) synoviorthesis in medium-sized joints in haemophilia patients. After this experience, we changed our protocol and we use Re(186) for all medium-sized joints for treating chronical synovitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the mammographic features of recurrent breast cancer with those of the primary tumor and to determine whether certain mammographic features are associated with a higher risk of local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy.
A retrospective review of mammograms of 421 patients who were treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy revealed 41 recurrent tumors. Mammographic findings, location, and histopathologic characteristics were retrospectively compared between primary and recurrent tumors.
Recurrent tumors were similar in mammographic appearance to primary tumors in 27 (66%) cases. Of 27 primary tumors that occurred as masses without calcifications, 19 (70%) recurred as a mass, and of the six isolated calcifications, five (83%) recurred with calcifications. Ten (53%) of the 19 recurrent masses and five (100%) of the five recurrent calcifications had morphologic features that were similar to those of the primary tumor. Ninety-two percent (11/12) of the recurrences containing microcalcifications (isolated or associated with a mass) had microcalcifications in their primary tumor. Of 27 masses that recurred, the morphology of the primary tumor was obscured in 13 (48%), ill defined in 10 (37%), and spiculated in four (15%) of the masses. Seventy-six percent (31/41) of recurrences were within the lumpectomy quadrant. In 25 (61%) cases, the histologic findings from the primary tumor and the recurrence were identical.
The majority of recurrent tumors appear to be mammographically similar to primary tumors. Therefore, it is important to review preoperative mammograms during follow-up of these patients. Although the study population is small, it was noted that mass with spiculated contour is associated with a lower risk for local recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to determine whether the mammographic features (morphology and distribution) of new microcalcifications that develop in women treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy can allow differentiation of benign changes from recurrent neoplasm.
A retrospective review of mammograms of 402 patients who were treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy between 1987 and 2005 revealed 68 cases of new calcifications (in 66 patients) with follow-up (n = 55) or biopsy (n = 13) results. Analysis included the time between completion of radiation therapy and the appearance of calcifications; location of calcifications relative to the site of the original lesion; the morphology and distribution of calcifications; and changes in number, density, morphology, and rate of change of calcifications.
The median rate of development after lumpectomy was 24 months (range, 6-84 months) for benign and 52 months (range, 20-90 months) for malignant calcifications. In 63 cases (93%), the new calcifications developed in the same quadrant as the primary tumor. None of the calcifications initially interpreted as BI-RADS category 2 (n = 40/68; 59%) and category 3 (n = 19/68; 28%) represented recurrent disease. Nine (13%) of 68 calcifications were initially classified as BI-RADS category 4 or 5; six (67%) of the nine were malignant and three (33%) were benign at biopsy.
Newly occurring calcifications in the treated breast are usually benign, and they can be managed conservatively in many cases by using morphology and pattern of distribution as a guide.
American Journal of Roentgenology 03/2007; 188(2):393-8. DOI:10.2214/AJR.06.0106 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine and quantitate the radiological characteristics of tubular carcinoma of the breast, to report clinical and pathologic findings and to define findings at follow-up.
A retrospective review of records of 2872 women who received a diagnosis of breast carcinoma between January 1988 and January 2006 revealed 32 histopathologically proven pure tubular carcinoma of the breast. Analysis included history; findings at physical examination, mammography, and sonography (US) at the time of diagnosis and in postoperative follow-up and histopathological results.
Fifty-nine percent of the patients (n=19) presented with a palpable mass. The mammographic findings were a mass in 23 (72%), a mass with microcalcifications in 2 (6%), asymmetric focal density in 1 (3%), architectural distortion in 1 (3%) and negative in 5 (16%) of the 32 patients. Most (96%) masses had spiculated margins. US depicted 30 masses in 29 patients, all of which were hypoechoic, mostly (n=27, 90%) with posterior acoustic shadowing. The cancer was clinically occult in 41% (n=13), mammographically occult in 16% (n=5), and sonographically occult in 6% (n=2) of the patients. Histologically, the tumor was multifocal in 3% (n=1) of the patients. Four (13%) patients developed contralateral breast carcinoma at follow-up.
Tubular carcinoma has a variety of presentations, but it is mostly seen on mammography as a small spiculated mass, and on sonography as an irregular mass with posterior acoustic shadowing. Although tubular carcinoma is known as a well-differentiated tumor with excellent prognosis, the mammographic follow-up of the contralateral breast is important.
European Journal of Radiology 02/2007; 61(1):158-62. DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2006.08.021 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine and quantitate radiologic characteristics of tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast and to report clinical and pathologic findings.
A retrospective review of records of 2872 women who received a diagnosis of breast carcinoma between January 1988 and January 2006 revealed 26 histopathologically proven tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast. Analysis included history; findings at physical examination, mammography, and sonography (US) at the time of diagnosis and in postoperative follow-up, and histopathological results.
At physical examination, palpable mass was present in 85% (n=22) of the patients. The mammographic findings were mass in 17 (65%), asymmetric focal density in 2 (8%), architectural distortion in 2 (8%) and negative mammograms in 5 (19%) of the 26 patients. US depicted 25 masses in 24 patients, all of which were hypoechoic, with spiculated (n=13) or microlobulated (n=12) margins. The cancer was clinically occult in 12% (n=3), mammographically occult in 19% (n=5), and radiologically occult in 4% (n=1) of the patients. Histologically, the mean size of the tumor was 1.7cm and 18 (69%) patients were node negative.
Tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast usually manifests clinically as a firm, immobile mass and mammographically as a spiculated or ill-defined, irregular, isodense mass without microcalcifications. Common findings on sonography include a homogeneously hypoechoic, spiculated or microlobulated mass with posterior acoustic shadowing or normal acoustic transmission. Tubulolobular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for breast masses with these imaging features.
European Journal of Radiology 01/2007; 60(3):418-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2006.06.011 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine and quantitate radiologic characteristics of Paget's disease of the breast and to report clinical and pathologic findings.
A retrospective review of records of 2872 women who received a diagnosis of breast carcinoma between January 1988 and January 2006 revealed 52 histologically proved Paget's disease of the breast. Analysis included history, findings at physical examination, mammography and sonography (US) and histologic type of Paget's disease.
At physical examination, palpable mass (n=33, 63%), nipple erythema-eczema-ulceration (n=17, 33%) and blood-stained nipple discharge (n=5, 10%) were noted. Among 17 patients who had clinically evident Paget's disease, the mammographic findings were isolated microcalcifications in 3 (18%), mass associated with microcalcifications in 5 (29%), mass in 2 (12%) and negative in 7 (41%) patients. In the 35 patients with clinically inevident Paget's disease, these mammographic findings were 43% (n=15), 34% (n=12), 20% (n=7) and 3% (n=1), respectively. US depicted 43 masses in 35 patients, all of which were lobulated or irregularly contoured, mostly (n=41, 95%) without posterior acoustic shadowing. The cancer was clinically occult in 10% (n=5), mammographically occult in 15% (n=8) and radiologically occult in 13% (n=7) of the 52 patients. Histologically, the tumor was multifocal and/or multicentric in 11 (21%) patients.
The clinical features of Paget's disease are characteristic and should alert the clinician to the likelihood of an underlying carcinoma, which should be evaluated radiologically. However, as Paget's disease is primarily a clinical diagnosis and mammograms may be negative, screening programs without clinical examination may result with delay in diagnosis. As a result, both clinical and imaging findings are complementary and should be correlated to confirm or exclude a diagnosis of Paget's disease.
European Journal of Radiology 12/2006; 60(2):256-63. DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2006.06.010 · 2.16 Impact Factor