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The DNA sequence of 106 BAC/PAC clones in the minimum tiling path (MTP) of the long arm of rice chromosome 11, between map positions 57.3 and 116.2 cM, has been assembled to phase 2 or PLN level. This region has been sequenced to 10× redundancy by the Indian Initiative for Rice Genome Sequencing (IIRGS) and is now publicly available in GenBank. The region, excluding overlaps, has been predicted to contain 2,932 genes using different software. A gene-by-gene BLASTN search of the NCBI wheat EST database of over 420,000 cDNA sequences revealed that 1,143 of the predicted rice genes (38.9%) have significant homology to wheat ESTs (bit score ≥ 100). Further BLASTN search of these 1,143 rice genes with the GrainGenes database of sequence contigs containing bin-mapped wheat ESTs allowed 113 of the genes to be placed in bins located on wheat chromosomes of different homoeologous groups. The largest number of genes, about one-third, mapped to the homoeologous group 4 chromosomes of wheat, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. The remaining genes were located on wheat chromosomes of different groups with significantly higher numbers for groups 3 and 5. Location of bin-mapped wheat contigs to chromosomes of all the seven homoeologous groups can be ascribed to movement of genes (transpositions) or chromosome segments (trans-locations) within rice or the hexaploid wheat genomes. Alternatively, it could be due to ancient duplications in the common ancestral genome of wheat and rice followed by selective elimination of genes in the wheat and rice genomes. While there exists definite conservation of gene sequences and the ancestral chromosomal identity between rice and wheat, there is no obvious conservation of the gene order at this level of resolution. colinearity between rice and wheat genomes suggests that there have been many insertions, deletions, duplications and translocations that make the synteny comparisons much more complicated than earlier thought. However, enhanced resolution of comparative sequence analysis may reveal smaller conserved regions of colinearity, which will facilitate selection of markers for saturation mapping and sequencing of the gene-rich regions of the wheat genome.
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Leucoderma, also known as vitiligo is a skin disorder that affects nearly 2% of the world population. Allopathic system of medicine in widespread practice today offers palliative measures. There are many explanations as to why this happens but none of these explanations has been proven to be the right one. This also explains why there is no confirmed cure for leucoderma. Even after extensive scientific research, the treatments of leucoderma are still very scarce and have not been proven to work for a majority of people. The best patients can do is hide these marks with colour creams but it is to be noted, this only hides these marks and doesn't stop more patches of white skin from appearing. There is no explanation as to the location of these patches of skin. Also, a question that may rise is why only patches appear and not the whole body is affected. For this too there is no proven explanation. By contrast, the Charaka Samhita, a two thousand-year-old Indian Ayurvedic text, provides a description of leucoderma (shvitra/Kilasa)with recommendations for treatment. In this paper, a detailed Ayurvedic analysis and approach to management will be presented. Introduction Leucoderma is a chronic disorder of the skin where the skin stops producing pigments that color the skin. As a result white patches appear randomly at different locations on the skin. These patches are white in color and as time passes may increase in number and size. Leucoderma is not a medical term. It is only a substitute name for vitiligo. Vitiligo is a more common name for this disease in the west where as in Asia leucoderma is used more. According to modern science vitiligo involves focal areas of melanocyte loss. There may be a positive family history of the disorder in those with generalised vitiligo and this type is associated with autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, thyroid and adrenal disorders, and pernicious anaemia. Trauma sunburn may precipitate the appearance of vitiligo.A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the pathogenesis, none of which is entirely satisfactory. One popular theory is that the monocytes are the target of a cell-mediated autoimmune attack 1 . Ayurveda, a Sanskrit term meaning 'science of life', is said to be the most ancient system of medicine in widespread practice today. In Ayurvedic classical literature, such as the CharakaSamhita , leucoderma also known as 'white leprosy' is called svitra or kilasa. In Ayurvedic medicine, the process by which a disease is understood and diagnosed is called nidanapancaka and is composed of five parts: nidana (causative factors or etiology), purvarupa(earliest signs/symptoms), rupa (clinical signs/symptoms), samprapti (pathogenesis of the condition), and upasaya (diagnostic tests). Traditionally, when a disease is being discussed, the five parts of the nidanapancaka will be presented. Indeed, the ancient Ayurvedic text, CharakaSamhita, presents skin disease (kustha) following this format.