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Publications (7)1.19 Total impact

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    Apostolos Baltzopoulos, Pontus Braunerhjelm, Ioannis Tikoudis
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    ABSTRACT: The extent and importance of spin-offs for industrial dynamics have been analysed in a number of previous studies, yet knowledge is surprisingly scarce about the determinants that trigger such entrepreneurial ventures. In the current analysis we use unique and detailed Swedish data to comprehensively explore how individual, firm, regional, and industry variables influence spin-offs during 1999-2005. In addition to the expected general positive impact of regional size and entrepreneurial culture, we find specific features for knowledge intensive manufacturing and service production on the propensity of employees to spin off a new venture. Moreover, we use an entropy measure to disentangle unrelated and related variety, and find that the former has a significantly negative impact while the latter a significantly positive effect on the propensity of the individual to start a spin-off.
    01/2012;
  • Apostolos Baltzopoulos, Anders Broström
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    ABSTRACT: Baltzopoulos A. and Broström A. Attractors of entrepreneurial activity: universities, regions and alumni entrepreneurs, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localization decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically, a comprehensive, individual-level data set from Sweden for the period 2003–2005 is employed. The results suggest that even when controlling for their spatial history, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanization economies and localization economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, the present analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies.Baltzopoulos A. and Broström A. 创业活动的吸引者:大学、区域以及校友企业家,区域研究。本文考察了大学是如何通过校友企业家的地方决策影响区域公司间关系。本研究是基于瑞士2003-2005年间完整的、个体层面的数据组。研究结果表明,即便对于空间历史进行控制,个体倾向在他们学习的区域进行创业。 这一效应替代了城市经济学以及地方经济作为区域层面公司化的带动因素。因此,当前的分析为大学如何影响区域经济发展提供了相关证据,对之前集中于研究者脱离大学进行创业的研究的强有力补充。学校公司性 区域影响 地域选择性分析Baltzopoulos A. et Broström A. Ce qui alimente l'esprit d'entreprise: les universités, les régions et les anciens étudiants, Regional Studies. Cet article examine comment les universités peuvent influer sur l'esprit d'entreprise régional à travers les décisions en matière de localisation des anciens étudiants qui sont entrepreneurs. En pratique, on emploie un ensemble de données global à l'échelon de l'individu en Suède pour la période allant de 2003 à 2005. Les résultats laissent supposer que la propension des individus à créer une entreprise dans la région où ils ont étudié est plus élevée, compte tenu même de leurs horizons géographiques. Il s'avère que cet effet se substitue aux économies en matière d'urbanisation et de localisation en tant que forces motrices de l'esprit d'entreprise régional. Ainsi, la présente analyse fournit des preuves de l'impact des universités sur le développement économique régional qui complètent le centre d'intérêt des études antérieures faites par les chercheurs universitaires, à savoir les activités d'essaimage.Esprit d'entreprise universitaire Impact régional Analyse du choix d'emplacementBaltzopoulos A. und Broström A. Anziehende Faktoren für unternehmerische Aktivität: Universitäten, Regionen und akademische Unternehmensgründer, Regional Studies. In diesem Beitrag wird untersucht, wie sich Universitäten im Rahmen der Standortentscheidungen ehemaliger Studenten, die ein Unternehmen gründen, auf das regionale Unternehmertum auswirken können. Hierfür kommt ein umfassender Satz von Daten auf individueller Ebene aus Schweden für den Zeitraum von 2003 bis 2005 auf empirische Weise zum Einsatz. Aus den Ergebnissen geht hervor, dass Einzelpersonen selbst bei einer Berücksichtigung ihrer räumlichen Geschichte verstärkt dazu neigen, ihr Unternehmen in der Region zu gründen, in der sie studiert haben. Diese Wirkung ersetzt den Ergebnissen zufolge sowohl die Urbanisierungs- als auch die Lokalisierungswirtschaften als Faktoren des Unternehmertums auf Regionalebene. Somit liefert diese Analyse Belege dafür, wie sich Universitäten auf die regionale Wirtschaftsentwicklung auswirken, was als Ergänzung zu den Spin-Off-Aktivitäten dient, die stark im Mittelpunkt der früheren Studien von Universitätsforschern standen.Akademisches Unternehmertum Regionale Auswirkung Analyse der StandortwahlBaltzopoulos A. y Broström A. Factores que atraen la actividad empresarial: universidades, regiones y empresarios académicos, Regional Studies. En este artículo investigamos cómo pueden influir las universidades en el empresariado regional a través de las decisiones de localización por parte de empresarios académicos. Desde un punto de vista empírico, empleamos un amplio grupo de datos a nivel individual de Suecia para el periodo 2003–2005. Los resultados indican que incluso cuando tenemos en cuenta su historia espacial, los individuos tienen una mayor predisposición a establecerse en la región donde han estudiado. Se observa que este efecto sustituye a las economías de urbanización y localización como impulsores del interés empresarial a nivel regional. Por ende, el presente análisis ofrece evidencias de cómo influyen las universidades en el desarrollo de la economía regional, complementando las actividades de spin-off que son el tema central de los estudios previos llevados a cabo por investigadores universitarios.Empresariado universitario Impacto regional Análisis de la elección del lugar
    Regional Studies 01/2011; · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of universities in a region has been found to be an important factor for regional economic growth. In search for the specific explanations of this phenomenon, the connection between universities and locally based entrepreneurship has attracted considerable attention. We investigate how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localisation decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically, we use data on the background of all 35 187 young individuals who founded start-up firms in Sweden in the period 2003-2005, a third of whom attended a university, to estimate whether the choice of where to pursue tertiary education studies had significant impact on the location of their firm. Our results suggest that even when controlling for the spatial history of the individual founder, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanisation economies and localisation economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, our analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies.
    01/2010;
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    Martin Andersson, Apostolos Baltzopoulos, Hans Lööf
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    ABSTRACT: Why are similar workers paid differently? I review and compare two lines of research that have recently witnessed great progress in addressing “unexplained” wage inequality: (i) worker unobserved heterogeneity in, and sorting by, human capital; (ii) firms’ monopsony power in labor markets characterized by job search frictions. Both lines share a view of wage differentials as an equilibrium phenomenon. Despite their profound conceptual and technical differences, they remain natural competitors in this investigation. Unlike other hypotheses, they provide natural and unifying explanations for job and worker flows, unemployment duration and incidence, job-to-job quits, and the shape of the wage distribution.
    Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation. 01/2010;
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    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: Past research on the effects of agglomeration externalities on regional economic development is inconclusive and has focused mainly on employment growth and innovative output. This paper considers the link between agglomeration externalities and entrepreneurship. It does so by looking at the importance of Marshallian specialization and Jacobian diversity externalities for regional entrepreneurial output implementing an individual level data set that allows considering not only the effect on total number of start-ups but also on the propensity of the entrepreneur to start his new venture in an industry he has previous experience in. The results suggest that while Marshallian externalities have a positive, Jacobian externalities have a negative effect on regional entrepreneurial output. However, Jacobian externalities increase the probability that an entrepreneur will start a firm in an industry he has relevant experience in, especially in the case of knowledge intensive industries.
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    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: The present study carries out a mutli-level analysis of entrepeneurship by considering the choice of the individual to leave his job position to become self-employed. A comprehensive data-set matching the individual to his place of work allows controlling for the characteristics of both the firm and the region he worked in before starting his own firm. The results suggest that small firms spawn entrepreneurs more frequently and individuals working in larger regions that are characterized by larger local markets, higher accumulation of knowledge resources and higher population density are more likely to transcend into entrepreneurship. I also find evidence that people are more likely to select the path of self-employment in the face of weak local competition.
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    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper asks how localisation (MAR) and diversity (Jacobs) externalities affect opportunity-based entrepreneurship across all industry sectors in Sweden's private economy in the period 1999-2005. MAR externalities are found to positively affect entrepreneurship across all sectors. Jacobs externalities, measured as related variety using an entropy measure, positively affect entrepreneurship in high-tech manufacturing and in knowledge intensive business services but have no significant effect on low-tech manufacturing and other services. The results suggest that previous studies that find no evidence of entrepreneurship benefiting from a diverse local market composition might be using too broad measures of variety.