Several studies have characterized the relationship among postoperative thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic alignment in the sagittal plane. However, little is known of the relationship between postoperative thoracic kyphosis and sagittal cervical alignment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated with all pedicle screw constructs. The authors examined this relationship and associated factors.
A prospective database of pediatric patients with AIS undergoing spinal fusion between 2003 and 2005 was reviewed for those who received predominantly pedicle screw constructs for Lenke Type 1 or Type 2 curves. Parameters analyzed on pre- and postoperative radiographs were the fusion levels; cervical, thoracic, and lumbar sagittal balance; and C-2 and C-7 plumb lines.
Preoperatively, 6 (Group A) of the 22 patients included in the study had frank cervical kyphosis (mean angle 13.0°) with mean associated thoracic kyphosis of 27.2° (range 16°-37°). Postoperatively, cervical kyphosis (13.0°) remained in the patients in Group A along with mean thoracic kyphosis of 17.7° (range 4°-26°, p < 0.05). Preoperatively, the remaining 16 of 22 patients had neutral to lordotic cervical alignment (mean -13.8°) with thoracic kyphosis (mean 45°, range 30°-76°). Postoperatively, 8 (Group B) of these 16 patients demonstrated cervical sagittal decompensation (> 5° kyphosis), with 6 showing frank cervical kyphosis (10.5°, p < 0.05). In Group B, the mean postoperative thoracic kyphosis was 25.6° (range 7°-49°, p < 0.05). The other 8 patients (Group C) had mean postoperative thoracic kyphosis of 44.1° (range 32°-65°), and there was no cervical decompensation (p < 0.05).
The sagittal profile of the thoracic spine is related to that of the cervical spine. The surgical treatment of Lenke Type 1 and 2 curves by using all pedicle screw constructs has a significant hypokyphotic effect on thoracic sagittal plane alignment (19 [86%] of 22 patients). If postoperative thoracic kyphosis is excessively decreased (mean 25.6°, p < 0.05), the cervical spine may decompensate into significant kyphosis.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 07/2011; 15(5):491-6. DOI:10.3171/2011.6.SPINE1012 · 2.36 Impact Factor
Few studies exist on the management of progressive curves in the setting of infantile idiopathic scoliosis. We have performed a retrospective review of our experience treating those patients unresponsive to conservative management with the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib.
We reviewed 8 consecutive patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis treated at our institution between 2000 and 2009. All patients were screened to ensure that no confounding congenital anomalies or comorbidities contributed to the spinal deformity. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and most recent Cobb angle, sagittal balance, and spinal length, were measured to assess overall curve correction. Patient charts were reviewed for the occurrence of complications.
The average age at the time of surgery was 45.8 months (range: 24 to 84 mo). The average preoperative Cobb angle was 84 degrees (range: 50 to 119 degrees) and showed mean curve correction of 35.1% (range: 20% to 60%) over an average follow-up of 32 months (range: 14 to 45 mo). Spinal height increased a mean of 71 mm (range: 51 to 98 mm) over an average of 4 lengthenings (range: 2 to 7). Three of the patients (37%) experienced minor hardware complications, none experienced a neurologic deficit.
Our results suggest that the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib device is a safe and effective treatment option for large-magnitude curves in this unique patient population.
Journal of pediatric orthopedics 10/2010; 30(7):659-63. DOI:10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181efbaa8 · 1.43 Impact Factor
Tethering of the spinal cord is thought to increase the chance of neurological injury when scoliosis correction is undertaken. All patients with myelomeningocele (MM) are radiographically tethered, and untethering procedures carry significant morbidity risks including worsening neurological function and wound complications. No guidelines exist as regards untethering in patients with MM prior to scoliosis correction surgery. The authors' aim in this study was to evaluate their experience in patients with MM who were not untethered before scoliosis correction.
Seventeen patients with MM were retrospectively identified and 1) had no evidence of a clinically symptomatic tethered cord, 2) had undergone spinal fusion for scoliosis correction, and 3) had not been untethered for at least 1 year prior to surgery. The minimum follow-up after fusion was 2 years. Charts and radiographs were reviewed for neurological or shunt complications in the perioperative period.
The average age of the patients was 12.4 years, and the following neurological levels were affected: T-12 and above, 7 patients; L-1/L-2, 6 patients; L-3, 2 patients; and L-4, 2 patients. All were radiographically tethered as confirmed on MR imaging. Fourteen of the patients (82%) had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The mean Cobb angle was corrected from 82 degrees to 35 degrees , for a 57% correction. All patients underwent neuromonitoring of their upper extremities, and some underwent lower extremity monitoring as well. Postoperatively, no patient experienced a new cranial nerve palsy, shunt malfunction, change in urological function, or upper extremity weakness/sensory loss. One patient had transient lower extremity weakness, which returned to baseline within 1 month of surgery.
The study results suggested that spinal cord untethering may be unnecessary in patients with MM who are undergoing scoliosis corrective surgery and do not present with clinical symptoms of a tethered cord, even though tethering is radiographically demonstrated.
Neurosurgical FOCUS 07/2010; 29(1):E8. DOI:10.3171/2010.3.FOCUS1072 · 2.14 Impact Factor