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Publications (5)9.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The medical management of many diseases and conditions can include either restriction or provision of specific essential nutrients. When such nutrients are needed, there are often both prescription and nonprescription products available, as in the case of nicotinic acid or omega-3 fatty acids. Although they may seem to contain similar ingredients, there may be important differences between the prescription and dietary-supplement preparations. The manufacturing of prescription pharmaceutical products is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which mandates standards for consistency and quality assurance. Dietary supplements are available to consumers under the provisions of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, for which the FDA has the burden of proving a dietary supplement is harmful rather than requiring the manufacturer prove that the supplement is safe. Consumers and medical professionals should be aware of the important qualitative and quantitative differences between the FDA-approved prescription formulations and dietary supplements, particularly when an essential nutrient is part of the medical management of a disease or condition.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 01/2009; 27(6):659-66. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is an enormous amount of information available on omega-3 fatty acids, it is sometimes misleading, contradictory, and unsupported by scientific fact. Consumers and medical professionals may be confused regarding the potential value of omega-3 fatty acid supplements, despite having either read or heard about fi sh oil consumption and/or omega-3 fatty acid benefits and risks. The availability of a prescription formulation of omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) has provided important new information that helps to dispel the myths and alleviate concerns surrounding the use of omega-3 fatty acids in clinical practice. The safety and efficacy of P-OM3, but not dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids, are documented in placebo-controlled trials. In general, studies using Food and Drug Administration-approved dosages of P-OM3 have not substantiated various myths surrounding the negative effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Thus, there are now evidence-based clinical guidelines for the use of omega-3 fatty acids in clinical practice.
    Postgraduate Medicine 07/2008; 120(2):92-100. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The estimated prevalence of dietary-supplement use among US adults was 73% in 2002. Appropriate use of dietary supplements within the paradigm of evidence-based medicine may be a challenge for medical doctors and non-physician clinicians. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial data, which are considered the gold standard for evidence-based decision making, are lacking. Standardized guidelines for the use of dietary supplements are lacking, and dietary supplements can bear unsupported claims. This article is intended to review clinically-relevant issues related to the widespread use of dietary supplements, with emphasis on regulatory oversight and safety. Review articles and clinical trial articles published up until December 2007 were selected based on a search of the MEDLINE electronic database using PubMed. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Website was also used as a resource. We used the search terms dietary supplement(s), vitamin supplements, mineral supplements, and Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act. Articles discussing dietary supplements and their regulation, prevalence of use, prescription and nonprescription formulations, and/or adverse events were selected for review. Articles discussing one or more of these topics in adults were selected for inclusion. New FDA regulations require dietary-supplement manufacturers to evaluate the identity, purity, strength, and composition of their products. However, these regulations are not designed to demonstrate product efficacy and safety, and dietary-supplement manufacturers are not required to submit efficacy and safety data to the FDA prior to marketing. Product contamination and/or mislabeling may undermine the integrity of dietary-supplement formulations. The use of dietary supplements may be associated with adverse events. Although there are new regulatory requirements for dietary supplements, these products will not require FDA approval or submission of efficacy and safety data prior to marketing under the new regulation. A limitation to the literature used for this review is the lack of prospective, randomized clinical trials on the safety and efficacy of dietary supplements. Clinicians should be aware of all the dietary supplements that their patients consume, and help their patients make informed decisions appropriate to their medical care.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 05/2008; 24(4):1209-16. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most common omega-3 fatty acids contain 18-22 carbons and a signature double bond at the third position from the methyl (or n, or omega) end of the molecule. These fatty acids must be obtained in the diet as they cannot be synthesized by vertebrates. They include the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), and the fish-oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Normally, very little ALA is converted to EPA, and even less to DHA, and therefore direct intake of the latter two is optimal. EPA and DHA and their metabolites have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of fish oil is associated with coronary heart disease risk reduction. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for such effects. These include prevention of arrhythmias as well as lowering heart rate and blood pressure, decreasing platelet aggregation, and lowering triglyceride levels. The latter is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
    Atherosclerosis 04/2008; 197(1):12-24. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Very high triglyceride (TG) levels (> or =500 mg/dl [5.65 mmol/l]) increase the risk of pancreatitis. One therapeutic option to lower TG levels is omega-3 fatty acids, which are derived from the oil of fish and other seafood. The American Heart Association has acknowledged that fish oils may decrease dysrhythmias, decrease sudden death, decrease the rate of atherosclerosis and slightly lower blood pressure, and has recommended fish consumption or fish oil supplementation as a therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease. A prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) preparation has been available in many European nations for at least a decade, and was approved by the US FDA in 2004 to reduce very high TG levels (> or =500 mg/dl [5.65 mmol/l]). Mechanistically, most evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the synthesis and secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, and increase TG removal from VLDL and chylomicron particles through the upregulation of enzymes, such as lipoprotein lipase. Omega-3 fatty acids differ mechanistically from other lipid-altering drugs, which helps to explain why therapies such as P-OM3 have complementary mechanisms of action and, thus, complementary lipid benefits when administered with statins. Additional human studies are needed to define more clearly the cellular and molecular basis for the TG-lowering effects of omega-3 fatty acids and their favorable cardiovascular effects, particularly in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.
    Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 04/2008; 6(3):391-409.