[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convergent evidence suggests a pre-motor period in Parkinson's disease (PD) during which typical motor symptoms have not yet developed although dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra have started to degenerate. Advances in different neuroimaging techniques have allowed the detection of functional and structural changes in early PD. This review summarizes the state of the art knowledge concerning structural neuroimaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial B-mode-Doppler-sonography (TCS) as well as functional neuroimaging techniques using radiotracer imaging (RTI) with different radioligands in detecting pre-motor PD.
Movement Disorders 04/2012; 27(5):634-43. DOI:10.1002/mds.24976 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using magnetic resonance (MR) planimetry, both the midbrain-to-pontine area ratio (m/p-ratio) and the MR parkinsonism index (MRPI) have been shown to assist in the differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from Parkinson's disease (PD) and the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the MRPI compared with the m/p-ratio in a large cohort of 123 patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism including patients with PSP, PD, and MSA-P. Patients with PSP had significant higher MRPI values and significant smaller m/p-ratios compared with the other groups with overlapping individual values. Overall predictive accuracy was similar for the m/p-ratio (87.0%) and the MRPI (80.5%) with a predictive accuracy for PSP from MSA-P being significantly better for the MRPI (87.5%) compared with the m/p-ratio (75%) as well as a predictive accuracy for PSP from PD being significantly better for the m/p-ratio (87.6%) compared with the MRPI (77.3%). Both the m/p-ratio and the MRPI may assist the clinical differential diagnosis in neurodegenerative parkinsonism.
Movement Disorders 10/2010; 25(14):2444-9. DOI:10.1002/mds.23351 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes is considered one of the most challenging in neurology, even for movement disorder specialists. Despite published consensus operational criteria for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the various atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs) such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and corticobasal syndrome, the clinical separation of APDs from PD carries a high rate of misdiagnosis. However, an early differentiation between APD and PD, each characterized by a largely different natural history, is crucial for determining the prognosis and choosing a treatment strategy. Despite limitations, the different modern magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have undoubtedly added to the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative parkinsonism. Conventional MRI with visual assessment of T(2)- and T(1)-weighted imaging as well as various advanced MRI techniques offer objective measures and may therefore be useful tools in the diagnostic workup of PD and APDs. In clinical practice, conventional MRI is a well-established method for the exclusion of symptomatic parkinsonism due to other pathologies such as tumors, cerebral ischemia or inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, over the past two decades, advances in MR techniques have enabled to quantitatively illustrate abnormalities in the basal ganglia and infratentorial structures in APDs by methods such as magnetic resonance volumetry, diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This article aims to review research findings on the value of MRI techniques in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders.