[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive development disorder, mainly caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. No reliable biochemical markers of the disease are available. Here we assess F₄-neuroprostanes (F₄-NeuroPs), lipid peroxidation products of the docosahexaenoic acid, as a novel disease marker in RTT and correlate it with clinical presentation, MeCP2 mutation type, and disease progression. In addition, we investigate on the impact of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) supplementation on F₄-NeuroPs levels.
A case-control study design was used. A cohort of RTT patients (n=144) exhibiting different clinical presentations, disease stages, and MeCP2 gene mutations were evaluated. F₄-NeuroPs were measured in free form using a GC/NICI-MS/MS technique. Plasma F₄-NeuroPs levels in patients were compared to healthy controls and related to RTT forms, disease progression, and response to ω-3 PUFAs supplementation.
Plasma F₄-NeuroPs levels were i) higher in RTT than in controls; ii) increased with the severity of neurological symptoms; iii) significantly elevated during the typical disease progression; iv) higher in MeCP2-nonsense as compared to missense mutation carriers; v) higher in typical RTT as compared to RTT variants; and vi) decreased in response to 12 months ω-3 PUFAs oral supplementation.
Quantification of plasma F₄-NeuroPs provides a novel RTT marker, related to neurological symptoms severity, mutation type and clinical presentation.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 07/2011; 412(15-16):1399-406. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2011.04.016 · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder and a leading cause of mental retardation in females. It is caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene and more rarely in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1) genes. Increased oxidative stress (OS) has been documented in MeCP2-RTT patients. Here, we evaluated the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal plasma protein adducts (4HNE-PAs) in MeCP2-, CDKL5-, and FOXG1-RTT and in their clinical variants.
4HNE-PAs were determined by Western blot in plasma from healthy subjects and RTT patients.
4HNE-PAs levels were increased in MeCP2- and CDKL5-related RTT but not in FOXG1-related RTT.
These results showed that OS is present in RTT clinical variants and could play a key role in RTT pathogenesis. Under the OS point of view FOXG1-related RTT appears to be distinct from the MeCP2/CDKL5, suggesting a distinct mechanism involved in its pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After a general introduction, the main pathways of ethanol metabolism (alcohol dehydrogenase, catalase, coupling of catalase with NADPH oxidase and microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system) are shortly reviewed. The cytochrome P(450) isoform (CYP2E1) specifically involved in ethanol oxidation is discussed. The acetaldehyde metabolism and the shift of the NAD/NADH ratio in the cellular environment (reductive stress) are stressed. The toxic effects of acetaldehyde are mentioned. The ethanol-induced oxidative stress: the increased MDA formation by incubated liver preparations, the absorption of conjugated dienes in mitochondrial and microsomal lipids and the decrease in the most unsaturated fatty acids in liver cell membranes are discussed. The formation of carbon-centered (1-hydroxyethyl) and oxygen-centered (hydroxyl) radicals during the metabolism of ethanol is considered: the generation of hydroxyethyl radicals, which occurs likely during the process of univalent reduction of dioxygen, is highlighted and is carried out by ferric cytochrome P(450) oxy-complex (P(450)-Fe(3+)O(2) (.-)) formed during the reduction of heme-oxygen. The ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation has been evaluated, and it has been shown that plasma F(2)-isoprostanes are increased in ethanol toxicity.