[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Hodgkin's lymphoma is a highly curable disease with modern chemotherapy protocols, some patients are primary refractory or relapse after first-line chemotherapy or even after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. We investigated the potential role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in this setting.
In this phase II study 92 patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma and an HLA-identical sibling, a matched unrelated donor or a one antigen mismatched, unrelated donor were treated with salvage chemotherapy followed by reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation. Fourteen patients showed refractory disease and died from progressive lymphoma with a median overall survival after trial entry of 10 months (range, 6-17). Seventy-eight patients proceeded to allograft (unrelated donors, n=23). Fifty were allografted in complete or partial remission and 28 in stable disease. Fludarabine (150 mg/m(2) iv) and melphalan (140 mg/m(2) iv) were used as the conditioning regimen. Anti-thymocyte globulin was additionally used as graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for recipients of grafts from unrelated donors.
The non-relapse mortality rate was 8% at 100 days and 15% at 1 year. Relapse was the major cause of failure. The progression-free survival rate was 47% at 1 year and 18% at 4 years from trial entry. For the allografted population, the progression-free survival rate was 48% at 1 year and 24% at 4 years. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Patients allografted in complete remission had a significantly better outcome. The overall survival rate was 71% at 1 year and 43% at 4 years.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can result in long-term progression-free survival in heavily pre-treated patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The reduced intensity conditioning approach significantly reduced non-relapse mortality; the high relapse rate represents the major remaining challenge in this setting. The HDR-Allo trial was registered in the European Clinical Trials Database (EUDRACT, https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) with number 02-0036.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiation syndrome (DS) can be a life-threatening complication in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) undergoing induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Detailed knowledge about DS has remained limited. We present an analysis of the incidence, characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcome of 739 APL patients treated with ATRA plus idarubicin in 2 consecutive trials (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología [PETHEMA] LPA96 and LPA99). Overall, 183 patients (24.8%) experienced DS, 93 with a severe form (12.6%) and 90 with a moderate form (12.2%). Severe but not moderate DS was associated with an increase in mortality. A bimodal incidence of DS was observed, with peaks occurring in the first and third weeks after the start of ATRA therapy. A multivariate analysis indicated that a WBC count greater than 5 x 10(9)/L and an abnormal serum creatinine level correlated with an increased risk of developing severe DS. Patients receiving systematic prednisone prophylaxis (LPA99 trial) in contrast to those receiving selective prophylaxis with dexamethasone (LPA96 trial) had a lower incidence of severe DS. Patients developing severe DS showed a reduced 7-year relapse-free survival in the LPA96 trial (60% vs 85%, P = .003), but this difference was not apparent in the LPA99 trial (86% vs 88%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of re-treatment with rituximab in aggressive B-cell lymphomas still needs to be defined. This study evaluated the influence of prior exposure to rituximab on response rates and survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus etoposide, cytarabine, cisplatinum and methylprednisolone (R-ESHAP).
We retrospectively analyzed 163 patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received R-ESHAP as salvage therapy with a curative purpose. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether rituximab had been administered (n=94, "R+" group) or not (n=69, "R-" group) prior to R-ESHAP.
Response rates were significantly higher in the R- group in the univariate but not in the multivariate analysis. In the analysis restricted to the R+ group, we observed very low complete remission and overall response rates in patients with primary refractory disease (8% and 33%, respectively), as compared to those in patients who were in first partial remission (41% and 86%) or who had relapsed disease (50% and 75%) (p<0.01 in both cases). Overall, 60% and 65% of patients in the R+ and R- groups, respectively, underwent stem-cell transplantation after the salvage therapy. With a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 6-84), patients in the R+ group had significantly worse progression-free survival (17% vs. 57% at 3 years, p<0.0001) and overall survival (38% v 67% at 3 years, p=0.0005) than patients in the R- group. Prior exposure to rituximab was also an independent adverse prognostic factor for both progression-free survival (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=0.008) and overall survival (RR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.9, p=0.004).
R-ESHAP was associated with a high response rate in patients who were not refractory to upfront rituximab-based chemotherapy. However, the survival outcome was poor for patients previously exposed to rituximab, as compared to in those who had not previously been treated with rituximab.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous report of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatías Malignas (PETHEMA) Group showed that a risk-adapted strategy combining all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia results in an improved outcome. Here we analyze treatment outcome of an enlarged series of patients who have been followed up for a median of 65 months. From November 1999 through July 2005 (LPA99 trial), 560 patients received induction therapy with ATRA plus idarubicin. Patients achieving complete remission received 3 courses of consolidation followed by maintenance with ATRA and low-dose chemotherapy. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse and disease-free survival were 11% and 84%, respectively. These results compare favorably with those obtained in the previous LPA96 study (P = .019 and P = .04, respectively). This updated analysis confirms the high antileukemic efficacy, low toxicity, and high degree of compliance of a risk-adapted strategy combining ATRA and anthracycline monochemotherapy for consolidation therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred ten patients with multiple myeloma (MM) failing to achieve at least near-complete remission (nCR) after a first autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were scheduled to receive a second ASCT (85 patients) or a reduced-intensity-conditioning allograft (allo-RIC; 25 patients), depending on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor availability. There was a higher increase in complete remission (CR) rate (40% vs 11%, P = .001) and a trend toward a longer progression-free survival (PFS; median, 31 months vs not reached, P = .08) in favor of allo-RIC. In contrast, it was associated with a trend toward a higher transplantation-related mortality (16% vs 5%, P = .07), a 66% chance of chronic graft-versus-host disease and no statistical difference in event-free survival and overall survival. Although the PFS plateau observed with allo-RIC is very encouraging, this procedure is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and therefore it should still be considered investigational and restricted to well-designed prospective clinical trials. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ID number NCT00560053.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An understanding of the prognostic factors associated with the various forms of induction mortality in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has remained remarkably limited. This study reports the incidence, time of occurrence, and prognostic factors of the major categories of induction failure in a series of 732 patients of all ages (range, 2-83 years) with newly diagnosed APL who received all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus idarubicin as induction therapy in 2 consecutive studies of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatias Malignas (PETHEMA) Group. Complete remission was attained in 666 patients (91%). All the 66 induction failures were due to induction death. Hemorrhage was the most common cause of induction death (5%), followed by infection (2.3%) and differentiation syndrome (1.4%). Multivariate analysis identified specific and distinct pretreatment characteristics to correlate with an increased risk of death caused by hemorrhage (abnormal creatinine level, increased peripheral blast counts, and presence of coagulopathy), infection (age>60 years, male sex, and fever at presentation), and differentiation syndrome (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] score>1 and low albumin levels), respectively. These data furnish clinically relevant information that might be useful for designing more appropriately risk-adapted treatment protocols aimed at reducing the considerable problem of induction mortality in APL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD) is a potentially severe complication of high-dose cytoreductive therapy (HDT) used for stem cell transplantation (SCT). This complication is uncommon after HDT for autologous SCT (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The Spanish Myeloma Group/PETHEMA conducted a study (MM2000) for patients with newly diagnosed MM consisting of induction with alternating VBMCP/VBAD chemotherapy followed by intensification with busulfan/melphalan (Bu/MEL) with a second high-dose therapy procedure in patients not achieving at least near-complete remission with the first procedure. After 2 years of the trial, a number of episodes resembling classical VOD but with a late onset were recognized. Consequently, the protocol was modified, and Bu/MEL was replaced by melphalan 200 mg/m(2) (MEL-200). Three years later, after a total of 734 patients had undergone first autologous SCT, the incidence and characteristics of VOD episodes were analyzed in the whole series. Nineteen cases of VOD (8%) were observed among the first 240 patients receiving Bu/MEL, whereas only 2 (0.4%) were observed among the 494 patients treated with MEL-200 (P < .0001). VOD manifestations in the Bu/MEL group appeared at a median of 29 days (range, 3-57 days) after ASCT. Mortality directly attributable to VOD was 2% in the Bu/MEL group and 0.2% in the MEL-200 group (P = .026). This high incidence of severe VOD probably had a multifactorial origin (busulfan followed by melphalan and previous use of BCNU). This observation should be kept in mind when designing future trials for the treatment of MM.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 12/2007; 13(12):1448-54. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.08.002 · 3.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preliminary data on the use of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as a salvage therapy for peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) indicate that the results are similar to those obtained in aggressive B-cell lymphomas. The aim of our study was to analyze outcomes of a large series of patients with PTCL with a prolonged follow-up who received ASCT as salvage therapy.
Between 1990 and 2004, 123 patients in this situation were registered in the GELTAMO database. The median age at transplantation was 43.5 years; in 91% of patients the disease was chemosensitive.
Seventy-three percent of the patients achieved complete remission, 11% partial remission and the procedure failed in 16%. At a median follow-up of 61 months, the 5-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 45% and 34%, respectively. The presence of more than one factor of the adjusted International Prognostic Index (a-IPI) and a high beta2-microglobulin at transplantation were identified as adverse prognostic factors for both overall and progression-free survival and allowed the population to be stratified into three distinct risk groups.
Our data show that approximately one third of patients with PTCL in the salvage setting may enjoy prolonged survival following ASCT, provided they are transplanted in a chemosensitive disease state. The a-IPI and beta2-microglobulin level predict the outcome after ASCT in relapsing/refractory PTCL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective data shows that peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) patients sensitive to conventional chemotherapy for aggressive lymphomas may respond better if this treatment is consolidated with frontline autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Here, we present data from a prospective phase II trial of high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT as a frontline consolidation therapy for aggressive nodal PTCL.
This study involved 26 gallium-scan-positive patients with high-risk nodal PTCL [excluding anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive]. Patients received three courses of MegaCHOP before they were evaluated, and those that were gallium-scan-negative at this stage then received another course of MegaCHOP and ASCT. Patients who remained gallium-scan-positive received two courses of an IFE regimen (ifosfamide 10 g/m(2), etoposide 150 mg/m(2)/12 h on days 1-3) and if they at least achieved PR, they then received the transplant.
Complete response (CR) was achieved by 12 patients (46%) after three courses of MegaCHOP and 12 patients received IFE as a salvage therapy. After the ASCT (n = 19), 89% of patients achieved CR. In contrast, six patients (23%) did not receive the transplant because of the progression of the disease (n = 5) or lethal toxicity (n = 1). One patient in first-line CR refused ASCT. After a median follow-up of 35 months, the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 yr was 73% and 53%, respectively. Moreover, the OS, PFS and disease-free survival (DFS) were 84%, 56% and 63%, respectively 2 yr after transplant in patients who received ASCT consolidation (n = 19).
Early salvage therapy for patients with high-risk aggressive nodal PTCL that do not achieve CR after three courses of chemotherapy and ASCT frontline consolidation for chemosensitive patients may improve treatment outcome.
European Journal Of Haematology 08/2007; 79(1):32-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2007.00856.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AIL) is a rare lymphoma with a poor prognosis and no standard treatment. Here, we report our experiences with 19 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) within the GELTAMO co-operative group between 1992 and 2004.
The median age at transplantation was 46 yr. Fifteen patients underwent the procedure as front-line therapy and four patients as salvage therapy. Most patients received peripheral stem cells (90%) coupled with BEAM or BEAC as conditioning regimen (79%).
A 79% of patients achieved complete response, 5% partial response and 16% failed the procedure. After a median follow-up of 25 months, eight patients died (seven of progressive disease and secondary neoplasia), while actuarial overall survival and progression-free survival at 3 yr was 60% and 55%. Prognostic factors associated with a poor outcome included bone marrow involvement, transplantation in refractory disease state, attributing more than one factor of the age-adjusted-International Prognostic Index, Pretransplant peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) Score or Prognostic Index for PTCL.
More than half of the patients with AIL that display unfavourable prognostic factors at diagnosis or relapse would be expected to be alive and disease-free after 3 yr when treated with HDC/ASCT. Patients who are transplanted in a refractory disease state do not benefit from this procedure.
European Journal Of Haematology 05/2007; 78(4):290-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2007.00815.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic transplant in 30 patients with poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and/or high-risk molecular/cytogenetic characteristics.
Eighty-three percent of patients had active disease at the moment of transplant. That is, 14 of the 23 patients analyzed (60%) had unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IgV(H)) status; 8 of 25 patients (32%) had 11q-, with four of them also displaying unmutated IgV(H); and six (24%) had 17p- (five were also unmutated).
After a median follow-up of 47.3 months, all 22 patients alive are disease free; overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) at 6 years were 70% and 72%, respectively. According to molecular/cytogenetic characteristics, overall survival and EFS for unmutated CLL and/or with 11q- aberration (n = 13) were 90% and 92%, respectively, not significantly different to those with normal in situ hybridization, 13q- and +12, or mutated CLL (n = 7). All six patients with 17p deletion were transplanted with active disease, including three with refractory disease; all except one reached complete remission after the transplant and two are alive and disease free. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 20%; more than two lines before transplant is an independent prognostic factor for NRM (P = 0,02), EFS (P = 0.02), and overall survival (P = 0.01). Patients older than 55 years have a higher risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 12.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-111). Minimal residual disease was monitored by multiparametric flow cytometry in 21 patients. Clearance of CD79/CD5/CD19/CD23 cells in bone marrow was achieved in 68% and 94% of the patients at days 100 and 360, respectively.
According to these results, RIC allogeneic transplant could overcome the adverse prognosis of patients with unmutated CLL as well as those with 11q- or 17p-.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2005; 11(21):7757-63. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0941 · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) characteristics of 150 consecutive patients undergoing reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic (allo-RIC) transplants and 88 patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning regimen were analysed. All patients received the same GVHD prophylaxis and peripheral blood stem cells from a human leucocyte antigen identical sibling. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 67% and 44% in the myeloablative and allo-RIC regimen groups, respectively (P < 0.001), and was 39% vs. 29%, respectively (P = 0.043), for grades 2-4 aGVHD. Only conditioning type (myeloablative versus allo-RIC) significantly influenced the incidence of aGVHD in multivariate analysis: Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52-3.07], P < 0.0001. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 63% and 71% among myeloablative and allo-RIC patients respectively (P = 0.084). This trend was because of the higher incidence of limited cGVHD, but not extensive cGVHD among allo-RIC recipients [HR = 3.3 (95% CI: 1.42-8.08), P = 0.0017]. Moreover, among patients who developed cGVHD, the cumulative incidence of limited cGVHD was significantly lower in the myeloablative group than in the allo-RIC group (7% vs. 25%, P = 0.007). Duration of immunosuppression was shorter among allo-RIC patients (35.5% vs. 68.8% required systemic immunosuppression 36 months after transplant, P = 0.028). Although prospective controlled trials are required to further evaluate the effect of the conditioning regimen on GVHD, our results suggest that RIC modifies the incidence and characteristics of both acute and cGVHD after allogeneic transplantation, and decreases the immunosuppression requirements in long-term follow up when compared with myeloablative conditioning.
British Journal of Haematology 08/2005; 130(3):394-403. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05614.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated prognostic factors of melphalan/fludarabine-based dose-reduced allografts in patients with multiple myeloma. From 1998 to 2002, 120 patients with multiple myeloma were treated with melphalan/fludarabine followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The cumulative risk at 1 year for treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-28%). In a multivariate analysis, relapse after prior high-dose chemotherapy was the most significant risk factor for TRM (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80; 95% CI, 1.16-6.74; P =.02), relapse (HR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.04-8.38; P <.001), event-free survival (HR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.77-5.46; P <.001), and overall survival (HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.35-5.35; P =.005). In addition, relapse was also significantly diminished by chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a time-dependent Cox model (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.87; P =.02). At transplantation, 8% of the patients were in complete remission, whereas 27% had progressive disease. After allografting, 49% achieved complete remission, and 38% achieved partial remission. In a subgroup of patients with chemosensitivity at transplantation and no relapse after prior high-dose chemotherapy who underwent transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells (n = 46), the cumulative risk of TRM at 1 year was only 8% (95% CI, 1%-54%). The 2-year estimated event-free and overall survival was 60% (95% CI, 42%-78%) and 75% (95% CI, 59%-91%), respectively, for related donors (n = 34) and was 81% (95% CI, 59%-100%) and 92% (95% CI, 76%-100%), respectively, for unrelated donors (n = 12).
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 10/2004; 10(10):698-708. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2004.06.002 · 3.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) increases the efficacy of chemotherapy when used for induction and maintenance treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but its role in consolidation is unknown. Since November 1996, 426 patients with newly diagnosed APL have received induction therapy with ATRA and idarubicin. Before November 1999 (LPA96 study), consolidation therapy consisted of 3 courses of anthracycline monochemotherapy. After November 1999 (LPA99 study), patients with intermediate and high risks of relapse received consolidation therapy with ATRA and increased doses of anthracyclines. Of the 384 patients who achieved complete remission (90%), 382 proceeded to consolidation therapy. Seven patients died in remission (1.8%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse for patients in the LPA96 and LPA99 studies was 17.2% and 7.5%, respectively (P =.008). Patients treated with ATRA in consolidation therapy showed an overall reduction in the relapse rate from 20.1% to 8.7% (P =.004). In intermediate-risk patients the rate decreased from 14.0% to 2.5% (P =.006). This improved antileukemic efficacy also translated into significantly better disease-free and overall survival. A risk-adapted strategy combining anthracycline monochemotherapy and ATRA for induction and consolidation therapy of newly diagnosed APL results in improved antileukemic efficacy and a high degree of compliance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) who do not obtain a complete response (CR) after induction chemotherapy have a poor prognosis. However, provided they are sensitive to the first regimen of chemotherapy, 25-40% of them with a B-cell phenotype may achieve long-term survival when treated with high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT). The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of this therapy in the corresponding patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).
We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of ASCT in 35 patients with PTCL from the GEL-TAMO registry, who did not achieve a CR to standard induction chemotherapy regimens for aggressive NHL. Thirty-one patients underwent transplantation after achieving a partial response (PR) and 4 patients were non-responders.
Following HDC/ASCT, 23 (66%) of the patients achieved a CR, 4 (11%) a PR and in 7 (20%) cases the transplant failed. One patient was not evaluated because of early toxic death. With a median follow-up of the survivors of 37.5 months, 18 patients (51%) are alive and 15 patients (43%) are free of disease. Transplant-related mortality rate at 100 days was 11% and at 5 years the probabilities of survival, freedom from progression and disease-free survival for complete responders were 37%, 36% and 55% respectively. Pre-transplant lactate-dehydrogenase level, age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aa-IPI) and tumor score correlated with survival.
One third of the patients with PTCL who fail to achieve CR to the first chemotherapeutic regimen can be rescued with HDC/ASCT. Pre-transplant values of IPI and tumor score risk systems for aggressive lymphomas were useful to predict subsequent survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadherin-13 (CDH13) is a newly characterized cadherin molecule responsible for selective cell recognition and adhesion, the expression of which is decreased by methylation in a variety of human cancers, indicating that the CDH13 gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Although defective progenitor-stromal adhesion is a well-recognized feature of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the role of CDH13 abnormalities has not been evaluated in this disease.
We examined the methylation status of the CDH13 promoter in 179 chronic phase (CP)-CML patients and in 52 advanced-phase samples and correlated it with mRNA expression using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR.
Aberrant de novo methylation of the CDH13 promoter region was observed in 99 (55%) of 179 of CP-CML patients, and 90 of the patients failed to express CDH13 mRNA (P <.0001). Advanced-stage samples (n = 52) showed concordant methylation results with their corresponding CP tumors, indicating that CDH13 methylation was not acquired during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, absence of CDH13 expression was more frequently observed among Sokal high-risk patients (P =.01) and was also independently associated with a shorter median progression-free survival time (P =.03) and poor cytogenetic response to interferon alfa treatment (P =.0001).
Our data indicate that the silencing of CDH13 expression by aberrant promoter methylation occurs at an early stage in CML pathogenesis and probably influences the clinical behavior of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outcome of 29 multiple myeloma patients receiving fludarabine and melphalan-based non-myeloablative allogeneic transplant (NMT) was evaluated. Event-free survival (EFS) at 24 months was 33%, being significantly higher for patients who developed chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) when compared with those who did not [51%vs 0% respectively, P = 0.02; hazard rate = 3.16 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-9.15, P = 0.03)] as well as for patients transplanted in complete remission/partial response (CR/PR) or stable disease (SD), compared with those with refractory/progressive disease (43%vs 0% respectively, P = 0.02). Overall survival (OS) at 24 months was 60%[72%vs 42% for patients who did and did not develop cGVHD respectively (P = 0.1); 63%vs 41% for patients in CR/PR or SD vs refractory/progressive disease at transplant respectively (P = 0.013)]. At a median follow-up of 366 d, 13 patients remained in CR/PR (45% overall response rate). Nine patients have died, three of them as a result of disease progression and six (21%) as a result of transplant-related mortality (TRM). Actuarial incidence of TRM was 37% for patients who developed acute GVHD vs 13% for those who did not (log rank, P = 0.04). The present study suggests that graft-versus-myeloma effect is the main weapon for disease control after NMT in MM patients and the efficacy of this immune effect depends on tumour burden before transplant.
British Journal of Haematology 05/2003; 121(1):104-8. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04237.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between 1994 and 1999, 88 multiple myeloma (MM) patients were included in a phase II study to evaluate a tandem autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) programme. The first was conditioned with melphalan 200 mg/m2 (MEL200-ASCT1), and the second with cyclophosphamide, etoposide and BCNU (CBV-ASCT2). All patients were in response after MEL200-ASCT1. A control group of MM patients with response to a single ASCT was selected to compare outcomes. After MEL200-ASCT1, 26 patients (30%) achieved complete remission (CR). Of the remaining 48 evaluable patients, 16 (33%) achieved CR with CBV-ASCT2. The final CR rate was 48%. The 5-year survival (OS) was 55%[95% confidence interval (CI) 43-67%] while the event-free survival (EFS) was 28% (95% CI 15-39%). CR status after CBV-ASCT2 was the most important prognostic factor for OS and EFS (P = 0.00001), although no differences in outcomes were detected when the patients in CR after MEL200-ASCT1 were compared with those who obtained CR after CBV-ASCT2. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed improved OS and EFS for the tandem series as compared with the control series treated with a single MEL200-ASCT. However, in a stratified comparison by response, there were no prognostic differences between tandem patients and control patients treated with a single ASCT. In summary, our study suggests that the benefit of a second high-dose therapy course depends on its capacity to result in CR for MM patients who have not attained CR after ASCT1.
British Journal of Haematology 02/2003; 120(2):296-303. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04067.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen transplantations (NMTs) induce engraftment of allogeneic stem cells with a low spectrum of toxicity, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In vivo T-cell depletion, using alemtuzumab, has been shown to reduce the incidence of GVHD. However, this type of maneuver, although reducing GVHD, may have an adverse impact on disease response, because NMTs exhibit their antitumor activity by relying on a graft-versus-malignancy effect. To explore the efficacy of alemtuzumab compared with methotrexate (MTX) for GVHD prophylaxis, we have compared the results in 129 recipients of a sibling NMT enrolled in 2 prospective studies for chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Both NMTs were based on the same combination of fludarabine and melphalan, but the United Kingdom regimen (group A) used cyclosporin A plus alemtuzumab, whereas the Spanish regimen (group B) used cyclosporin A plus MTX for GVHD prophylaxis. Patients receiving alemtuzumab had a higher incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation (85% versus 24%, P <.001) and a significantly lower incidence of acute GVHD (21.7% versus 45.1%, P =.006) and chronic GVHD (5% versus 66.7%, P <.001). Twenty-one percent of patients in group A and 67.5% in group B had complete or partial responses 3 months after transplantation (P <.001). Eighteen patients in group A received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) to achieve disease control. At last follow-up there was no difference in disease status between the groups with 71% versus 67.5% (P =.43) of patients showing complete or partial responses in groups A and B, respectively. No significant differences were observed in event-free or overall survival between the 2 groups. In conclusion, alemtuzumab significantly reduced GVHD but its use was associated with a higher incidence of CMV reactivation. Patients receiving alemtuzumab often required DLIs to achieve similar tumor control but the incidence of GVHD was not significantly increased after DLI.