[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage is a direct consequence of traumatic injury to the central nervous system and may cause innate immune reactions including cerebral Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upregulation which usually leads to poor outcome in the traumatic brain injury. In spinal cord injury (SCI), however, how hemorrhage induces innate immune reaction in spinal parenchyma remains unknown. The present study aimed to see whether blood component and/or other factor(s) induce TLR4 and microglia/macrophages involved innate immune reactions in the rat spinal cord after traumatic injury.
Using the compressive SCI model of the rat, hemorrhage in the spinal cord was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Microglia/macrophage activation, TLR4 expression, and cell apoptosis were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB p50 level of the two segments of the cord was detected by western blotting assay. With carbon powder injection, blood origination of the hematoma was explored. The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) states of the lesion site and the hematoma were compared with immunohistochemistry and tannic acid-ferric chloride staining.
Histological observation found blood accumulated in the center of compression lesion site (epicenter) and in the hematoma approximately 1.5 cm away from the epicenter. TLR4 expression, microglia//macrophage activation, and subsequent apoptosis in the area of far-away hematoma were late and weak in comparison to that in epicenter. In addition, TLR4 positive microglia/macrophages appeared to be phagocytotic in the far-away hematoma more obviously than that in the epicenter. Injected carbon powder indicated that accumulated blood of the far-away hematoma originated from the bleeding of the lesion epicenter, and the BSCB around the hematoma was not compromised in the early phase. Accordingly, at 3 days post injury, NF-kappaB p50 was upregulated based on the similar levels of blood component hemoglobin, and cell apoptosis was obvious in the epicenter but not in the far-away hematoma.
These data suggest that besides blood component, BSCB compromise and the extent of tissue injury contribute more to TLR4 and microglia/macrophage responses to the spinal cord hemorrhage. Therefore, the innate immune environment is a necessary consideration for the SCI therapy targeting TLR4 and microglia/macrophages.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 09/2013; 10(1):112. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-10-112 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) dependent pathway in the spinal cord secondary injury, compression injury was made at T8 segment of the spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Shown by RT-PCR, TLR4 mRNA in the spinal cord was quickly elevated after compression injury. Intramedullary injection of MyD88 inhibitory peptide (MIP) resulted in significant improvement in locomotor function recovery at various time points after surgery. Meanwhile, injury area, p38 phosphorylation, and proinflammation cytokines in the injured spinal cord were significantly reduced in MIP-treated animals, compared with control peptide (CP) group. These data suggest that TLRs MyD88-dependent pathway may play an important role in the development of secondary spinal cord injury, and inhibition of this pathway at early time after primary injury could effectively protect cells from inflammation and apoptosis and therefore improve the functional recovery.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2012; 2012:591298. DOI:10.1155/2012/591298 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inosine is a purine nucleoside and is considered protective to neural cells including neurons and astrocytes against hypoxic injury. However, whether oligodendrocytes (OLs) could also be protected from hypoxia by inosine is not known. Here we investigated the effects of inosine on primarily cultured rat OLs injured by rotenone-mediated chemical hypoxia, and the mechanisms of the effects using ATP assay, MTT assay, PI-Hoechst staining, TUNEL, and immunocytochemistry. Results showed that rotenone exposure for 24 h caused cell death and impaired viability in both immature and mature OLs, while pretreatment of 10 mM inosine 30 min before rotenone administration significantly reduced cell death and improved the viability of OLs. The same concentration of inosine given 120 min after rotenone exposure also improved viability of injured mature OLs. Immunocytochemistry for nitrotyrosine and cellular ATP content examination indicated that inosine may protect OLs by providing ATP and scavenging peroxynitrite for cells. In addition, immature OLs were more susceptible to hypoxia than mature OLs; and at the similar degree of injury, inosine protected immature and mature OLs differently. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that expression of adenosine receptors was different between these two stages of OLs. These data suggest that inosine protect OLs from hypoxic injury as an antioxidant and ATP provider, and the protective effects of inosine on OLs vary with cell differentiation, possibly due to the adenosine receptors expression profile. As OLs form myelin in the central nervous system, inosine could be used as a promising drug to treat demyelination-involved disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shu-Xue-Tong (SXT) is a traditional Chinese drug widely used to ameliorate stagnation of blood flow, such as brain or myocardial infarction. Whether SXT may have therapeutic value for spinal cord injury (SCI), during which ischemia plays an important role in its pathology, remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that SXT may promote SCI healing by improving spinal cord blood flow (SCBF), and a study was thus designed to explore this possibility. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. SCI was induced by compression, and SXT was administrated 24 h postinjury for 14 successive days. The effects of SXT were assessed by means of laser-Doppler flowmetry, motor functional analysis (open-field walking and footprint analysis), and histological analysis (hematoxylin-eosin and thionin staining and NeuN immunohistochemistry). SXT significantly promoted SCBF of the contused spinal cord and enhanced the recovery of motor function. Histological analysis indicated that the lesion size was reduced, the pathological changes were ameliorated, and more neurons were preserved. Based on these results we conclude that SXT can effectively improve SCI.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2011; 2011(7). DOI:10.1155/2011/862197 · 1.88 Impact Factor