A M Bendele

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (38)179.93 Total impact

  • N Gerwin, A M Bendele, S Glasson, C S Carlson
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    ABSTRACT: During the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis (OA) drugs, rat models of OA are frequently used for a first assessment of in vivo efficacy. The most efficacious compound in the rat model may then be tested in a larger animal model before entering human trials. The aim of this study was to describe a histologic scoring system for use in different models of OA in rats that allows standardization and comparison of results obtained by different investigators. The experience of the authors with current scoring systems and the range of lesions observed in rat and human OA studies were considered in recommending this common paradigm for rat histologic scoring. Considerations were made for reproducibility and ease of use for new scorers. Additional scoring paradigms may be employed to further identify specific effects of some disease-modifying drugs. Although the described scoring system is more complex than the modified Mankin scores, which are recommended for some other species, the reliability study showed that it is easily understood and can be reproducibly used, even by inexperienced scorers. The scoring paradigm described here has been found to be sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between treatments and to have high reproducibility. Therefore we recommend its use for evaluation of different rat OA models as well as assessment of disease-modifying effects of treatments in these models.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2010; 18 Suppl 3:S24-34. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the criteria for assessing osteoarthritis (OA) in the guinea pig at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, and recommends particular assessment criteria to assist standardization in the conduct and reporting of preclinical trails in guinea pig models of OA. A review was conducted of all OA studies from 1958 until the present that utilized the guinea pig. The PubMed database was originally searched August 1, 2006 using the following search terms: guinea pig and OA. We continued to check the database periodically throughout the process of preparing this chapter and the final search was conducted January 7, 2009. Additional studies were found in a review of abstracts from the OsteoArthritis Research Society International (OARSI) conferences, Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS) conferences, and literature related to histology in other preclinical models of OA reviewed for relevant references. Studies that described or used systems for guinea pig joint scoring on a macroscopic, microscopic, or ultrastructural basis were included in the final comprehensive summary and review. General recommendations regarding methods of OA assessment in the guinea pig were derived on the basis of a comparison across studies and an inter-rater reliability assessment of the recommended scoring system. A histochemical-histological scoring system (based on one first introduced by H. Mankin) is recommended for semi-quantitative histological assessment of OA in the guinea pig, due to its already widespread adoption, ease of use, similarity to scoring systems used for OA in humans, its achievable high inter-rater reliability, and its demonstrated correlation with synovial fluid biomarker concentrations. Specific recommendations are also provided for histological scoring of synovitis and scoring of macroscopic lesions of OA. As summarized herein, a wealth of tools exist to aid both in the semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of OA in the guinea pig and provide a means of comprehensively characterizing the whole joint organ. In an ongoing effort at standardization, we recommend specific criteria for assessing the guinea pig model of OA as part of an OARSI initiative, termed herein the OARSI-HISTOgp recommendations.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2010; 18 Suppl 3:S35-52. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been considered excellent targets for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. However, clinical utility of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors developed for this purpose has been restricted by dose-limiting musculoskeletal side effects observed in humans. This study was undertaken to identify a new class of potent and selective MMP-13 inhibitors that would provide histologic and clinical efficacy without musculoskeletal toxicity.Methods Selectivity assays were developed using catalytic domains of human MMPs. Freshly isolated bovine articular cartilage or human OA cartilage was used in in vitro cartilage degradation assays. The rat model of monoiodoacetate (MIA)–induced OA was implemented for assessing the effects of MMP-13 inhibitors on cartilage degradation and joint pain. The surgical medial meniscus tear model in rats was used to evaluate the chondroprotective ability of MMP-13 inhibitors in a chronic disease model of OA. The rat model of musculoskeletal side effects (MSS) was used to assess whether selective MMP-13 inhibitors have the joint toxicity associated with broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors.ResultsA number of non–hydroxamic acid–containing compounds that showed a high degree of potency for MMP-13 and selectivity against other MMPs were designed and synthesized. Steady-state kinetics experiments and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of rate versus substrate concentration with one such compound, ALS 1-0635, indicated linear, noncompetitive inhibition, and Dixon plot analysis from competition studies with a zinc chelator (acetoxyhydroxamic acid) and ALS 1-0635 demonstrated nonexclusive binding. ALS 1-0635 inhibited bovine articular cartilage degradation in a dose-dependent manner (48.7% and 87.1% at 500 nM and 5,000 nM, respectively) and was effective in inhibiting interleukin-1– and oncostatin M–induced C1,C2 release in human OA cartilage cultures. ALS 1-0635 modulated cartilage damage in the rat MIA model (mean ± SEM damage score 1.3 ± 0.3, versus 2.2 ± 0.4 in vehicle-treated animals). Most significantly, when treated twice daily with oral ALS 1-0635, rats with surgically induced medial meniscus tear exhibited histologic evidence of chondroprotection and reduced cartilage degeneration, without observable musculoskeletal toxicity.Conclusion The compounds investigated in this study represent a novel class of MMP-13 inhibitors. They are mechanistically distinct from previously reported broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors and do not exhibit the problems previously associated with these inhibitors, including selectivity, poor pharmacokinetics, and MSS liability. MMP-13 inhibitors exert chondroprotective effects and can potentially modulate joint pain, and are, therefore, uniquely suited as potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 06/2009; 60(7):2008 - 2018. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lubricin, also referred to as superficial zone protein and PRG4, is a synovial glycoprotein that supplies a friction-resistant, antiadhesive coating to the surfaces of articular cartilage, thereby protecting against arthritis-associated tissue wear and degradation. This study was undertaken to generate and characterize a novel recombinant lubricin protein construct, LUB:1, and to evaluate its therapeutic efficacy following intraarticular delivery in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Binding and localization of LUB:1 to cartilage surfaces was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The cartilage-lubricating properties of LUB:1 were determined using a custom friction testing apparatus. A cell-binding assay was performed to quantify the ability of LUB:1 to prevent cell adhesion. Efficacy studies were conducted in a rat meniscal tear model of OA. One week after the surgical induction of OA, LUB:1 or phosphate buffered saline vehicle was administered by intraarticular injection for 4 weeks, with dosing intervals of either once per week or 3 times per week. OA pathology scores were determined by histologic analysis. LUB:1 was shown to bind effectively to cartilage surfaces, and facilitated both cartilage boundary lubrication and inhibition of synovial cell adhesion. Treatment of rat knee joints with LUB:1 resulted in significant disease-modifying, chondroprotective effects during the progression of OA, by markedly reducing cartilage degeneration and structural damage. Our findings demonstrate the potential use of recombinant lubricin molecules in novel biotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of OA and associated cartilage abnormalities.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 03/2009; 60(3):840-7. · 7.48 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2009; 17. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2008; 16. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Murine gammadelta T cell subsets, defined by their Vgamma chain usage, have been shown in various disease models to have distinct functional roles. In this study, we examined the responses of the two main peripheral gammadelta T cell subsets, Vgamma1(+) and Vgamma4(+) cells, during collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model that shares many hallmarks with human rheumatoid arthritis. We found that whereas both subsets increased in number, only the Vgamma4(+) cells became activated. Surprisingly, these Vgamma4(+) cells appeared to be Ag selected, based on preferential Vgamma4/Vdelta4 pairing and very limited TCR junctions. Furthermore, in both the draining lymph node and the joints, the vast majority of the Vgamma4/Vdelta4(+) cells produced IL-17, a cytokine that appears to be key in the development of CIA. In fact, the number of IL-17-producing Vgamma4(+) gammadelta T cells in the draining lymph nodes was found to be equivalent to the number of CD4(+)alphabeta(+) Th-17 cells. When mice were depleted of Vgamma4(+) cells, clinical disease scores were significantly reduced and the incidence of disease was lowered. A decrease in total IgG and IgG2a anti-collagen Abs was also seen. These results suggest that Vgamma4/Vdelta4(+) gammadelta T cells exacerbate CIA through their production of IL-17.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2007; 179(8):5576-83. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The roles of the transmembrane and secreted forms of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unclear. Agents used to inhibit TNFalpha have shown varying efficacy in RA patients, suggesting that anti-TNFalpha agents possess dissimilar mechanisms of action, including the ability to neutralize transmembrane (tmTNFalpha) and secreted TNFalpha. In this study, TNFalpha-knockout (TNFalpha-KO) mice that were genetically altered to express elevated levels of tmTNFalpha were constructed to further understand the roles of the 17-kd secreted, trimeric, and 26-kd transmembrane forms of TNFalpha. A speed-congenic mating scheme was used to generate 3 unique strains of mice: 1) transgenic tmTgA86 mice overexpressing 26-kd tmTNFalpha and also secreting 17-kd trimeric TNFalpha (tmTNFalpha-transgenic), 2) TNFalpha-/- mice (TNFalpha-KO), and 3) transgenic mice overexpressing tmTNFalpha backcrossed to TNFalpha-KO mice (tmTNFalpha-transgenic/TNFalpha-KO). Mice were treated with phosphate buffered saline (as vehicle control), dexamethasone (as positive control), or modified recombinant human soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) p55 or p75, and were assessed clinically and histopathologically for signs of inflammation and development of arthritis. The tmTNFalpha-transgenic/TNFalpha-KO mice were born with crinkled tails and spinal deformities similar to those in ankylosing spondylitis. By 2-4 weeks, these mice developed symmetric inflammatory arthritis, characterized by tissue swelling, pannus formation, and bone deformities. The tmTNFalpha-transgenic mice also developed spontaneous-onset arthritis, but at a slower rate (100% incidence by 10-12 weeks). Clinical and histologic progression of arthritis in the tmTNFalpha-transgenic/TNFalpha-KO mice was reduced by treatment with dexamethasone or with the p55 or p75 sTNFR (69% and 63% reduction in total histologic score, respectively). These data show that arthritis is sufficiently initiated and maintained in tmTNFalpha-transgenic/TNFalpha-KO mice, and that it can be neutralized by recombinant human p55 or p75 sTNFR, resulting in amelioration of the biologic and subsequent histologic destructive effects of tmTNFalpha.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 10/2006; 54(9):2872-85. · 7.48 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2006; 14. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether fusion proteins comprising human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) joined to human immunoglobulin G1 and G4 (IgG1 and IgG4) Fc and C(H) domains are biologically active and have improved pharmacokinetic and hematopoietic properties in vivo. Chimeric genes encoding human G-CSF fused to the N-termini of the Fc and C(H) domains of human IgG1 and IgG4 were constructed and used to transfect monkey COS cells. The fusion proteins were purified from the conditioned media by protein A affinity chromatography. Bioactivities of the proteins were measured in a G-CSF-dependent in vitro bioassay. Pharmacokinetic and granulopoietic properties of the G-CSF/IgG1-Fc fusion protein were measured in normal rats. The G-CSF/IgG-Fc and G-CSF/IgG-C(H) fusion proteins were secreted from transfected COS cells primarily as disulfide-linked homodimers. On a molar basis, the purified G-CSF/IgG-Fc fusion proteins were as active as G-CSF in in vitro bioassays, whereas bioactivities of the purified G-CSF/IgG-C(H) fusion proteins were decreased 3- to 4-fold. The G-CSF/IgG1-Fc fusion protein displayed a slower plasma clearance rate and stimulated greater and longer lasting increases in circulating neutrophils and white blood cells than G-CSF following intravenous and subcutaneous administration to rats. Fusion of G-CSF to human IgG domains results in homodimeric fusion proteins possessing high in vitro bioactivities, long circulating half-lives, and enhanced hematopoietic properties in vivo.
    Experimental Hematology 06/2004; 32(5):441-9. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recombinant C-terminal truncated form of the human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (sTNF-RI) was produced in E. coli. This soluble receptor contains the first 2.6 of the 4 domains of the intact sTNF-RI molecule. A monoPEGylated form of this molecule was produced using a 30 kD methoxyPEG aldehyde with approximately 85% selectivity for the N-terminal amino group. This molecule was shown to be less immunogenic in primates than the full length (4.0 domain) molecule or other versions of sTNF-RI which were either PEGylated at different sites or with different molecular weight PEGs. The 30 kD PEG also has a longer serum half-life to the molecule than lower molecular weight PEGs. This molecule markedly blunts the inflammatory response in a number of rheumatoid arthritis animal models. In addition, phase I/II and early phase II data in humans indicate that PEG sTNF-RI is non-immunogenic and that weekly dosing with this drug can reduce the number of tender and swollen joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PEG sTNF-RI has comparable American College of Rheumatology (ACR) efficacy scores as other anti-TNF molecules currently used to treat rheumatoid arthritic patients.
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 10/2003; 55(10):1315-36. · 12.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of these studies was to examine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in C57BL/6 mice transgenic for the rodent complement regulatory protein complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y (Crry) (Crry-Tg), a C3 convertase inhibitor. The scores for clinical disease activity and for histological damage in the joints were both significantly decreased in Crry-Tg mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) littermates. The production of both IgG1 and IgG2a anti-collagen Abs was reduced in the Crry-Tg mice, although spleen cell proliferation in response to collagen type II was not altered. The production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta by LPS-stimulated spleen cells was decreased, and IL-10 was increased, in cells from Crry-Tg mice in comparison to WT. The steady-state mRNA levels for IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta were all decreased in the joints of Crry-Tg mice in comparison to WT. The synovium from Crry-Tg mice without CIA contained the mRNA for the Crry transgene, by RT-PCR, and the synovium from transgenic mice with CIA exhibited little deposition of C3 protein by immunohistological analysis. These results suggest that suppression of CIA in Crry-Tg mice may be due to enhanced synthesis of Crry locally in the joint with decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2003; 171(4):2109-15. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-18 is an important cytokine in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases through the induction of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1. We report herein that collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is inhibited by treatment with murine IL-18 binding protein (mIL-18BP). CIA was induced in DBA/1J mice by the injection of bovine type II collagen (CII) in IFA with added Mycobacterium tuberculosis on days 0 and 21. The mice were then treated for 3 wk with PBS or with two doses of mIL-18BP (0.5 and 3 mg/kg) as a fusion protein with the Fc portion of murine IgG1. Both the clinical disease activity scores and the histological scores of joint damage were reduced 50% in mice treated with either dose of mIL-18BP. Proliferation of CII-stimulated spleen and lymph node cells as well as the change in serum levels of IgG1 and IgG2a Ab to collagen between days 21 and 42 were decreased in mice treated with mIL-18BP. The production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in cultured spleen cells was reduced by in vivo treatment with low dose, but not high dose, mIL-18BP. FACS analysis showed a slight decrease in NK cells and an increase in CD4(+) T cells in spleens of mice treated with mIL-18BP. The steady state mRNA levels of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in isolated joints were all decreased in mice treated with both doses of mIL-18BP. The mechanisms of mIL-18BP inhibition of CIA include reductions in cell-mediated and humoral immunity to collagen as well as decreases in production of proinflammatory cytokines in the spleen and joints.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2003; 170(4):2100-5. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    A M Bendele
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    ABSTRACT: Animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) are used to study the pathogenesis of cartilage degeneration and to evaluate potential anti-arthritic drugs for clinical use. In general, these models fall into 2 categories, spontaneous and induced (surgical instability or genetic manipulation). Animal models of naturally occurring OA occur in knee joints of guinea pigs, mice and Syrian hamsters. Commonly utilized surgical instability models include medial meniscal tear in guinea pigs and rats, medial or lateral partial meniscectomy in rabbits, medial partial or total meniscectomy or anterior cruciate transection in dogs. Transgenic models have been developed in mice. These models all have potential use in the study of molecular mechanisms associated with OA development via use of immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and molecular probes to identify altered matrix molecules at different stages in disease progression. Testing of specific types of inhibitors developed through evaluation of matrix changes in the disease process will ultimately help identify key processes which initiate and perpetuate the disease and will lead to discovery of new disease modifying pharmaceutical agents for OA patients. This paper will focus on the discussion of several models which are likely to be useful in the molecular dissection of processes involved in cartilage degeneration.
    Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 01/2003; 2(6):501-3. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the mechanisms of amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice by inhibition of complement activation. Mice received 2 intradermal injections of bovine type II collagen (CII), on days 0 and 21. From day 21 (immediately after the second injection of CII) through day 35, mice received intraperitoneal injections of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS), a monoclonal mouse antibody to murine C5 (anti-C5 antibody), or the C3 convertase inhibitor Crry-Ig. On days 30 and 32, the clinical disease activity score was lower in mice treated with anti-C5 antibody than in those treated with Crry-Ig. Histopathologic evidence of joint damage was 75% lower in the mice treated with anti-C5 antibody than in those treated with either PBS or Crry-Ig. Spleen cells from mice receiving either form of complement inhibition exhibited decreased CII-stimulated proliferation, whereas increased proliferative responses were exhibited by lymph node cells from mice treated with Crry-Ig. Treatment with anti-C5 antibody decreased production of IgG1 anticollagen antibody, while production of IgG2a antibody was inhibited by both complement inhibitory treatments. CII-stimulated spleen cells from anti-C5-treated mice produced lower levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with those from mice treated with Crry-Ig. Lower steady-state messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for TNFalpha, interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-18, and IL-6 were observed in the joints of anti-C5-treated mice, and for IFNgamma and IL-6 in mice receiving Crry-Ig, all in comparison with PBS-treated mice. However, mRNA levels for IL-1beta and TNFalpha were lower in the joints after treatment with anti-C5 compared with Crry-Ig. These results indicate that inhibition of complement in CIA leads to decreased production of IgG2a antibody and suppressed CII-induced spleen cell proliferation. The greater inhibitory effects on CIA of anti-C5 antibody in comparison with Crry-Ig may be attributable primarily to decreased levels of IL-1beta and TNFalpha mRNA in the joints.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 12/2002; 46(11):3065-75. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Characterize a model of osteoarthritis (OA) induced by a surgically transecting the medial collateral ligament and meniscus. Evaluate the effectiveness of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in this model. The medial collateral ligament of the right knee of rats was transected and a single full thickness cut was made through meniscus. Rats were sacrificed at various times after the surgery to assess the severity of gross cartilage damage using an image analyser and microscopically by histology. The effect of an MMP inhibitor in this model was assessed by administering compound twice daily for the 21 days and evaluating gross and histological joint damage at day 21. The in vitro potency of the MMP inhibitor (MMPI) against a panel of human recombinant MMPs was assessed kinetically using a quenched fluorescent substrate. Surgical transection of the medial collateral ligament and meniscus resulted in a time dependent increase in the severity of the cartilage lesion (depth) as measured histologically but only a slight increase in the area of the lesion as assessed grossly by image analysis. Administration of a MMPI orally twice daily (b.i.d.) at 25mg/kg to rats in the meniscal tear model resulted in significant inhibition of cartilage degradation and osteophyte formation (total joint score) of 39+/-7% (mean+/-S.E.M., from four separate experiments). These results demonstrate that MMP inhibition is effective in reducing the joint damage that occurs in the meniscal tear model of OA and support a potential therapeutic role for MMP inhibition in the treatment of human OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 11/2002; 10(10):785-91. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of an IL-6-producing murine multiple myeloma cell line on trabecular and cortical mouse bone, and evaluates the efficacy of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in mitigating bone destruction. Six-week-old BALB/c mice were assigned to two groups: normal controls and myeloma animals (5 x 10(7) MPC-11 cells on day 0). Myeloma animals were further assigned to three unique groups: MPC-11 only; MPC-11 treated with hyaluronic acid (HA); and MPC-11 + IL-1ra/HA (100 mg/kg). Disease development was assessed at 14 and 21 days via spleen, liver, and proximal tibia histology; histomorphometry at the femoral middiaphysis; and long bone composition and mechanical testing. Histologic analysis revealed marked myeloma infiltration into organs and bone marrow and gross bone resorption of the proximal tibia. IL-1ra tended to decrease bone resorption at the proximal tibia; however, it had no effect on quantitatively measured bone parameters. Whole femur and tibia, and tibial epiphysis, percent mineralization was decreased (3.0%, 2.9%, and 6.3%, respectively) in all MPC-11 groups. The presence of myeloma did not affect long bone stiffness, strength, or length over the 3 week study. The percent of the femoral endosteal perimeter showing excessive resorption ( approximately 60%) in the MPC-11 groups increased significantly after 21 days. MPC-11 cell presence caused no change in bone formation or morphology. Normal growth mechanisms were not impacted, as the bones lengthened and increased in size and mass despite the presence of myeloma. IL-1 does not appear to be a primary factor in in vivo bone destruction caused by the MPC-11 cell line. These findings reveal the stochastic nature of bone lesions in multiple myeloma and suggest that IL-1 is not a cytokine critical to this disease pathology.
    Bone 02/2002; 30(1):109-16. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    A M Bendele
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    ABSTRACT: Animal models of osteoarthritis are used to study the pathogenesis of cartilage degeneration and to evaluate potential antiarthritic drugs for clinical use. Animal models of naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA) occur in knee joints of guinea pigs, mice and other laboratory animal species. Transgenic models have been developed in mice. Commonly utilized surgical instability models include medial meniscal tear in guinea pigs and rats, medial or lateral partial meniscectomy in rabbits, medial partial or total meniscectomy or anterior cruciate transection in dogs. Additional models of cartilage degeneration can be induced by intra-articular iodoacetate injection or by administration of oral or parenteral quinolone antibiotics. None of these models have a proven track record of predicting efficacy in human disease since there are no agents that have been proven to provide anything other than symptomatic relief in human OA. However, agents that are active in these models are currently in clinical trials. Methodologies, gross and histopathologic features and comparisons to human disease will be discussed for the various models.
    Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 07/2001; 1(4):363-76. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    A Bendele
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    ABSTRACT: Animal models of arthritis are used to study pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate potential anti-arthritic drugs for clinical use. Therefore morphological similarities to human disease and capacity of the model to predict efficacy in humans are important criteria in model selection. Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a proven track record of predictability for efficacy in humans include: rat adjuvant arthritis, rat type II collagen arthritis, mouse type II collagen arthritis and antigen-induced arthritis in several species. Agents currently in clinical use (or trials) that are active in these models include: corticosteroids, methotrexate, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporin A, leflunomide interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and soluble TNF receptors. For some of these agents, the models also predict that toxicities seen at higher doses for prolonged dosing periods would preclude dosing in humans at levels that might provide disease modifying effects. Data, conduct and features of the various models of these commonly utilized models of RA as well as some transgenic mouse models and less commonly utilized rodent models will be discussed with emphasis on their similarities to human disease.
    Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 07/2001; 1(4):377-85. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the potential for additive or synergistic effects of combination therapy with the recombinant anticytokine agents interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and PEGylated soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (PEG sTNFRI) in established type H collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and developing adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Rats with established CIA or developing AIA were treated with various doses of IL-1Ra in a slow-release hyaluronic acid vehicle or with PEG sTNFRI, either alone or in combination with the IL-1Ra. The effects of treatment were monitored by sequential caliper measurements of the ankle joints or hind paw volumes, final paw weights, and histologic evaluation with particular emphasis on bone and cartilage lesions. Combination therapy with IL-1Ra and PEG sTNFRI in rats with CIA resulted in an additive effect on clinical and histologic parameters when moderately to highly efficacious doses of each protein were administered. Greater-than-additive effects were seen when an inactive dose of IL-1Ra was given in combination with moderately to minimally active doses of PEG sTNFRI. Plasma levels associated with the latter effect (for both proteins) were similar to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in clinical trials with these agents. Combination therapy in the AIA model generally resulted in additive effects, but some parameters showed a greater-than-additive benefit. The results provide preclinical support for the hypothesis that IL-1Ra administered in combination with PEG sTNFRI might provide substantially more clinical benefit to RA patients than either agent alone at blood levels that are currently achievable in patients.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 01/2001; 43(12):2648-59. · 7.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
179.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2001–2009
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 1999–2003
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
    • Amgen
      Thousand Oaks, California, United States