[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) has low surgical mortality, but some patients still experience significant postoperative morbidity.
To review our institutional experience with primary TOF repair, and identify predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) morbidity.
Medium-sized pediatric cardiology program. Retrospective study.
We retrospectively reviewed all the patients with TOF and pulmonic stenosis who underwent primary repair in infancy at our institution from January 2001 to December 2012. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative demographic and morphologic data were analyzed. ICU morbidity was defined as prolonged ICU stay (≥7 days), and/or prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation (≥48 h).
Multiple logistic regression analysis.
Ninety-seven patients underwent primary surgical repair during the study period. The median age was 4.9 months (1-9 months) and the median weight was 5.3 kg (3.1-9.8 kg). There was no early surgical mortality. Incidence of junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) and persistent complete heart block was 2 and 1%, respectively. The median length of ICU stay was 6 days (2-21 days) and median duration of mechanical ventilation was 19 h (0-136 h). By multiple regression analysis, age and weight were independent predictors of length of ICU stay, while surgical era was an independent predictor of duration of mechanical ventilation.
Primary TOF repair is a safe procedure with low mortality and morbidity in a medium-sized program with outcomes comparable to national standards. Age and weight at the time of surgery remain significant predictors of morbidity.
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology 01/2014; 7(1):13-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: <0.0001 for all). Hospital mortality and 2-week readmission rates were unchanged at MSMC between the 2 time periods and were not different from the national rates.Conclusion-Shorter length of stay and cost savings compared with national data were observed after implementation of fast tracking.
Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 02/2013; · 5.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -Percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (pLVADs) are increasingly being utilized to facilitate ablation of unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT), but the safety profile and hemodynamic benefits of these devices have not been described in a systematic, prospective manner. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Twenty patients with scar-VT underwent ablation with a pLVAD. Neuromonitoring utilizing cerebral oximetry was performed to evaluate a cerebral desaturation threshold to guide the duration of activation/entrainment mapping. The efficacy of pLVAD support was tested in a controlled manner with simulated VT. Complete procedural success was achieved in 50% (n=8) of patients who were initially inducible for sustained VT, and partial procedural success in 37% (n=6). Using a cerebral desaturation level of 55% as a lower safety limit to guide the duration of sustained VT, 3 patients (15%) developed mild acute kidney injury (all resolved), and 1 (5%) patient developed mild cognitive dysfunction. During fast simulated VT (300 ms), cerebral desaturation to ≤ 55% occurred in over half (53%) of patients tested without pLVAD support, compared to only 5% with full pLVAD support (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: -In a consecutive series of patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction, pLVAD-supported scar-VT ablation was safe and feasible. During fast simulated VT, a miniaturized axial flow pump imparted a more favorable hemodynamic profile compared to pharmacological agents alone. Cerebral oximetry is a complimentary monitoring modality during scar-VT ablation, and avoidance of cerebral desaturations below a threshold of 55% may safely guide the duration of mapping during unstable VT. Clinical Trials Registration Information-www.clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01294267.
Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 12/2012; · 5.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotid puncture and insertion of a large-bore catheter into the carotid artery is a feared complication associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation. The use of ultrasound with real-time imaging of the neck vessels during needle insertion has the potential to decrease the incidence of serious complications associated with central venous access. The authors describe a new technique for ultrasound-guided IJV cannulation. The suggested "medial-oblique" approach allows for optimal imaging of the IJV and the carotid artery side by side and following the needle throughout the insertion from skin to vessel penetration in a medial-cephalad to lateral-caudad direction. This technique combines the advantages of the short-axis and long-axis approaches and minimizes the risk of carotid puncture from a medial-to-lateral needle direction.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 06/2012; · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early extubation in adults undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease has not been described. The authors report their experience with extubation in the operating room (OR), including factors associated with the decision to defer extubation to a later time.
A retrospective chart review.
A tertiary-care teaching hospital.
This study included adults undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease using cardiopulmonary bypass. Exclusion criteria were as follows: preoperative mechanical ventilation, age >70 years, inotrope score >20 after surgery, and surgical risk (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery [RACHS] score ≥4).
A stepwise logistic regression model was used to test for the independent influence of the various factors on extubation in the OR.
Sixty-seven patients (age 18-59 years, median = 32 years) were included. Overall, 79% of patients were extubated in the OR. The RACHS score was the strongest predictor of deferring extubation (RACHS 3 v 1 or 2: odds ratio = 16.7; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-84.2; p = 0.0006). Further exploration of the high-risk group (RACHS 3) showed that 75% of the RACHS 3 patients with a body mass index <25 were extubated compared with only 20% of patients who had a body mass index ≥25 (p = 0.01). Other factors included in the analysis did not contribute any additional independent information.
Extubation of adult patients in the OR after surgery for congenital heart disease is feasible in most cases. Surgical risk (RACHS score) and body mass index predict the decision for OR extubation in this patient population.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 05/2012; 26(5):773-6. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this review was to add to the existing literature documenting the safety of performing neuraxial techniques in patients who are subsequently fully heparinized, with particular emphasis on the timing of heparin administration. This will help improve risk estimation and possibly lead to a more widespread use of neuraxial anesthesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Retrospective chart review.
Single tertiary-care university hospital.
All patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart diseases during a 5-year period.
The medical records of all patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart diseases during a 5-year period were reviewed for any complications related to the use of neuraxial anesthesia. Furthermore, the interval from neuraxial anesthesia to heparinization for cardiopulmonary bypass was examined.
In total, 714 patients were identified who had neuraxial anesthesia administered before full heparinization for cardiopulmonary bypass. No cases of symptomatic spinal or epidural hematomas occurred. Further analysis showed that the interval from neuraxial anesthesia to full heparinization was <1 hour in 466 patients.
No complications related to neuraxial anesthesia were found in a series of 714 patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease using cardiopulmonary bypass, including 466 patients in whom the interval from neuraxial anesthesia to full heparinization was <1 hour.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 12/2011; 26(4):581-4. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our goal was to investigate the effects of percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) support during catheter ablation of unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT).
Mechanical cardiac support during ablation of unstable VT is being increasingly used, but there is little available information on the potential hemodynamic benefits.
Twenty-three consecutive procedures in 22 patients (ischemic, n = 11) with structural heart disease and hemodynamically unstable VT were performed with either pLVAD support (n = 10) or no pLVAD support (intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation, n = 6; no support, n = 7). Procedural monitoring included vital signs, left atrial pressure, arterial blood pressure, cerebral perfusion/oximetry, VT characteristics, and ablation outcomes.
The pLVAD group was maintained in VT significantly longer than the non-pLVAD group (66.7 min vs. 27.5 min; p = 0.03) and required fewer early terminations of sustained VT for hemodynamic instability (1.0 vs. 4.0; p = 0.001). More patients in the pLVAD group had at least 1 VT termination during ablation than non-pLVAD patients (9 of 10 [90%] vs. 5 of 13 [38%]; p = 0.03). There were no differences between groups in duration of cerebral deoxygenation, hypotension or perioperative changes in left atrial pressure, brain natriuretic peptide levels, lactic acid, or renal function.
In patients with scar-related VT undergoing catheter ablation, pLVAD support was able to safely maintain end-organ perfusion despite extended periods of hemodynamically unstable VT. Randomized studies are necessary to determine whether this enhanced ability to perform entrainment and activation mapping will translate into a higher rate of clinical success.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2011; 58(13):1363-71. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the feasibility and safety of esophageal displacement during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, to prevent thermal injury.
Patients undergoing AF ablation are at risk of esophageal thermal injury, which ranges from superficial ulceration, to gastroparesis, to the rare but catastrophic atrioesophageal fistula. A common approach to avoid damage is luminal esophageal temperature (LET) monitoring; however, (1) temperature rises mandate interruptions in energy delivery that interrupt workflow and potentially decrease procedural efficacy, and (2) esophageal fistulas have been reported even with LET monitoring.
A cohort of 20 consecutive patients undergoing radiofrequency (RF) (16 patients) or laser balloon (4 patients) ablation of AF under general anesthesia. After barium instillation, the esophagus was deviated using an endotracheal stylet placed within a thoracic chest tube. LET monitoring was used during catheter ablation. Upper GI endoscopy was performed prior to discharge.
At the pulmonary vein level, leftward deviation measured 2.8 ± 1.6 cm (range: 0.4-5.7) and rightward deviation 2.8 ± 1.8 cm (range: 0.5-4.9). The temperature rose to >38.5 °C in 3/20 (15%) patients. In these 3 patients, there was an average of 2 applications/patient that recorded temperatures >38.5 °C. No patient had a temperature rise > 40 °C. Endoscopy revealed no esophageal ulceration from thermal injury in 18/19 (95%) patients; the sole patient with a thermally mediated ulceration had an unusual esophageal diverticulum fully across the posterior left atrium. Twelve patients (63%) exhibited trauma related to instrumentation with no clinical sequelae.
Mechanical esophageal deviation is feasible and allows for uninterrupted energy delivery along the posterior wall during catheter ablation of AF.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 09/2011; 23(2):147-54. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fast-tracking and early endotracheal extubation have been described in patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD); however, criteria for patient selection have not been validated in a prospective manner. Our goal in this study was to prospectively identify factors associated with the decision to defer endotracheal extubation in the operating room (OR).
We performed a prospective observational study of 275 patients (median age 18 months) at the Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC), New York, New York, and 49 patients (median age 25 months) at the University of Tokyo Hospital (UTH), Tokyo, Japan, undergoing surgery for CHD requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. These patients were all eligible for fast-tracking, including extubation in the OR immediately after surgery, according to the respective inclusion/exclusion criteria applied at the 2 sites.
Eighty-nine percent of patients at the MSMC, and 65% of patients at the UTH were extubated in the OR. At the MSMC, all patients without aortic cross-clamp, and patients with simple procedures (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery [RACHS] score 1) were extubated in the OR. Among the remaining MSMC patients, regression analysis showed that procedure complexity was still an independent predictor for not proceeding with planned extubation in the OR. Extubation was more likely to be deferred in the RACHS score 3 surgical risk patients compared with the RACHS score 2 group (P = 0.005, odds ratio 3.8 [CI: 1.5, 9.7]). Additionally, trisomy 21 (P = 0.0003, odds ratio 9.9 [CI: 2.9, 34.5]) and age (P = 0.0015) were significant independent predictors for deferring OR extubation. We tested our findings on the patients from the UTH by developing risk categories from the MSMC data that ranked eligible patients according to the chance of OR extubation. The risk categories proved to predict endotracheal extubation in the 49 patients who had undergone surgery at the UTH relative to their overall extubation rate, despite differences in anesthetic regimen and inclusion/exclusion criteria.
Preoperatively known factors alone can predict the relative chances of deferring extubation after surgery for CHD. The early extubation strategies applied in the 2 centers were successful in the majority of cases.
Anesthesia and analgesia 04/2011; 113(2):329-35. · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catheter ablation of left-sided atrial arrhythmias generally is performed using a transfemoral venous approach through the inferior vena cava (IVC). In this report, we assessed the feasibility of a percutaneous transhepatic approach to ablation of left-sided atrial arrhythmias in 2 patients with interruption of the IVC.
Patient 1 had atrial flutter in the setting of complex congenital heart disease and prior Fontan for univentricular physiology and a single atrium. Patient 2 had atrial fibrillation. Percutaneous hepatic vein access was obtained with ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance. Transseptal catheterization was performed in patient 2. After the procedure, the hepatic tract in patient 1 was cauterized using a bipolar radiofrequency catheter, and an Amplatzer vascular plug was used in patient 2 to obtain hemostasis. Percutaneous hepatic vein access was achieved without complications. After electroanatomical mapping, a linear lesion was placed between the single atrioventricular valve and the confluence of the hepatic veins in patient 1; this terminated the flutter, and bidirectional block was achieved. In patient 2, the pulmonary veins were electrically isolated using an extraostial approach, isolating the ipsilateral veins in pairs. Additionally, ablation of right-side atrial flutter was achieved by obtaining bidirectional block across a linear lesion between the tricuspid valve and confluence of the hepatic veins. Hemostasis of the transhepatic tract was attained in both patients.
In patients with interrupted IVCs, a percutaneous transhepatic approach is a feasible alternative for performing catheter ablation of complex left-sided arrhythmias.
Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 01/2011; 4(2):235-41. · 5.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue oximetry has been suggested as a noninvasive tool to continuously monitor and detect states of low body perfusion. This review summarizes recent developments and available data on the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in children at risk for low perfusion.
During states of low cardiac output, cerebral blood flow and thus cerebral NIRS may be better preserved than in somatic tissue sites. Consequently, sites other than the frontal cerebral cortex have been investigated for a possible correlation with invasive measures of systemic perfusion and oxygenation (e.g. abdomen, flank, and muscle). The abdominal site seems preferable to the flank site NIRS (kidney region) application. In order to increase the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of tissue oximetry to detect systemic hypoperfusion, multisite NIRS such as a combination of cerebral and somatic site NIRS has been suggested. NIRS has also been used to assess systemic perfusion in patients undergoing first-stage palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Despite shortcomings in the ability of NIRS technology to accurately reflect validated and directly measured parameters of systemic oxygen delivery and blood flow, NIRS can certainly assist in the detection of low-flow states (low cardiac output). Large, randomized, prospective studies with well defined outcome parameters are still missing and warranted in order to clearly define the role of NIRS in children at risk for low perfusion.
Current opinion in anaesthesiology 06/2010; 23(3):342-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemodynamically significant perivalvular regurgitation affects about 1.5% of all prosthetic valve implants. Reoperation carries increased risk--especially in the setting of concomitant comorbidities of left ventricular dysfunction, prior coronary artery bypass grafts, renal dysfunction, and advanced age. Transcatheter closure of the perivalvular regurgitant channel using a variety of occluders has been available for several years; however, recent improvements in technology and technique have made this therapy more effective and available to a wider group of patients. This article describes the recent advances and the state of the art of this therapy.
Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 03/2010; 14(1):68-72.