[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynaecological malignancy, with an annual incidence of 2 out of 100 000 women. Although most cases of early stage vulvar cancer have a good prognosis, recurrence and rapid tumour progression can occur. We investigated the prevalence of spindle cell morphology in vulvar cancer and its association with survival.Methods:This retrospective cohort study included 108 patients with primary vulvar squamous cell carcinoma who were treated at the Leiden University Medical Center during 2000-2009. Paraffin-embedded tissue was examined for the presence of spindle cell morphology. Survival and histology data were compared between cases with spindle and without spindle cell morphology.Results:Twenty-two (20%) tumours showed spindle cells infiltrating the stromal tissue. All spindle cell tumours were human papillomavirus (HPV) negative. Spindle cell morphology was strongly associated with poor prognosis and with a high risk of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis (relative risk 2.26 (95% CI 1.47-3.47)). Five-year disease-specific survival was lower in patients with vs without spindle cell morphology (45.2% vs 79.7%, respectively; P=0.00057).Conclusion:Vulvar spindle cell morphology occurs frequently and seems to develop through the non-HPV pathway. It is associated with a worse prognosis than conventional vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 24 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.563 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess oncologists' practice and attitudes regarding treatment-related infertility and fertility preservation in female cancer patients of reproductive age. Participants and methods: Recruitment letters with a 7-item questionnaire were sent to 454 oncologists. Results: Two hundred and six of the 454 physicians (45%) responded and 96 questionnaires were used for analysis. The sample included 28 (29%) gynaecologists, 22 (23%) medical oncologists, 19 (20%) surgeons, 16 (17%) radiotherapists and 11 (12%) haematologists. Sixty-two percent of the physicians took action to protect ovarian function before or during gonadotoxic therapy. The most important reason for not offering fertility preservation was "factors concerning the disease". About one-third of the oncologists did not discuss fertility issues. Nearly half of the physicians (43%) would offer fertility preservation options, if they were standardized. High importance was given by almost all physicians (96%) to quality of life in general after gonadotoxic therapy and to the provision of information about fertility preservation options (81%). However, when asked about the importance of infertility after a malignancy, a smaller majority of the physicians (59%) gave it high importance. Conclusion: Most physicians considered infertility to be a major issue to be discussed, and most intended to take action to protect ovarian function before or during gonadotoxic therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a cross-sectional study in Indonesia to evaluate the performance of a single-visit approach of cervical cancer screening, using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), histology and cryotherapy in low-resource settings.
Women having limited access to health-care facilities were screened by trained doctors using VIA. If the test was positive, biopsies were taken and when eligible, women were directly treated with cryotherapy. Follow-up was performed with VIA and cytology after 6 months. When cervical cancer was suspected or diagnosed, women were referred. The positivity rate, positive predictive value (PPV) and approximate specificity of the VIA test were calculated. The detection rate for cervical lesions was given.
Screening results were completed in 22 040 women, of whom 92.7% had never been screened. Visual inspection with acetic acid was positive in 4.4%. The PPV of VIA to detect CIN I or greater and CIN II or greater was 58.7% and 29.7%, respectively. The approximate specificity was 98.1%, and the detection rate for CIN I or greater was 2.6%.
The single-visit approach cervical cancer screening performed well, showing See and Treat is a promising way to reduce cervical cancer in Indonesia.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2012; 107(5):772-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been introduced as a novel technique for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in early-stage cervical cancer. Although preclinical research has shown that ICG adsorbed to human serum albumin (ICG:HSA) improves its performance, the need for HSA has not yet been confirmed in cervical cancer patients. The current randomized study aims to determine whether ICG:HSA offers advantages over using ICG alone.
Eighteen consecutive early-stage cervical cancer patients scheduled to undergo pelvic lymphadenectomy were included. Prior to surgery, 1.6 mL of 500 μM ICG:HSA or 500 μM ICG alone was injected transvaginally in 4 quadrants around the tumor. The Mini-FLARE imaging system was used for intraoperative NIR fluorescence detection and quantitation.
SLNs were identified intraoperatively in 78% of the patients. Patient and tumor characteristics were equally distributed over both treatment groups. No significant difference in signal-to-background ratio (9.3 vs. 10.1, P=.72) or average number of detected SLNs (2.9 vs 2.7, P=.84) was found between the ICG:HSA group and the ICG alone group, respectively.
In conclusion, this double-blind, randomized trial showed no advantage of ICG:HSA over ICG alone for the SLN procedure in early-stage cervical cancer. Further optimization is required to improve the intraoperative detection rate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actinomyces is an uncommon cause of infection which can occur in the lower pelvic area in women using an intrauterine device (IUD). The clinical presentation of actinomycosis can easily be confounded with a malignancy.
In a 53-year-old woman with abdominal pain and fluctuating temperature, ovarian carcinoma was strongly suspected. She underwent a laparotomy in which both adnexae were removed. Histopathological examination of the specimens revealed, however, a rare Actinomyces infection. The patient received long-term antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period, upon which her condition improved.
Differentiation between actinomycosis (mycetoma) and a malignancy is difficult. There are few diagnostic tools to demonstrate an Actinomyces infection, and the diagnosis is therefore often not made until during or after operation. The treatment of actinomycosis consists of long-term administration of antibiotics, although combined surgery and antibiotic therapy is often necessary due to the extent of the infection.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2012; 156(16):A4511.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparison of time intervals from diagnosis to chemotherapy between patients opting for embryo cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation.
University hospital in the Netherlands.
Thirty-five female patients undergoing fertility preservation procedures before treatment with chemotherapy for cancer. Embryo cryopreservation was performed in 12 patients and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in 23 patients. We investigated differences in time intervals (from diagnosis to start of chemotherapy) between patients opting for embryo cryopreservation and patients opting for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. We calculated time intervals between the moment of diagnosis, the moment of referral, the moment of consultation, the moment of finishing of the fertility preservation procedure and the start of chemotherapy.
The median time between diagnosis and referral (median=18 days) and between referral and consultation (median=5 days) was comparable in both groups. A significant difference was found between ovarian tissue cryopreservation and embryo cryopreservation for the time interval between consultation and cryopreservation (p=0.001). Ovarian tissue cryopreservation was completed for half of the patients within 6 days after consultation with the gynecologist, and the hormonal stimulation for embryo cryopreservation was completed for all patients within four weeks (median=18 days), with a median of 11 days of hormonal stimulation. A significant difference was found between ovarian tissue cryopreservation and embryo cryopreservation in the time interval between fertility preservation and start of chemotherapy (median=7 vs 19 days, p=0.019). In sum, the total duration between diagnosis and chemotherapy was significantly shorter for ovarian tissue cryopreservation patients than for embryo cryopreservation patients (median=47 vs 69 days, p=0.042).
Embryo cryopreservation can be performed within the standard timeframe of cancer care in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, but if delay of the start of chemotherapy is harmful, ovarian tissue cryopreservation can be done within one week.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 12/2011; 160(2):170-3. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In early cervical cancer, a total pelvic lymphadenectomy is the standard of care, even though most patients have negative nodes and thus undergo lymphadenectomy unnecessarily. Although the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in early-stage cervical cancer has not yet been established, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a promising technique to perform this procedure. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging is based on invisible NIR light and can provide high sensitivity, high-resolution, and real-time image guidance during surgery.
Clinical trial subjects were 9 consecutive cervical cancer patients undergoing total pelvic lymphadenectomy. Before surgery, 1.6 mL of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin (ICG:HSA) was injected transvaginally and submucosally in 4 quadrants around the tumor. Patients were allocated to 500-, 750-, or 1000-μM ICG:HSA concentration groups. The Mini-FLARE imaging system was used for NIR fluorescence detection and quantitation.
Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in all 9 patients. An average of 3.4 ± 1.2 SLNs was identified per patient. No differences in signal to background of the SLNs between the 500-, 750-, and 1000-μM dose groups were found (P = 0.73). In 2 patients, tumor-positive lymph nodes were found. In both patients, tumor-positive lymph nodes confirmed by pathology were also NIR fluorescent.
This study demonstrated preliminary feasibility to successfully detect SLNs in cervical cancer patients using ICG:HSA and the Mini-FLARE imaging system. When considering safety, cost-effectiveness, and pharmacy preferences, an ICG:HSA concentration of 500 μM was optimal for SLN mapping in cervical cancer patients.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 11/2011; 21(8):1472-8. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer ranks the second most frequent cancer in Indonesian women. In Indonesia, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance has not been studied before.
To determine parental HPV vaccine acceptance in Indonesia, and factors that influence their decision. Factors include sociodemographic factors, knowledge of HPV, HPV vaccination and cervical cancer, health beliefs about cervical cancer, and attitudes towards vaccination in general.
746 parents, with at least 1 daughter aged 0-14, were interviewed using questionnaires based on published and adjusted interviews. Interviews were done in sub district public health centers, general governmental hospitals, and via house-visits, in 5 Indonesian provinces.
Parental HPV vaccine acceptance was 96.1%. Logistic regression revealed that age, beliefs regarding cervical cancer, and attitudes towards vaccination in general were significantly associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. Of the participants, 66.0%, 16.6%, and 15.8% had heard about cervical cancer, HPV, and HPV vaccination respectively. The mean total knowledge score was 1.91(Standard Deviation 2.31) on a 0-8 scale. Health beliefs about cervical cancer and attitudes towards vaccination in general were positive. Participants named the high cost of the vaccine, fear for side-effects, and chosen vaccination locations as possible barriers towards HPV vaccine implementation.
Parental HPV vaccine acceptance is high, but knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer is low. During HPV vaccination programs, focus should not only be on providing information, but also on existing beliefs and attitudes towards cervical cancer and vaccination in general. If HPV vaccination programs were to be implemented in Indonesia, the indicated barriers should be taken into account.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near-infrared fluorescence imaging has the potential to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in vulvar cancer, which was assessed in the current study. Furthermore, dose optimization of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin was performed.
Nine vulvar cancer patients underwent the standard sentinel lymph node procedure using (99m)technetium-nancolloid and patent blue. In addition, intraoperative imaging was performed after peritumoral injection of 1.6 mL of 500, 750, or 1000 μM of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin.
Near-infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node mapping was successful in all patients. A total of 14 sentinel lymph nodes (average, 1.6; range, 1-4) were detected: 14 radioactive (100%), 11 blue (79%), and 14 near-infrared fluorescent (100%).
This study demonstrates feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node mapping using indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin. Considering safety, cost, and pharmacy preferences, an indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin concentration of 500 μM appears optimal for sentinel lymph node mapping in vulvar cancer.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 07/2011; 206(1):89.e1-5. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is considered to be the cornerstone in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Although survival in early-stage cervical cancer is up to 95%, long-term morbidity with regard to bladder, bowel, and sexual function is considerable. Damage to the pelvic autonomic nerves may be the cause of these long-term complications following radical hysterectomy. Some authors have presented surgical techniques to preserve the autonomic nerves (ie, the hypogastric nerves and the splanchnic nerves) without compromising radicality. Safety, efficacy, and the surgical techniques of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy are presented, and data confirm that whenever the decision is made to perform a radical hysterectomy, nerve-sparing techniques should be considered.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 10/2010; 20(11 Suppl 2):S39-41. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor recurrence in the surgical scar after radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer has been reported, but the incidence is unknown. Facts about patient and tumor characteristics and follow-up are lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence and characteristics of cervical cancer scar recurrences.
All patients who were surgically treated for cervical cancer in our center between 1984 and 2007 were reviewed for scar recurrences. For each case, 5 random controls were selected. Clinical characteristics were compared between the cases and controls.
Eleven (1.3%) of 842 patients developed a scar recurrence. Mean time between surgery and scar recurrence was 16 months (range, 2-45 months). For 8 patients (73%), the scar recurrence was the first disease recurrence. Five patients (45%) died, and 2 (18%) were lost to follow-up. Mean time between scar recurrence and death was 9 months. Ninety-one percent of the cases had recurrent disease besides the scar recurrence during follow-up. The case group had a higher percentage of advanced FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage and postoperatively found involvement of parametria or resection margins and tumor diameter greater than 4 cm, whereas lymph nodes were more often involved in the control group.
The incidence of scar recurrences after primary surgery for cervical cancer was 1.3%. Time to development was variable, and prognosis was poor. Besides higher FIGO stage and concurrent unfavorable pathological characteristics, we found no outstanding characteristics of patients with scar recurrence. Scar recurrences go hand in hand with recurrent disease at other locations and seem a manifestation of tumors with extensive metastatic potential.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 08/2010; 20(6):1031-40. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the debate about the possible threat of sparing the pelvic autonomic nerves in radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer to radicality, comparative studies of nerve-sparing and conventional surgery are necessary. The aim of his study was to analyze and compare local recurrence rate, feasibility, and safety of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy.
In a cohort study with 2 years of follow-up, 246 patients with cervical cancer of stages IA to IIA were analyzed: 124 in the non-nerve-sparing group (1994-1999) and 122 in the group where nerve-sparing was the intention-to-treat (2001-2005). Local recurrence rate, local recurrence-free survival, feasibility, and safety were analyzed and compared.
The clinical characteristics of the treatment groups were comparable. Sparing the nerves unilaterally or bilaterally was possible in 80% of cases of the nerve-sparing group. Local recurrence rates in the non-nerve-sparing (4.9%) and nerve-sparing (8.3%) group were not significantly different. Mean local recurrence-free survival within 2 years were 22.7 and 22.0 months, respectively. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses showed that nerve-sparing treatment was not a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence. With respect to perioperative and postoperative parameters, operating time and blood loss were less in the nerve-sparing group and mortality was equal (1 patient); the postoperative course of the nerve-sparing group was similar to the state-of-the-art of conventional radical hysterectomy.
On the basis of the results of our study, we consider the nerve-sparing technique for cervical cancer stages IA to IIA feasible and safe.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 12/2008; 19(1):39-45. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in the Indonesian population, yet little is known about the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV). We investigated age-specific prevalence of HPV types and possible risk factors of HPV positivity in a population-based sample of 2686 women, aged 15-70 years, in Jakarta, Tasikmalaya, and Bali, Indonesia. The overall HPV prevalence was 11.4%, age-standardized to the world standard population 11.6%. The most prevalent types found were HPV 52, HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 39, respectively, 23.2, 18.0, 16.1, and 11.8% of the high-risk HPV types. In 20.7% of infections, multiple types were involved. Different age-specific prevalence patterns were seen: overall high in Jakarta, and in Tasikmalaya, and declining with age in Bali. The number of marriages was most associated with HPV positivity (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.31-2.51)). Remarkably, in Indonesia HPV 16 and HPV 18 are equally common in the general population, as they are in cervical cancer. HPV 52 was the most prevalent type in the general population, suggesting that this type should be included when prophylactic HPV vaccination is introduced in Indonesia.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2008; 99(1):214-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer treatments for young women can permanently or temporarily affect fertility. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to present the clinical experience and ethical considerations of fertility preservation in female oncology patients in a tertiary gynaecological department.
Since 2002, in 37 patients fertility preservation was performed according to an institutional review board approved protocol in a University hospital in the Netherlands; 33 patients were not treated.
Embryo cryopreservation was performed in 10 patients, ovarian tissue cryopreservation in 24, and an ovarian transposition was performed in 3 patients; in one patient combined with an ovarian transplantation and in one patient with ovarian tissue cryopreservation.
Approved protocols and timing are essential in performing female fertility preservation. Referral for ovarian tissue and embryo cryopreservation is minimal in the Netherlands. Future research focuses on the psychosocial aspects of fertility preservation and explores patients' and professionals' expectations and attitudes regarding fertility preservation and aims to be in line with technical developments.
The Cancer Journal 01/2008; 14(5):333-9. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A follow-up study on a cohort of women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) was conducted, to evaluate the clinical course and to identify factors associated with outcome. Participants were over 18 years of age and had initially visited a multidisciplinary CPP-team of a Gynaecological Department of a University Hospital. The course of chronic pelvic pain was evaluated using the Life Chart Interview (LCI) method. All participants completed questionnaires covering demographic and clinical characteristics, pain (McGill) and psychological distress (SCL-90) at baseline and follow up. The response rate was 60%. A survival analysis was conducted. After a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years, 18 women (25%) of the study sample (N=72) reported recovery from pelvic pain (i.e. pelvic pain for less than 3 months per year). Eight of these 18 women (11% of the total sample) reported no pain at all at follow up. Relapse of symptoms was not encountered. Not any demographic, clinical or pain related variable measured at baseline, nor any intervention between baseline and follow up, was associated with outcome. Our results indicate that chronic pelvic pain in women in secondary care is a longstanding condition. Further research is recommended to identify risk factors for persistence of symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) loss causes human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I downregulation which is frequently found in cervical carcinomas and their precursors. HLA class I molecules activate T-cells by antigen presentation and are therefore essential for immunological surveillance. To add to the hitherto limited knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying TAP loss, we investigated TAP expression, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and possible TAP mutations.
Twenty-three cervical carcinomas and adjacent precursor lesions were stained with HLA-A-, HLA-B/C-, beta2 -microglobulin-, TAP1- and TAP2- antibodies. In order to separate tumour and non-tumour cells, cervical carcinoma samples were sorted by flow-cytometry and were subsequently analysed for LOH with 3 markers in the TAP region on chromosome 6p21.3. Mutation analysis of the complete TAP1 gene was performed.
Aberrant TAP1 expression was detected in 10/23 cervical carcinoma lesions and in 5/10 adjacent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. All the lesions with low TAP expression also had reduced HLA class I expression. LOH was found in 7 out of 10 lesions with TAP loss. Mutation analysis detected no aberrations, but identified a polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the TAP1 gene in two lesions.
This study shows that defective TAP expression in cervical carcinoma is often associated with LOH in the TAP region but not with mutations in the TAP1 gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple human papilloma virus (HPV) infections have been detected in cervical cancer. To investigate the significance of multiple HPV infections, we studied their prevalence in cancer samples from a low-risk (Dutch) and a high-risk (Surinamese) population and the correlation of HPV infection with tumor cell aneuploidy. SPF(10) LiPA was used for HPV detection in formalin-fixed cervical carcinoma samples from 96 Dutch and 95 Surinamese patients. Samples with HPV type 16 or 18 infections were sorted by flow cytometry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on the diploid and aneuploid subpopulations to detect HPV 16 and 18 genotypes simultaneously. Multiple HPV infections were present in 11 of 80 (13.8%) Dutch and 17 of 77 (22.1%) Surinamese carcinomas. Three cases had an HPV 16 and HPV 18 coinfection: in two cases, integrated HPV copies of HPV 16 or 18 were detected in the aneuploid fraction, and in one case both HPV 16 and 18 were present solely as episomes. Based on our findings, multiple HPV infections are present in cervical cancer samples from both high- and low-risk populations. Furthermore, multiple HPV types can be present in an episomal state in both diploid and aneuploid tumor cells, but integrated HPV genomes are detectable only in the aneuploid tumor cell subpopulations.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 07/2007; 175(2):132-7. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous clinical follow-up study on psychosocial factors and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), we had noticed a high percentage of early interventions to the cervix by gynaecologists, in discordance with the research protocol. The aim of the current study was to investigate the reasons for these interventions.
We retrospectively analysed the study records of the clinical study, concerning the follow-up of 98 patients with a CIN 1 or 2 lesion for 2.25 years by colposcopy and cervical smears. We recorded the number of early interventions that had occurred in the clinical study as well as the reasons for these interventions. A distinction was made between acceptable and unacceptable reasons for early intervention.
During follow-up, 39 out of 98 women (40%) had undergone intervention in discordance with the protocol. No acceptable reason for these interventions was found for 67% of these patients (26/39). In the majority of these cases either no reason for the intervention had been given, or the gynaecologist had feared for progression of the CIN lesion.
Gynaecologists tend to intervene during follow-up of CIN, partly out of fear for progression. This tendency may complicate follow-up studies on CIN.
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 06/2007; 132(1):111-5. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if the number of removed lymph nodes in radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy (RHL) influences survival of patients with early stage cervical cancer and to analyze the relation of different factors like patient age, tumour size and infiltration depth with the number of nodes examined in node-negative early stage cervical cancer patients.
Of consecutive patients, who underwent RHL between January 1984 and April 2005, 331 had negative nodes (group A) without adjuvant therapy and 136 had positive nodes (group B). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model were used to detect statistical significance. Factors associated with excision of nodes were confirmed with linear regression models.
The median number of removed nodes was 19 and 18 for group A and group B, respectively. There was no significant relationship between the number of removed nodes and the cancer specific survival (CSS) or disease free survival (DSF) for patients of group A (p=0.625 and p=0.877, respectively). The number of removed nodes in group B was not significantly associated with the CSS (p=0.084) but it was for the DSF (p=0.014). Factors like patient age, tumour size and infiltration depth were not associated with the number of nodes.
No relation was found between the number of negative nodes examined after RHL for the treatment of early stage cervical cancer and CSS or DFS. However, a higher amount of removed lymph nodes leaded to a better DFS for patients with positive nodes. It is suggested that patients with positive nodes benefit from a complete pelvic lymphadenectomy and a sufficient yield of removed nodes.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology 04/2007; 33(2):216-21. · 2.61 Impact Factor