Alessandro Gemelli

University of Padova, Padova, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (4)8.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is huge. CKD is a non-specific diagnosis, however, and it is hard to say which renal disorders comprise the body of CKD diagnosed on the strength of the combination of albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in epidemiological studies, or just how efficient such studies are in detecting chronic nephropathies. The INCIPE study identified 524 CKD cases (using the K/DOQI definition based on albuminuria and eGFR) in a random sample of 4000 Italians >40 years old, 262 of whom were randomly chosen to be investigated in order to confirm their CKD and complete a diagnostic workup. We a priori defined diagnostic algorithms for 14 renal conditions based on personal family history, medical records, urine tests, kidney ultrasound with colour-Doppler and other tests. Among the subjects whose CKD was confirmed, a diagnosis of chronic nephropathy was reached in 68% of cases recognized as having either a specific (38%) or an undetermined (30%) kidney disease. Almost 50% of subjects with a specific chronic nephropathy had a diabetic or vascular renal disease. Abnormalities consistent with a chronic nephropathy were found in 50, 68, 70 and 100% of subjects with CKD Stages 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Lone low eGFR and lone microalbuminuria were observed in 20 and 12%, respectively. In Caucasians >40 years old with a confirmed CKD condition, (i) an impressive 68% of subjects have an underlying chronic nephropathy, so eGFR and albuminuria are very efficient in detecting renal diseases; (ii) in 32%, the only disclosed renal abnormalities were a glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or microalbuminuria; follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether these abnormalities do really identify a chronic nephropathy or just a cardiovascular risk condition.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2011; 27(2):746-51. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sufficiently powered studies to investigate the CKD prevalence are few and do not cover southern Europe. For the INCIPE study, 6200 Caucasian patients ≥40 years old were randomly selected in northeastern Italy in 2006. Laboratory determinations were centralized. The albumin to creatinine ratio in urine and estimated GFR from calibrated creatinine (SCr) were determined. A comparison with 2001 through 2006 NHANES surveys was performed. Prevalence of CKD was 13.2% in northeastern (NE) Italy (age and gender standardized to the U.S. 2007 Caucasian population). Prevalence of CKD in U.S. Caucasians is higher (20.3%), the major difference being in CKD 3. Risk factors for CKD are more prevalent in the United States than in Italy. With use of CKD 3a and 3b stages, CKD prevalence decreased in NE Italy (8.5%) and in the United States (12.8%). The prevalence of CKD is high in NE Italy, but lower than that in the United States. A large part of the difference in CKD prevalence in NE Italy versus that in the United States is due to the different prevalence of CKD 3. The higher prevalence of a number of renal risk factors in persons from the United States explains in part the different dimensions of the CKD problem in the two populations.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2010; 5(11):1946-53. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient who received a double kidney transplant in 2005. Immunosuppression was induced with rapamycin and antilymphocyte serum while maintenance therapy consisted of rapamycin, corticosteroids and mycophenolic acid. The patient developed delayed graft function but no rejection. In November 2006 and March 2007 two graft biopsies were taken because of a significant rise in serum creatinine; they revealed chronic allograft nephropathy and polyomavirus infection. Meanwhile a skin biopsy of the leg was performed to determine the nature of a discolored lesion. The morphohistological diagnosis was Kaposi's sarcoma. For this reason rapamycin was stopped and steroid treatment gradually reduced. Specific therapy with doxorubicin was started; radiological and endoscopic examination excluded disseminated disease while serological tests were positive for antibodies to HHV-8, a virus known to cause Kaposi's sarcoma. Unfortunately, withdrawal of antirejection therapy caused loss of the graft, so the patient had to start dialysis. In this report we stress the possible development of malignancy in transplanted patients who are given rapamycin. Rapamycin is known to be an antirejection drug and to have antineoplastic activity; the major risk of malignancy is probably related to immunosuppression rather than the type of drugs used to obtain it.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 01/2009; 26(1):90-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney transplant from a living donor is known to be the best renal replacement therapy. While not as common as in northern Europe and the USA, living donor transplants are on the rise in Italy. Although there is a large body of evidence in the literature about the safety of the surgical procedure, the risk of long-term complications for the donor has not been clearly defined because of the lack of studies with adequate follow-up and a sufficient number of subjects involved. The main questions concern the development of chronic kidney disease in the donor, expressed as a GFR decline or the presence of microalbuminuria. The physiopathological basis of GFR decline and proteinuria development may differ from the model of nephropathy in patients with two kidneys, and this could involve prognostic differences too, particularly with regard to the cardiovascular risk. Detailed and prolonged follow-up programs are needed to monitor and, if necessary, treat long-term complications in kidney donors.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 26(4):460-7.