[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of short term and long term treadmill exercise on learning, memory consolidation and retrieval of passive avoidance learning in an animal model. Methods: In this study fifty male Wistar rats with 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group). Control group was trained in passive avoidance box and was tested 10 min, 24 hr, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised on treadmill one hour at 17 m. min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and were tested 10 min and 24 hr later. The other two groups were trained and were tested 10 days and 24 hr later and then exercised on treadmill as same as other exercised groups. Results: Obtained results showed that short-term (10 days) and long-term (3 months) treadmill running before training by passive avoidance test had significant (P=0.006 and P=0.001 respectively) effects on memory consolidation. However, no significant difference was observed between latency time of rats before and after exercise in exercised groups retrieval (P>0.05).Conclusion: Our results showed that physical activity promoted learning and memory consolidation but it did not affect retrieval memory performance.