[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information about sweating responses during exercise recovery is insufficient and mostly controversial. In the present study, particular attention is given to sweating behavior at forehead area immediately after exercise. Simultaneous changes of some underlying factors are also addressed. Eight healthy young males (27.4±0.8 years old) volunteered for the study. They performed a constant work rate exercise (60 rpm at 50% of individual work load for VO2 peak) for 30 min. Sweating from the forehead area was measured by the weight gain of a covered filter paper disk. Simultaneous variations in tympanic temperature, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were obtained. Plasma concentrations for sodium, vasopressin, adrenalin and noradrenalin were also determined. Sweating rate increased up to the first sample taken immediately after exercise cessation (P < 0.05). All other variables measured increased during exercise and with exception of noradrenalin, which was maintained high. Other variables, on the whole, decreased during recovery period. At exercise, off-transient coincident with overshoot in sweating rate, tympanic temperature, noradrenalin and vasopressin were subject to a non significant elevation. These results suggest that, sweating from forehead area is still subject to increase at exercise off-transient. The effects of relevant factors studied here are contradictory and could not justify the increase seen in sweating at off-transient. More studies are required to elucidate the causative factor(s).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of short term and long term treadmill exercise on learning, memory consolidation and retrieval of passive avoidance learning in an animal model.
In this study fifty male Wistar rats with 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group). Control group was trained in passive avoidance box and was tested 10 min, 24 hr, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised on treadmill one hour at 17 m. min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and were tested 10 min and 24 hr later. The other two groups were trained and were tested 10 days and 24 hr later and then exercised on treadmill as same as other exercised groups.
Obtained results showed that short-term (10 days) and long-term (3 months) treadmill running before training by passive avoidance test had significant (P=0.006 and P=0.001 respectively) effects on memory consolidation. However, no significant difference was observed between latency time of rats before and after exercise in exercised groups retrieval (P>0.05).
Our results showed that physical activity promoted learning and memory consolidation but it did not affect retrieval memory performance.