[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agricultural practices are directly related to the use of pesticides, which indiscriminately and without due care may contribute to the occurrence of numerous intoxications. Several studies have demonstrated the relationship of certain pesticides and the occurrence of oxidative stress and therefore, in recent years have developed methods of analysis of several bioinarkers of cellular damage that can be measured and quantified. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in biochemical markers: glutamic aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, urea, total protein, and oxidative markers such as lipid peroxidation, damage to proteins and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and catalase (CAT) in farmers exposed to different pesticides for at least five years from Ibiruba - RS city. With the exception of AST and ALT, the results showed a significant difference between the mean total protein, urea and creatinine in the control group, showing that no changes in liver or kidney function of rural workers. In the oxidative parameters, there was a decrease in AChE activity and CAT in the control group; there were an increase in protein carbonyl and a decreased on TBARS compared to control group. Therefore, the results demonstrated a change in oxidative status of rural workers compared with the control group, mainly by possible inhibition of AChE activity and the occurrence of oxidative stress without showing changes in biochemical parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress biomarkers in methimazole (MMI) - induced hypothyroidism male rats. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering MMI at 20 mg/100 ml in the drinking water, for 1 month. After achieved hypothyroidism, rats received orally 10 or 25 mg/kg of quercetin (QT) for 8 weeks. 60 male wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (group I, control; group II, QT10; group III, QT25; group IV, hypothyroid; group V, hypothyroid+QT10; group VI, hypothyroid+QT25). Liver, kidney and serum TBARS levels significantly increased in hypothyroid rats when compared to controls, along with increased protein carbonyl (PCO) in liver and increased ROS levels in liver and kidney tissues. QT10 and QT25 were effective in decreasing TBARS levels in serum and kidney, PCO levels in liver and ROS generation in liver and kidney. MMI - induced hypothyroidism also increased TBARS levels in cerebral cortex and hippocampus that in turn were decreased in rats treated with QT25. Moreover, the administration of QT25 to hypothyroid rats resulted in decreased SOD activities in liver and whole blood and increased liver CAT activity. Liver and kidney ascorbic acid levels were restored with quercetin supplementation at both concentrations. QT10 and QT25 also significantly increased total oxidative scavenging capacity in liver and kidney tissues from hypothyroid rats. These findings suggest that MMI - induced hypothyroidism increases oxidative stress parameters and quercetin administration could exert beneficial effects against redox imbalance in hypothyroid status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in carbohydrate and protein metabolism were studied in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen exposed to cadmium (0; 0.236 or 0.414mg/L) during 7 and 14 days. After exposure time the fish were exposed to recovery period (water without cadmium), during 7 and 14 days. Different alterations in the metabolic parameters were observed such as an increase in lactate, protein, amino acid and ammonia levels as well as a reduction in glucose values after the exposure periods in liver. In muscle, glycogen and glucose values enhanced after cadmium exposure at both concentrations for 7 days; however, at 0.414mg/L cadmium, protein levels decreased while amino acids and ammonia levels enhanced. An increase in the lactate values was found in plasma after 7 days of exposure and a reduction in the lactate, glucose and protein levels occurred after 14 days of exposure. Results indicated that the metabolic alterations after cadmium exposure were dependent on the tissue type and exposure time. Cadmium exposure for 14 days and recovery period also of 14 days seem to be less harmful to the liver and muscle. However, even after recovering from some changes, fish health may be affected making them more sensitive to some environmental changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxic effects of penoxsulam herbicide on acetylcholinesterase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and protein carbonyl were studied in silver catfish (Rhamdia sp.) and carp (Cyprinus carpio). Acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in both brain and muscle tissue, with the inhibition being greater in carp than in silver catfish. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, decreased in silver catfish brain tissue, but increased in the carp brain. MDA also increased significantly in muscle tissue of silver catfish. The levels of protein carbonyl, another measure of oxidative damage, increased in the brain of both fish species, and in the muscle of carp. However, silver catfish exhibited a decrease in muscle protein carbonyl. It appears that silver catfish may possess better mechanisms of defense against penoxsulam toxicity than carp.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 11/2013; 92(1). DOI:10.1007/s00128-013-1137-x · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several diets employed in aquaculture are enriched with selenium (Se), as it is a fundamental element to aquatic vertebrates. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2], which is a synthetic organoselenium compound, has been considered a potential antioxidant agent in different experimental models. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg for 60 days and to determine its optimal supplemental level for carp, Cyprinus carpio. Neither growth retardation nor hepatoxicity was induced by the inclusion of diphenyl diselenide at concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mg/kg. In addition, the inclusion of 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide stimulated the weight and length of the carp. The supplementation with 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide did not produce oxidative damage in the tissues, verified by peroxidation lipid and protein carbonyl assays. However, at 5.0 mg/kg, it caused an increase of the lipid peroxidation in the liver, brain, and muscle, and inhibited the cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity. An increase of the hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and non-protein thiols content in all tissues and ascorbic acid in the liver, gills, and brain was verified in carp fed with the diet containing 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide. This diet had advantageous effects for the fish used in experiments. Therefore, this compound could be considered a beneficial dietary supplement for carp nutrition.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 07/2013; 40(1). DOI:10.1007/s10695-013-9831-5 · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study investigated the capacity of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] (3.0mg/kg), on reduce the oxidative damage in liver, gills and muscle of carp and silver catfish exposed to clomazone (192h). Silver catfish exposed to clomazone showed increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in liver and muscle and protein carbonyl in liver and gills. Furthermore, clomazone in silver catfish decrease non-protein thiols (NPSH) in liver and gills and glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid in liver. (PhSe)2 reversed the effects caused by clomazone in silver catfish, preventing increases in TBARS and protein carbonyl. Moreover, NPSH and ascorbic acid were increased by values near control. The results suggest that (PhSe)2 attenuated the oxidative damage induced by clomazone in silver catfish. The clomazone no caused an apparent situation of oxidative stress in carp, showing that this species is more resistant to this toxicant. Altogether, the containing (PhSe)2 diet helps fish to increase antioxidants defenses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 20) and health controls (n = 20). Subjects and Methods. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and arylesterase (ARE) were analyzed. Results. TC, LDL-C, TBARS, and CAT were higher in subclinical hypothyroidism patients, whereas SOD did not change. Arylesterase activity was significantly lower in the SH group, compared with the control group. Correlation analyses revealed the association of lipids (TC and LDL-C) with both oxidative stress biomarkers and thyrotropin (TSH). Thyroid hormones were correlated only with triglyceride levels. In addition, TSH was significantly correlated with TBARS, CAT, and SOD. However, no significant correlations were observed after controlling TC levels. Conclusions. We found that SH patients are under increased oxidative stress manifested by reduced ARE activity and elevated lipoperoxidation and CAT activity. Secondary hypercholesterolemia to thyroid dysfunction and not hypothyroidism per se appears to be associated with oxidative stress in subclinical hypothyroidism.
International Journal of Endocrinology 11/2012; 2012(6):856359. DOI:10.1155/2012/856359 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of pollutants in the aquatic environment can produce severe toxic effects on non-target organisms, including fish. These sources of contamination are numerous and include herbicides, which represent a large group of toxic chemicals. Quinclorac, an herbicide widely applied in agriculture, induces oxidative stress due to free radical generation and changes in the antioxidant defense system. The aim of this study was to assess if dietary diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)₂ has a protective effect in tissues of fish species Cyprinus carpio exposed to the quinclorac herbicide. The fish were fed with either a standard or a diet containing 3.0 mg/Kg of diphenyl diselenide for 60 d. After were exposed to 1 mg/L of Facet® (quinclorac commercial formulation) for 192 h. At the end of the experimental period, parameters as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nonprotein thiols (NPSH) and ascorbic acid in the liver, gills, brain and muscle were evaluated in Cyprinus carpio. In fish exposed to quinclorac and feeding with standard diet TBARS levels increased in liver and gills. However, SOD activity decreases in liver whereas no alterations were observed in catalase activity in this tissue. Quinclorac also decrease GST activity in liver and brain, NPSH in brain and muscle and ascorbic acid in muscle. Concerning protein carbonyl exposed to herbicide the fish did not show any alterations. The diphenyl diselenide supplemented diet reversed these effects, preventing increases in TBARS levels in liver and gills. GST activity was recovered to control values in liver. NPSH levels in brain and muscle increased remain near to control values. These results indicated that dietary diphenyl diselenide protects tissues against quinclorac induced oxidative stress ameliorating the antioxidant properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyprinus carpio fish were exposed to penoxsulam (Ricer) in field conditions. The experiment in the rice field was carried out for 7, 21 and 72 days. Oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant profile were studied. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity in the brain was increased after 7 days and reduced after 21 and 72 days of the experiment in the rice field. The AChE activity in muscle was reduced only after 72 days of exposure. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species were increased in the liver, brain and muscle at 7 days of the trial, reduced at 21 days in the brain and unaltered after 72 days of exposure in muscle. However, an increase in this parameter in the brain and liver was observed. Liver glutathione S-transferase was reduced at 7 days, unchanged at 21 days and increased after 72 days of exposure. Catalase of the liver changed only in the second experimental period, when it was reduced. Liver protein carbonyl was reduced at 7 days and increased at 21 and 72 days of exposure. This study shows long-term effects of rice herbicide at environmentally relevant concentrations on toxicological parameters in different tissues (brain, muscle and liver) of Cyprinus carpio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of commercial glyphosate herbicide formulation on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and oxidative stress were studied in Cyprinus carpio exposed for 96 h to 0.0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L and then allowed to equal recovery period in water without herbicide. The activity of AChE was inhibited in the brain and in the muscle after exposure. However, after recovery period brain and muscle AChE activity increased. Brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were measured as an indicator of oxidative stress. Increased TBARS levels were observed with all concentrations tested of the glyphosate formulation, and remained increased after the recovery period. The results recorded clearly indicate lipid peroxidation and anti-AChE action induced by Roundup(®) exposure.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 09/2011; 87(6):597-602. DOI:10.1007/s00128-011-0396-7 · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clomazone herbicide on oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in human erythrocytes in in vitro conditions. The activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in human erythrocytes exposed (in vitro) to clomazone at varying concentrations in the range of 0, 100, 250 and 500 µg/L for 1 h at 37 °C.TBARS levels were significantly higher in erythrocytes incubated with clomazone at 100, 250 and 500 µg/L. However, erythrocyte CAT and AChE activities were decreased at all concentrations tested. SOD activity was increased only at 100 µg/L of clomazone. GSH levels did not change with clomazone exposure. These results clearly showed clomazone to induce oxidative stress and AChE inhibition in human erythrocytes (in vitro). We, thus, suggest a possible role of ROS on toxicity mechanism induced by clomazone in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, fish Rhamdia quelen, were exposed to different concentrations of herbicide clomazone: 0.0 (control), 0.45 and 0.91 mg L−1. After exposure for 8 days to herbicide, fish were transferred to clean water for a recovery period (8 days). Oxidative stress indicators such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and protein carbonyl content, as well as antioxidant defenses, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), ascorbic acid and non-protein thiols levels were studied, using the liver, brain and muscle tissues. Herbicide exposure increased TBARS in muscle and in liver at higher concentration. In liver protein carbonylation increased and catalase activity did not change in fish exposed to herbicide. SOD enhanced in liver at concentration of 0.91 mg L−1. GST, ascorbic acid and non-protein thiols levels increase at both concentrations. At the end of the recovery period the most of the parameters recovered whereas GST and ascorbic acid remain elevated. The present study demonstrates the occurrence of disorders in antioxidant parameters and importance in the assessment of the potential risk of herbicides as clomazone on fish species.Graphical abstractHighlights► Clomazone exposure at environmental relevant concentrations causes oxidative stress. ► The study provided some toxicity biomarkers for fish poisoning with herbicide clomazone. ► Concentrations tested seem to be safe to Rhamdia quelen, however new evaluations are necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress indicators were evaluated in fish exposed to different concentrations of the herbicide Roundup 48% (Monsanto, St. Louis, MO): control (none), 0.45, or 0.95 mg/l. After exposure for 8 days to herbicide, fish were transferred to clean water for a recovery response period (also 8 days). Herbicide increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species in liver and muscle at the higher concentration and in the brain at both concentrations. Protein carbonyl in liver increased after exposure. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and ascorbic acid levels in liver did not change in fish exposed to both concentrations. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels decreased at both concentrations. The nonprotein thiol levels decreased at the 0.95 mg/l concentration. During the recovery period, some of the parameters that had altered, such as protein carbonyl content, later recovered. However, some enzymes reacted during this period, e.g., GST increased its activity, possibly indicating a compensatory response against the toxic conditions. In contrast, CAT and SOD activities decreased during the recovery period, indicating herbicide toxicity. Oxidative stress that occurred during the exposure period was likely due to the increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. The results concerning oxidative and antioxidant profiles indicate that short-term exposure to herbicide is capable of causing oxidative stress in fish tissues.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 05/2011; 60(4):665-71. DOI:10.1007/s00244-010-9574-6 · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant profile, as well as to evaluate the interaction between thyroid hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with overt hypothyroidism. We also evaluated the influence of cholesterol concentrations on biomarkers of oxidative stress in these same patients.
Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and vitamin E were measured in 20 subjects with overt hypothyroidism (OH) and 20 controls.
TC, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, TBARS, SOD, CAT, and vitamin E were significantly higher in the OH group. Significant correlation was observed for TSH and SOD, CAT, vitamin E and TBARS. Correlation was observed for triiodothyronine (T3) and SOD, CAT, vitamin E and TBARS. Significant correlation was also observed for free thyroxine and vitamin E and TBARS. However, correlation between T3 and CAT remained significant after controlling for TC concentrations.
Overt hypothyroidism is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, and hypercholesterolemia has a stronger influence on development of oxidative stress in hypothyroid conditions compared with thyroid hormones.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 11/2010; 48(11):1635-9. DOI:10.1515/CCLM.2010.309 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 μg/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 μg/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 09/2010; 153(1):128-32. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.09.008 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of the oxidative stress and the antioxidant system as well as the influence of the manganese superoxide dismutase (Ala16Val) polymorphism on hypercholesterolemia.
Levels of glucose, lipid, high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl protein, thiols, reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and vitamin C, vitamin E, as well as the presence of the manganese superoxide dismutase (Ala16Val) polymorphism were determined in 40 subjects with hypercholesterolemia and 40 controls.
Lipid profile, hs-CRP, glucose, TBARS, carbonyl protein, CAT, and vitamin E were significantly higher in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, GSH and SOD were lower. TBARS, carbonyl protein, thiols, CAT, and vitamin E were significantly higher in hypercholesterolemic subjects with VV genotype for MnSOD, while GSH, SOD, and vitamin C were lower in these subjects.
We suggest an association between the genotypes of MnSOD, hypercholesterolemia, and oxidative stress biomarkers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyprinus carpio were exposed under field conditions to 20.87 microg l(-1) of commercial herbicide bispyribac-sodium (Nominee, SC), during 7, 21 and 72 days. Enzymatic parameters such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl contents were studied in different tissues. After 7 days of exposure, GST activity decreased. At the same period, brain AChE activity increased, but a reduction of activity was observed in muscle tissue. Brain TBARS levels increased at 7 days. After 21 days of exposure liver CAT levels and muscle AChE activities decreased. In the same period, liver protein carbonyl and muscle TBARS increased. After 72 days of exposure in the field, AChE activity was reduced in both brain and muscle. Protein carbonyl contents in liver and brain TBARS levels increased. Muscle AChE activity, TBARS and protein carbonyl can be used as biomarkers of exposure to the herbicide bispyribac-sodium. This study demonstrates effects of exposure to bispyribac-sodium under rice field conditions on oxidative stress parameters in tissues of Cyprinus carpio.