[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methanol and aqueous extracts of three endemic Centaurea species (C. polypodiifolia var. pseudobehen, C. pyrrhoblephara and C. antalyense) were investigated for their antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were evaluated by in vitro models including, phosphomolybdenum assay, free radical scavenging assays (DPPH and ABTS), β-carotene/linoleic acid test system, metal chelating assay, FRAP assay, ferric and cupric reducing power. Cholinesterase inhibitory activities were examined using Ellman's colorimetric method. Total phenol, flavonoid, and saponin contents were also measured. Among the six Centaurea extracts evaluated, the highest antioxidant abilities were obtained from C. polypodiifolia var. pseudobehen. Methanolic extracts from C. polypodiifolia var. pseudobehen and C. antalyense had a noticeable inhibition towards AChE and BChE. These findings suggest that Centaurea species could be an anticholinesterase agent and antioxidant resource in some industries, such as food, pharmacology, and cosmetics.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nutritional quality of the protein in the leaves of 11 Asphodeline (Liliaceae) species was investigated by the determination of the amino acid composition and calculation of several nutritional parameters. The average protein content was 4.7% and ranged from 2.5% in Asphodeline damascena ssp. rugosa to 8.2% in A. turcica. The most abundant essential amino acids were Thr (5.7%), Val (6.0%), Ile (4.7%), and Trp (2.1%). The amino acid composition of Asphodeline peshmeniana was well equilibrated according to Food and Agriculture Organisation standards, but Lys and sulphur amino acids were at limiting concentrations in all the other taxa. Determination of the protein efficiency ratio and biological value revealed that the protein in the leaves of Asphodeline species is of high nutritional quality. Hence, the Asphodeline leaves that are typically used in Turkey for the preparation of salads, represent a good source of protein with high levels of several essential amino acids and a good nutritional value. Analysis of the similarity based on the amino acid composition indicated the existence of different clusters that are consistent with the taxonomical classification, area of distribution, and morphological similarities of the Asphodeline species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil compound, fatty acid composition and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the
root and aerial of Glycyrrhiza echinata L., a medicinal plant growing in Turkey, have been
studied. The antioxidant capacity tests were designed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of
methanol extracts. Total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of each extract were also determined
by using both Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride. The aerial part was
found to possess the highest total phenolic content (146.30 ± 4.58 mg GAE/g) and total antioxidant
capacity (175.33 ± 3.98 mg AE/g). The essential oil from root and aerial parts was
analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) systems. The major components
identified were n-hexadecanoic acid, hexahydro farnesyl acetone, α-caryophyllen, hexanal
and phytol. In fatty acid profiles of plant, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid were
detected as the main components. The results of this study have shown that the extracts G.
echinata are suitable as a natural antioxidant and food supplement source for pharmacological
and food industries due to their beneficial chemical composition and antioxidant capacity.
Keywords: Glycyrrhiza echinata, antioxidant activity, fatty acid, essential oil
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations of 10 metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in muscle tissue of tench (Tinca tinca), water and sediment in Beysehir Lake were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Tench is one of the most abundant fish species in Beysehir Lake. Metal levels were analysed in only the muscle tissue of the fish, because this provides information on the potential risk to the fish themselves and to consumers of these edible portions of the fish. The Cu concentration was the highest in all the samples of the lake's sediments and waters, studied in all seasons, and ranged between 24.01 microg g(-1) (in spring) and 90.30 microg g(-1) (in summer), but Cu concentrations in T. tinca were low: 0.03 microg g(-1) (in summer) to 0.21 microg g(-1) (in spring). Metal concentrations in sediments, waters and tench varied seasonally. All metal concentrations in sediments were higher than those in water and fish. However, all metal concentrations, except Zn, were lowest in fish muscle tissue.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fatty acid composition of five endemic Bupleurum (Apiaceae) species was analysed by GC technique for their nutritional value. The amount of oil content of the species varied from 3.77% to 7.03%. Twenty-one fatty acids were identified in the oils. The fatty acid composition of the studied species contained oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids as the major components. Oleic acid ranged from 8.81% to 68.30%, while the levels of palmitic acid were found to be between 12.47% and 47.85%. Bupleurum lycaonicum, Bupleurum sulphureum and Bupleurum heldreichii are very good sources of oleic acid. The remaining species were characterised as containing the highest level of palmitic acid. In this study, the total saturated fatty acids ranged between 15.02 and 65.20%, while total monounsaturated fatty acids were between 18.10 and 70.65%. The total polyunsaturated fatty acid accounted for 13.47-35.20% of the studied fatty acids. Therefore, we can conclude that Bupleurum oils have a significant nutritional value.
Natural product research 08/2011; 26(13):1188-94. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centaurea species are used for the treatment of various ailments in the popular medicine in some countries. This study was designed to examine antioxidant potentials and fatty acid profiles of five Centaurea species from Turkey flora. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from these species were evaluated by six different methods: phosphomolybdenum assay, free radical scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid test system, metal chelating activity, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of each extract were also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride. The results of these assay showed a significant antioxidant capacity in all researched extracts. Centaurea cheirolopha extract, with the highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoids, showed the highest antioxidant activities in all assay, except for metal chelating. Fatty acid profiles of these species were examined by GC-FID and 30 fatty acids were identified. Palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and linolenic acid were detected as the main components. The results of the study indicated that the Centaurea species can be considered as a source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 08/2011; 49(11):2914-20. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition of 57 crisps and 50 cakes sold in the markets in Turkey were determined. C 18:1, oleic acid, was the major fatty acid in all crisps and cake samples. The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranged between 27.98–46.57, 35.73–47.57, and 9.86–35.90 g/100 g fatty acids in crisps and 35.41–54.03, 25.89–44.87, and 10.52–26.97 g/100 g fatty acids in cakes, respectively. Total trans fatty acids ranged from 0.02 to 1.35 g/100 g fatty acids in crisps and 0.00 to 5.05 g/100 g fatty acids in cakes, respectively.
International Journal of Food Properties 07/2011; 14(4):822-829. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of Centaurea drabifolia subsp. detonsa were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract was evaluated by various methods including measuring the total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay), β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay and ferric and cupric ion reducing power assay. The composition of essential oil was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Totally, 41 compounds were described in the essential oil. Germacrene D (44.829%) was determined as the major compound of the essential oil. The total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, inhibition rate of oxidation of linoleic acid, IC(50) (in DPPH assay) and EC(50) (in reducing power) value were found to be 40.454 mg GAE/g, 100.840 mg AAE/g, 65.639%, 39.584 µg mL(-1) and 0.603 mg mL(-1), respectively. The results indicated that the extract of C. drabifolia subsp. detonsa has strong antioxidant properties and this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries.
Natural product research 06/2011; 26(1):1-10. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of pasteurisation temperature on fatty acid composition of cheese was investigated. The fatty acid composition of raw and different heat-treated milk, salt and salt-free cheese were determined using cheese made from raw milk at temperatures varying between 70 and 90°C for 5 min. Generally, C 16:0 palmitic acid was the major fatty acid present in all milk and cheese samples. C 18:1 t11 vaccenic acid was the major trans fatty acid (TFA) in all samples. C 18:2 cis-9, trans-11 (Rumenic acid) was the major CLA isomer in these samples. Pasteurisation temperatures had no effect on TFA, CLA and fatty acid composition of the milk and cheese samples.
International Journal of Dairy Technology 06/2011; 64(4):509 - 516. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, seasonal variations on total fatty acid composition of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and zander, Sander lucioperca, muscle lipids in Altinapa Dam Lake were determined. Fish samples in 2 seasons (summer and winter) were obtained from Altinapa Dam Lake in Konya, Turkey. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to be higher during the cold season than in the hot both in zander and carp. Whereas the Docosahexaenoic acid was high in zander both in summer and winter, in carp it was high only during wintertime. Zander contained more n-3 fatty acids during the cold season compared to carp. Especially, the n-3:n-6 ratios in zander were 3.89 and 3.84 in summer and winter, respectively. In conclusion, seasonal variations affected fatty acid composition of zander and carp in Altinapa Dam Lake.
Journal of Food Science 05/2011; 76(4):C594-7. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centaurea is one of most important genera of Turkey flora. Some members of the genus have been used in Anatolian folk medicine. This study was undertaken in order to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of Centaurea urvillei subsp. hayekiana. Antioxidative properties of the methanolic extract was assessed by different in vitro experiments including total phenolic and flavonoid content, phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assay, β-caroten/linoleic acid bleaching test system, ferric and cupric ion reducing power. According to the results of antioxidant capacity assays, C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana showed moderately antioxidant activity in test methods. Fatty acid analysis was performed by GC and thirty-two fatty acids were identified. The oil of C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana was characterized by higher amounts of C 18:2 ω6 (linoleic acid) and C 18:1 ω9 (oleic acid). The results suggested that C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana may be utilized as a source of both natural antioxidant and linoleic acid in healthy medicine and food industry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH). En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE)/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE)/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico). Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.