A Zink

German Rheumatism Research Centre, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (145)533.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare the approved treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using rituximab + methotrexate (RTX+MTX) versus the off-label treatment variants of RTX in monotherapy or RTX in combination with leflunomide (RTX+LEF).Methods: We included RTX-naive patients enrolled in the German biologics register RABBIT between 2007 and 2012 (N=907) who started treatment with RTX. Three treatment regimens RTX+MTX, RTX+LEF and RTX monotherapy were analyzed regarding therapy discontinuation, drop-out, RTX re-treatment and concomitant glucocorticoid therapy. Effectiveness was evaluated with linear mixed models.Results: Baseline patient characteristics were similar across treatment regimens except for a poorer functional status and more comorbidities in RTX monotherapy. Average doses of glucocorticoids were lower in RTX+LEF compared to the two other groups. The frequency and timing of RTX re-treatment (p>0.62) as well as the improvement in DAS28 over time (p>0.15) were similar in all treatment regimens. Within the first 12 months of treatment the DAS28 decreased by 1.5 units, between month 12 and 36 by further 0.4 units equally in all groups. Nevertheless, therapy discontinuation and drop-out were significantly increased on RTX monotherapy (HR 1.7 [1.2;2.3]), additionally when patients were rheumatoid factor (RF) negative (HR 1.5 [1.0;2.1]).Conclusion:In patients who continue therapy, RTX+LEF, RTX monotherapy and RTX+MTX seem to be equally effective. However, given the lower adherence rates on monotherapy, this treatment option is not sufficient for all patients. Since many patients are intolerant to MTX, more licensed RTX treatment options are needed. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis Care & Research. 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of disease activity, the course of the disease, its treatment over time, comorbidities and traditional risk factors on survival. Data of the German biologics register RABBIT were used. Cox regression was applied to investigate the impact of time-varying covariates (disease activity as measured by the DAS28, functional capacity, treatment with glucocorticoids, biologic or synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)) on mortality after adjustment for age, sex, comorbid conditions and smoking. During 31 378 patient-years of follow-up, 463 of 8908 patients died (standardised mortality ratio: 1.49 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.63)). Patients with persistent, highly active disease (mean DAS28 > 5.1) had a significantly higher mortality risk (adjusted HR (HRadj)=2.43; (95% CI 1.64 to 3.61)) than patients with persistently low disease activity (mean DAS28 < 3.2). Poor function and treatment with glucocorticoids > 5 mg/d was significantly associated with an increased mortality, independent of disease activity. Significantly lower mortality was observed in patients treated with tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitors (HRadj=0.64 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81), rituximab (HRadj=0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.84), or other biologics (HRadj=0.64 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.99), compared to those receiving methotrexate. To account for treatment termination in patients at risk, an HRadj for patients ever exposed to TNFα inhibitors or rituximab was calculated. This resulted in an HRadj of 0.77 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Patients with long-standing high disease activity are at substantially increased risk of mortality. Effective control of disease activity decreases mortality. TNFα inhibitors and rituximab seem to be superior to conventional DMARDs in reducing this risk.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 11/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Using meta-analysis methods, this study aimed to estimate the impact of biologic agents on physical function in patients with RA.Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted independently by two investigators. Double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab or rituximab in approved dosages in comparison with treatment with non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs) and placebo were included. The outcome parameter was improvement in function measured by the standardized mean difference (SMD) of HAQ scores. The SMD is the difference of the change in HAQ between biologic and DMARD comparator groups divided by the pooled standard deviation. Mixed effect models were applied separately for RCTs with DMARD-naive patients and those with DMARD inadequate responders (IRs).Results. Thirty-five RCTs were included in the analysis, 10 with DMARD-naive patients and 25 with DMARD IRs. Overall, biologics led to a greater improvement of physical function than nbDMARDs, with an SMD of the HAQ of 0.44 (95% CI 0.38, 0.50). The improvement was greater for DMARD IRs (SMD 0.48, 95% CI 0.41, 0.56) than for DMARD-naïve patients (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.23, 0.41). There were no significant differences between individual biologics in both groups.Conclusion. Treatment with biologics led to a clinically relevant greater improvement in physical function than treatment with nbDMARDs. Our results suggest that the improvement found on the group level was caused by a clinically relevant improvement on the patient level in more than 50% of the patients.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 08/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Rheumatoid Arthritis Observation of Biologic Therapy (RABBIT) Risk Score for serious infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The RABBIT Risk Score for serious infections was developed in 2011 on a cohort of RA patients enrolled in the German biologics register RABBIT between 2001 and 2007. To evaluate this score, we used data from patients enrolled in RABBIT after 1 January 2009. Expected numbers of serious infections and expected numbers of patients with at least one serious infection per year were calculated by means of the RABBIT Risk Score and compared with observed numbers in the evaluation sample. RESULTS: The evaluation of the score in an independent cohort of 1522 RA patients treated with tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitors and 1468 patients treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) showed excellent agreement between observed and expected rates of serious infections. For patients exposed to TNF inhibitors, expected as well as observed numbers of serious infections were 3.0 per 100 patient-years (PY). For patients on non-biological DMARDs the expected and observed numbers were 1.5/100 PY and 1.8/100 PY, respectively. The score was highly predictive in groups of patients with low as well as with high infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: The RABBIT Risk Score is a reliable instrument which determines the risk of serious infection in individual patients based on clinical and treatment information. It helps the rheumatologist to balance benefits and risks of treatment, to avoid high-risk treatment combinations and thus to make informed clinical decisions.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in adult JIA and the impact of comorbidity on patients' perceived health state. METHODS: Self-reported comorbidity was studied in 344 adult JIA patients who have been included in the biologic register JuMBO. The comorbidity prevalence among the patients was compared to an age- and sex-matched reference group from the population. The correlation of comorbidity with clinical and demographic parameters was analysed by linear or logistic regression models. RESULTS: Sixty two percent of the JIA patients reported at least one comorbidity. Uveitis was the most common comorbid condition (17.7%), followed by allergic rhinitis (14.5%), migraine (8.7%), and atopic dermatitis (8.7%). The prevalence of cardiovascular disorders was 9.9%, which was not higher than that in the population. However, patients with a systemic onset of JIA (soJIA) had a substantially higher rate of cardiovascular diseases of 40.6% (p=0.033). Patients with soJIA also had the highest prevalence (80.0%) and the highest mean number (1.8) of comorbidities. Patients with at least one comorbid condition suffered more often from fatigue and pain, had a lower functional capacity (p<0.001, each), and a lower physical and mental health-related quality of life than those without comorbidities (p<0.001 and p=0.017, respectively). The presence of any comorbidity and the level of disease activity were independent predictors of a lower SF-36 score. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that comorbid conditions have a significant impact on the perceived health state in adult JIA. Among all JIA patients, those with systemic onset carry the highest risk for comorbidities, in particular for cardiovascular disorders.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 04/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed dramatically. Nowadays one out of three children with polyarticular JIA is treated with a biologic drug; however, knowledge about the long-term safety of biologics is still limited. Information on drug safety is collected in the JIA biologic register (BiKeR) and the follow-up register juvenile arthritis methotrexate/biologics long-term observation (JuMBO). The latter currently includes information on more than 700 young adults most of whom were treated with etanercept and prospectively followed for more than 5 years. Preliminary data on the long-term safety of etanercept for JIA are therefore available. Over an observation period of 1,800 etanercept exposure-years, events of particular interest, such as malignancies, serious infections and new onset immune-mediated diseases have been recorded which occurred at rates of 0.1, 1.1 and 0.9/100 patient-years, respectively. Overall, new safety risks were not detected during long-term etanercept exposure. Moreover, JuMBO has also provided information on the long-term outcome of JIA and initial evidence suggests that JIA outcome, especially in functional aspects has improved in the biologic era. Data from BiKeR and JuMBO contribute to the risk-benefit assessment of biologic drugs which have been implemented in the routine treatment of JIA.
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 03/2013; · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this report was to propose a definition for erosive disease in the context of inflammatory arthritis in light of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) criteria for use in clinical practice and studies. A EULAR task force was formed including 16 rheumatologists and one rheumatology fellow. The process was both evidence based and consensus based, and included, between March 2010 and April 2012, analyses of data from two cohorts, two face-to-face meetings, one online voting and one teleconference. The Leiden Early Arthritis Cohort and the French ESPOIR cohort were used for the evidence-based part. The outcome measures, which were initiation of methotrexate therapy, or any disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy within the first year of disease and arthritis persistency over 5 years, were studied with the aim to give the best definition of erosive disease. A decision was made to select a definition with a high specificity and focus on patients who did not otherwise fulfil the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria (<6 points). By a unanimous vote the following definition was selected: erosive disease for use in the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA classification criteria is defined when an erosion (defined as a cortical break) is seen in at least three separate joints at any of the following sites: the proximal interphalangeal, the metacarpophalangeal, the wrist (counted as one joint) and the metatarsophalangeal joints on radiographs of both hands and feet. A highly specific definition for erosive disease has thus been formulated.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 02/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare clinical features and treatment of young onset rheumatoid arthritis with late-onset rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Nine thousand five hundred forty-one patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) enrolled in the national database of the German Collaborative Arthritis Centres in 2007-2009 were stratified by age at disease onset: up to 65 years (YORA), >65 years (LORA). To enable unbiased comparisons between the two groups despite their systematic differences in age and disease duration, we performed two separate matched-pairs analyses: the impact of current age was assessed by matching YORA and LORA patients for disease duration and sex (n=1,550 pairs). To identify the influence of disease duration, a second sample matched for age and sex (n=1,158 pairs) was drawn. RESULTS: At identical age, YORA patients had higher disease activity (DAS28), worse functional capacity and were less frequently in remission when compared with LORA patients. YORA patients also suffered more frequently from RA-related co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, chronic renal disease and osteoporosis. Matched for disease duration, there were no differences between the two groups concerning disease severity and remission rates, global health or pain intensity. Independent of age or disease duration, YORA patients reported more sleep disorders and fatigue. LORA patients received significantly fewer synthetic or biologic DMARDs than YORA patients. CONCLUSIONS: Duration of RA, rather than age, explains differences in disease burden between YORA and LORA patients. The lower prescription rates of synthetic and in particular biologic DMARDs, despite lower remission rates, indicate a potential treatment deficit in older patients.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 01/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 12/2012; · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RA is known to be associated with an increased risk of serious infection. Even more than 50 years ago, observational studies showed a greater than 2-fold increased risk of serious infection in RA. This was reinforced by various subsequent cohort studies. The elevated susceptibility of patients with RA can be explained by the pathobiology of the disease itself, the impact of chronic comorbid conditions, as well as sequelae of immunosuppressive treatment. It has been suggested that premature ageing of the immune system in RA contributes to weakened protection against infectious organisms. In addition, chronic comorbid conditions such as diabetes or chronic lung or kidney disease, disease-related functional disability, as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, increase the risk in individual patients. For a long time glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used as potent immunosuppressive drugs in RA. There is evidence that they increase the risk of serious infections up to 4-fold in a dose-dependent manner. TNF-α inhibitors increase the serious infection risk up to 2-fold. They have, however, the potential to outweigh their risk when higher GC doses can be tapered down. If patients need higher dosages of GCs in addition to treatment with biologic agents, their risk of infection is substantial. This combination should be used carefully and, if possible, avoided in patients with additional risk factors such as older age or comorbid conditions.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 11/2012; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of the preliminary American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) remission criteria with the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) remission in unselected 'real-life' patients. METHODS: Remission was calculated according to the DAS28 and to both versions of the ACR/EULAR criteria (Boolean or Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI)-based) for 6864 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were enrolled in the national database of the German Collaborative Arthritis Centres between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression analyses identified factors that were responsible for patients in DAS28 remission to miss the new criteria. In addition, the functional status of patients who fulfilled the different remission criteria was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched population sample. RESULTS: Of all patients, 28% were in DAS28, 7% in Boolean and 11% in SDAI remission. Of those in DAS28 remission, 21.0% were also in Boolean and 34% also in SDAI remission. Higher scores for pain and fatigue, the presence of degenerative spine disease, longer disease duration and male gender were significantly associated with missing the new criteria despite being in DAS28 remission. Compared with age- and sex-matched samples from the general population, patients in DAS28 remission had a similar functional ability while patients in remission according to the new criteria had better functional scores. CONCLUSIONS: Patients fulfilling the new remission criteria tend to be not only free from active RA, but also from other disabling diseases. If these criteria are applied in clinical practice to guide treatment decisions, the impact of comorbidity should be taken into account.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 08/2012; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of biologics has continuously increased the demand for biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic stratification. ArthroMark, a research network funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, aims to establish such biomarkers for rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritides. Biobanks and previous work on genotyping, gene expression and autoreactivity profiling build the basis. Bioinformatic networks will help to harmonize the investigations and a clinical study with modern imaging techniques to characterize the functional relevance of the new biomarkers as effectively as possible. To validate the markers for diagnostic application the network aims to expand gradually.
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 05/2012; 71(4):314-8. · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the outcome of adult patients with JIA who received etanercept (ETA) during childhood. JuMBO (Juvenile arthritis MTX/Biologics long-term Observation) is an ongoing prospective cohort study. It follows adult JIA patients who were formerly included in the national JIA biologic register. In JuMBO, clinical status, therapy and the occurrence of adverse events are documented every 6 months by physicians; additionally, patient-derived data are included [e.g. functional capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL)]. Here, data from the last available visit of patients were analysed. Until December 2010, 346 patients with a median age of 21 years were included in JuMBO. The majority of them had polyarthritis. Seventy-eight per cent of them were still on DMARDs, 45% on ETA. The disease was inactive in about one in five patients. A restricted functional capacity was reported by 51% of participants and fatigue by 76%. The patients judged their HRQoL to be lower than a reference group from the general population, but only with regard to physical health. HRQoL correlated with the patient's perceived fatigue. Most frequently observed comorbidities in the young adults with JIA were disease related and included uveitis, IBDs and psoriasis. During the observation period, 2.1 severe infections and 1.5 new-onset autoimmune events per 100 patient-years were reported in patients on ETA, respectively. The first data from the JuMBO register indicate an improved long-term outcome of patients with severe JIA treated in the biologic era and an acceptable safety profile of ETA.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 03/2012; 51(8):1407-15. · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the rheumatic diseases 02/2012; 71(6):791-2. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine bone mineral density (BMD), frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in a representative sample of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to describe chemoprophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis compared to evidence-based guidelines. In 2005 and 2006, 532 patients with RA (98 men, 434 women) aged 23-87 years were recruited from 9 German rheumatology centers. Clinical examination included a detailed documentation of osteoporosis medication. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. Of the RA patients 29% had normal BMD at the spine and femoral neck, 49% of the patients had osteopenia and 22% met the criteria for osteoporosis at any site. Of the patients 60% were receiving medication for prophylaxis or therapy of osteoporosis, 38% calcium/vitamin D alone, 20% as combinations mostly of calcium/vitamin D + bisphosphonate, 1% received bisphosphonate only and 1% hormone replacement therapy. Although the frequency of osteoporosis showed no significant differences between male and female patients, women with RA used osteoporosis medication more often than men (63% versus 49%, χ²-test, p <0.05). A total of 101 RA patients (83 menopausal women, 6 premenopausal women, 12 men) received corticosteroids in a daily dose of 7.5 mg or less for at least 3 months and had DXA T-scores below -2.0 at any site. In this patient group 41% of the menopausal women, 17% of the premenopausal women and 42% of the male patients were reported to receive medication with calcium/vitamin D + bisphosphonate. Calcium/vitamin D was used by 35% of the menopausal women, none of the premenopausal women and 50% of the male patients and 18% of the menopausal women, 67% of the premenopausal women and 8% of men received no prophylaxis or treatment for osteoporosis. According to the DVO (German Society for Osteoporosis) guidelines for osteoporosis (2009) menopausal women with corticosteroid therapy < 7.5 mg per day for at least 3 months and DXA T-scores below -2.0 should receive treatment with bisphosphonate and calcium/vitamin D. The data show that there were still deficits concerning prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis in RA.
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 09/2011; 70(9):793-8, 800-2. · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Clear consensual treatment guidance focused on the musculoskeletal manifestations of PsA would be advantageous. The authors present European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the treatment of PsA with systemic or local (non-topical) symptomatic and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD). The recommendations are based on evidence from systematic literature reviews performed for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), glucocorticoids, synthetic DMARD and biological DMARD. This evidence was discussed, summarised and recommendations were formulated by a task force comprising 35 representatives, and providing levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement. Ten recommendations were developed for treatment from NSAID through synthetic DMARD to biological agents, accounting for articular and extra-articular manifestations of PsA. Five overarching principles and a research agenda were defined. These recommendations are intended to provide rheumatologists, patients and other stakeholders with a consensus on the pharmacological treatment of PsA and strategies to reach optimal outcomes, based on combining evidence and expert opinion. The research agenda informs directions within EULAR and other communities interested in PsA.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 09/2011; 71(1):4-12. · 8.11 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 08/2011; 70(6):462-3. · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the risk of serious infection conveyed by tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitors in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data from patients with RA enrolled in the German biologics register RABBIT were used for analysis. Baseline patient characteristics, time-varying risk factors (treatment changes, functional capacity) and selection processes caused by dropout, death or switching to non-anti-TNF treatment were taken into account to estimate the adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR(adj)) of serious infection during treatment with TNF inhibitors compared with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment. Data were available on 5044 patients, in whom 392 serious infections occurred. The crude rates of serious infections in patients treated with TNF inhibitors declined over the first 3 years of observation (from 4.8 to 2.2/100 patient-years). This decline was driven by (1) treatment termination or loss to follow-up in patients at increased risk and (2) a risk reduction through decreasing glucocorticoid doses and improvement in function. Adjusted for selection processes and time-varying risk factors, the following parameters assessed at baseline (age, chronic diseases) or at follow-up prior to the infection were significantly associated with an increased risk: age >60 years, chronic lung or renal disease, low functional capacity, history of serious infections, treatment with glucocorticoids (7.5-14 mg/day, IRR(adj) 2.1 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.2); ≥ 15 mg/day, IRR(adj) 4.7 (95% CI 2.4 to 9.4)) and treatment with TNFα inhibitors (IRR(adj) 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.7)). Reasons for the decline in infection rates observed at the group level were identified. The results enable expected infection rates to be calculated in individual patients based on their risk profiles.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 07/2011; 70(11):1914-20. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a cross-sectional study the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ORA study) was investigated. Additionally, patients, their family doctors and rheumatologists were surveyed on their awareness of osteoporosis in RA, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and use of guidelines.In the years 2005 and 2006 a total of 532 patients with RA (98 men, 434 women) aged 23-87 years were consecutively recruited from 9 German centers for rheumatology. Clinical examination included a detailed documentation of osteoporosis medication. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and neck of the femur. Questionnaires on osteoporosis were sent to 119 family doctors (87 men, 32 women) and 44 rheumatologists (30 men, 14 women).The survey showed that rheumatologists had a higher awareness of osteoporosis in RA and compared to family doctors they estimated a higher frequency and tested RA patients more often for osteoporosis. In line with osteoporosis guidelines rheumatologists and family doctors saw an indication for densitometry in RA patients on steroid therapy and/or low intensity trauma fractures. In contrast to the 2006 recommendations of osteoporosis guidelines 50% of family doctors and rheumatologists preferred bisphosphonate off-label-therapy for premeopausal women with RA and comorbid glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. On the other hand 50% of premenopausal RA patients with osteoporosis did not receive any osteoporosis medication.The survey revealed a high degree of guideline compliance in diagnosing osteoporosis in RA but deficits were observed in the administration of osteoporosis medication, especially in premenopausal women.
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 07/2011; 70(7):592-601. · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with primary SS (pSS) are frequently suffering from multiple enduring disorders that raise the risk of work disability and require treatment by various health-care specialists. We aimed at determining predictors of physician visits and work disability in pSS patients. Physician visits within the past 6 months, employment status and sick leave were compared among 176 female pSS patients and 115 age-matched controls. Dryness, pain, fatigue and depression were assessed by rating scales of the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI), the Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort (PROFAD) and Patient Health Questionnaire depression measurements (PHQ-9). Factors associated with an increased number of physician visits and inability to work were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Patients and controls were comparable in age and education, but differed significantly in the prevalence of depression (38.1 vs 7.9%, P < 0.001), the number of physician visits [17.0 (10.0) vs 6.5 (4.5); P < 0.001] and gainful employment (≤64 years: 52.8 vs 77.1% P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that depression (PHQ-9) and/or fatigue, particularly lack of stamina, but not dryness, were significantly associated with physician visits and working status in pSS patients. Patients with high ratings for the statement 'I have had difficulties to keep going, was easily worn out or lacking in energy' had a highly increased risk of not being gainfully employed (adjusted OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.5, 11.2; P < 0.001). In pSS, lack of stamina and/or depression cause a higher level of individual and societal burden than dry eyes and mouth. Fatigue and depression deserve more recognition as treatment targets in pSS.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 06/2011; 51(2):262-9. · 4.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
533.69 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2014
    • German Rheumatism Research Centre
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of Applied Sciences Fulda
      Fulda, Hesse, Germany
  • 2010
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Medical Department, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
      • Institut für Rehabilitationsmedizin
      Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • InForMed GmbH
      Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2003
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany