A Wraith

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden

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Publications (9)32.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The NPY system has a multitude of effects and is particularly well known for its role in appetite regulation. We have found that the five presently known receptors in mammals arose very early in vertebrate evolution before the appearance of jawed vertebrates 400 million years ago. The genes Y1, Y2 and Y5 arose by local duplications and are still present on the same chromosome in human and pig. Duplications of this chromosome led to the Y1-like genes Y4 and y6. We find evidence for two occasions where receptor subtypes probably arose before peptide genes were duplicated. These observations pertain to the discussion whether ligands or receptors tend to appear first in evolution. The roles of Y1 and Y5 in feeding may differ between species demonstrating the importance of performing functional studies in additional mammals to mouse and rat.
    Peptides 04/2001; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide Y family of G-protein-coupled receptors consists of five cloned members in mammals. Four genes give rise to functional receptors in all mammals investigated. The y6 gene is a pseudogene in human and pig and is absent in rat, but generates a functional receptor in rabbit and mouse and probably in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), a distant relative of the pig family. We report here that the guinea pig y6 gene has a highly distorted nucleotide sequence with multiple frame-shift mutations. One evolutionary scenario may suggest that y6 was inactivated before the divergence of the mammalian orders and subsequently resurrected in some lineages. However, the pseudogene mutations seem to be distinct in human, pig, and guinea pig, arguing for separate inactivation events. In either case, the y6 gene has a quite unusual evolutionary history with multiple independent deaths or resurrections.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2000; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are related 36-amino acid peptides. NPY is widely distributed in the nervous system and has several physiological roles. PYY serves as an intestinal hormone as well as a neuropeptide. We report here cloning of the npy and pyy genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). NPY differs at only one to four amino acid positions from NPY in other jawed vertebrates. Zebrafish PYY differs at three positions from PYY from other fishes and at 10 positions from mammals. In situ hybridization showed that neurons containing NPY mRNA have a widespread distribution in the brain, particularly in the telencephalon, optic tectum, and rhombencephalon. PYY mRNA was found mainly in brainstem neurons, as reported previously for vertebrates as divergent as the rat and the lamprey, suggesting an essential role for PYY in these neurons. PYY mRNA was observed also in the telencephalon. These results were confirmed by immunocytochemistry. As in the human, the npy gene is located adjacent to homeobox (hox) gene cluster A (copy a in zebrafish), whereas the pyy gene is located close to hoxBa. This suggests that npy and pyy arose from a common ancestral gene in a chromosomal duplication event that also involved the hox gene clusters. As zebrafish has seven hox clusters, it is possible that additional NPY family genes exist or have existed. Also, the NPY receptor system seems to be more complex in zebrafish than in mammals, with at least two receptor genes without known mammalian orthologues.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2000; 75(3):908-18. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors mediate a variety of physiological responses including feeding and vasoconstriction. To investigate the evolutionary events that have generated this receptor family, we have sequenced and determined the chromosomal localizations of all five presently known mammalian NPY receptor subtype genes in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa (SSC). The orthologs of the Y(1) and Y(2) subtypes display high amino acid sequence identities between pig, human, and mouse (92%-94%), whereas the Y(4), Y(5), and y(6) subtypes display lower identities (76%-87%). The lower identity of Y(5) is due to high sequence divergence in the large third intracellular loop. The NPY1R, NPY2R, and NPY5R receptor genes were localized to SSC8, the NPY4R to SSC14, and NPY6R to SSC2. Our comparisons strongly suggest that the tight cluster of NPY1R, NPY2R, and NPY5R on human chromosome 4 (HSA4) represents the ancestral configuration, whereas the porcine cluster has been split by two inversions on SSC8. These 3 genes, along with adjacent genes from 14 other gene families, form a cluster on HSA4 with extensive similarities to a cluster on HSA5, where NPY6R and >13 other paralogs reside, as well as another large cluster on HSA10 that includes NPY4R. Thus, these gene families have expanded through large-scale duplications. The sequence comparisons show that the NPY receptor triplet NPY1R-NPY2R-NPY5R existed before these large-scale duplications.
    Genome Research 03/2000; 10(3):302-10. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Five members of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor family have been cloned in mammals. The recently cloned NPY receptor in the Atlantic cod seems to be distinct from the mammalian subtypes as it has only 50% identity to Y1, Y4, and y6 and only 30% to Y2 and Y5. In most of the other families of G-protein-coupled receptors, species homologues have 65-90% identity between fishes and mammals. The functional expression and detailed pharmacological characterization of this cod NPY receptor, designated Yb, is reported. Membranes of cells transiently transfected with cod Yb showed saturable [(125)I]PYY binding with a K(d) of 45 pM. The pharmacological profile is similar to those of both the zebrafish Yb and Yc receptors and distinct from those of the mammalian NPY receptors. In competition experiments the cod Yb receptor had the following rank order of potencies: porcine PYY = porcine NPY = p[Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY > zebrafish PYY > zebrafish NPY > NPY2-36 = NPY3-36 > NPY18-36 > bovine PP = [D-Trp(32)]NPY > BIBP3226. This is in sharp contrast to the high selectivity of BIBP3226 for the Y1 receptor from all mammalian species. Together with the low amino acid identity of cod Yb with the mammalian Y1, Y4, and y6 receptors, this is further support for the notion that fish Yb constitutes a distinct NPY receptor subtype.
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 09/1999; 115(3):422-8. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) belongs to a family of structurally related neuroendocrine peptides for which five different G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes have been cloned in mammals. To identify additional subtypes we have performed PCR with degenerate primers in different species. We describe here the cloning and pharmacological profile of a unique NPY receptor subtype in the zebrafish that has tentatively been called the zYa receptor. It has 46–50% amino acid identity to the mammalian Y1, Y4 and y6 receptors and the previously cloned zebrafish receptors zYb and zYc, and only about 27% to Y2 and Y5. The zYa receptor binds NPY and PYY from mammals as well as zebrafish with high affinities and has a Kd of 28 pM for porcine . It has a unique binding profile displaying some features in common with each of the mammalian Y1, Y2 and Y5 receptors. In a microphysiometer assay the receptor responds with extracellular acidification. Chromosomal mapping in the zebrafish genome of zYa, zYb and zYc receptor genes indicates a possible orthologous relationship between zYc and mammalian y6, but identifies no obvious mammalian ortholog for zYa (zYb is a recent copy of zYc in the fish lineage). These results imply that previous studies of NPY in fishes, which have strived to interpret the effects within the framework of mammalian Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors, need to be reevaluated. Thus, the sequence comparisons, pharmacological properties, and chromosomal localization suggest that the zYa receptor is a novel NPY receptor subtype which is likely to be present also in mammals.
    Molecular Brain Research 08/1999; · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) belongs to a family of structurally related neuroendocrine peptides for which five different G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes have been cloned in mammals. To identify additional subtypes we have performed PCR with degenerate primers in different species. We describe here the cloning and pharmacological profile of a unique NPY receptor subtype in the zebrafish that has tentatively been called the zYa receptor. It has 46–50% amino acid identity to the mammalian Y1, Y4 and y6 receptors and the previously cloned zebrafish receptors zYb and zYc, and only about 27% to Y2 and Y5. The zYa receptor binds NPY and PYY from mammals as well as zebrafish with high affinities and has a Kd of 28 pM for porcine 125I-PYY. It has a unique binding profile displaying some features in common with each of the mammalian Y1, Y2 and Y5 receptors. In a microphysiometer assay the receptor responds with extracellular acidification. Chromosomal mapping in the zebrafish genome of zYa, zYb and zYc receptor genes indicates a possible orthologous relationship between zYc and mammalian y6, but identifies no obvious mammalian ortholog for zYa (zYb is a recent copy of zYc in the fish lineage). These results imply that previous studies of NPY in fishes, which have strived to interpret the effects within the framework of mammalian Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors, need to be reevaluated. Thus, the sequence comparisons, pharmacological properties, and chromosomal localization suggest that the zYa receptor is a novel NPY receptor subtype which is likely to be present also in mammals.
    Molecular Brain Research - MOL BRAIN RES. 01/1999; 70(2):242-252.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) belongs to a family of structurally related neuroendocrine peptides that bind to G protein-coupled receptors. Five different receptor subtypes have recently been cloned in mammals and we have found another three receptor genes in the zebrafish, called zYa, zYb, and zYc, that appear to be distinct subtypes as deduced from their widely different sequences. To elucidate the evolutionary relationships between the mammalian and zebrafish receptors, we have used the zebrafish probes to isolate genomic clones from another teleost fish, the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. We present here the sequence of the cod Yb gene, whose deduced protein sequence is equally identical to the zebrafish Yb (69%) and Yc proteins (66%). The two zebrafish receptors are 76% identical to each other, suggesting that they arose by gene duplication in the zebrafish lineage after divergence from the cod lineage. The five cloned mammalian NPY-family receptors and the three cloned zebrafish NPY receptors indicate that this is the largest receptor family among all peptide receptors that belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors.
    Regulatory Peptides 10/1998; 75-76:39-43. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Mammalian Genome 03/1998; 9(3):262-3. · 2.42 Impact Factor