[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by the loss of beta-cell secretory function and mass. The pathophysiology of beta-cell failure in T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic susceptibilities and environmental risk factors. One environmental condition that is gaining greater appreciation as a risk factor for T2DM is the disruption of circadian rhythms (eg, shift-work and sleep loss). In recent years, circadian disruption has become increasingly prevalent in modern societies and consistently shown to augment T2DM susceptibility (partly mediated through its effects on pancreatic beta-cells). Since beta-cell failure is essential for development of T2DM, we will review current work from epidemiologic, clinical, and animal studies designed to gain insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the predisposition to beta-cell failure associated with circadian disruption. Elucidating the role of circadian clocks in regulating beta-cell health will add to our understanding of T2DM pathophysiology and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches.
Current Diabetes Reports 04/2014; 14(4):474. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a correlation between circadian disruption, Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) and islet failure. However the mechanisms underlying this association are largely unknown. Pancreatic islets express self-sustained circadian clocks essential for proper beta-cell function and survival. We hypothesized that exposure to enviromental conditions associated with disruption of circadian rhythms and susceptibility to T2DM in humans disrupts islet clock and beta-cell function. To address this hypothesis, we validated the use of Per-1:LUC transgenic rats for continuous longitudinal assessment of islet circadian clock function ex-vivo. Using this methodology we subsequently examined effects of the continuous exposure to light at night (LL) on islet circadian clock and insulin secretion in-vitro in rat islets. Our data show that changes in the light dark cycle (LD) cycles in-vivo entrain the phase of islet clock transcriptional oscillations, whereas prolonged exposure (10 weeks) to LL disrupts islet circadian clock function through impairment in the amplitude, phase and inter-islet synchrony of clock transcriptional oscillations. We also report that exposure to LL leads to diminished glucose-stimulated insulin secretion due to decrease in insulin secretory pulse mass. Our studies identify potential mechanisms by which disturbances in circadian rhythms common to modern life can predispose to islet failure in T2DM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The islet in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by a deficit in β-cells, increased β-cell apoptosis, and extracellular amyloid deposits derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). In the absence of longitudinal studies, it is unknown if the low β-cell mass in T2DM precedes diabetes onset (is a risk factor for diabetes) or develops as a consequence of the disease process. Although insulin resistance is a risk factor for T2DM, most individuals who are insulin resistant do not develop diabetes. By inference, an increased β-cell workload results in T2DM in some but not all individuals. We propose that the extent of the β-cell mass that develops during childhood may underlie subsequent successful or failed adaptation to insulin resistance in later life. We propose that a low innate β-cell mass in the face of subsequent insulin resistance may expose β-cells to a burden of insulin and IAPP biosynthetic demand that exceeds the cellular capacity for protein folding and trafficking. If this threshold is crossed, intracellular toxic IAPP membrane permeant oligomers (cylindrins) may form, compromising β-cell function and inducing β-cell apoptosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enhanced de novo lipogenesis (DNL), an adult hepatic adaption, is seen with high carbohydrate or low-fat diets. We hypothesized that ad libitum intake after prenatal calorie restriction will result in adult-onset glucose intolerance and enhanced DNL with modified lipid metabolic gene expression profile. Stable isotopes were used in 15-month-old adult male rat offspring exposed to prenatal (IUGR), pre- and postnatal (IPGR), or postnatal (PNGR) caloric restriction vs. controls (CON). IUGR vs. CON were heavier with hepatomegaly but unchanged visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), glucose intolerant with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), pancreatic β-cell mass, and total glucose clearance rate but unsuppressed hepatic glucose production. Liver glucose transporter (Glut) 1 and DNL increased with decreased hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase but increased WAT fatty acid transport protein-1 and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ, resistin, and visfatin gene expression. In contrast, PNGR and IPGR were lighter, had reduced visceral WAT, and were glucose tolerant with unchanged hepatic glucose production but with increased GSIS, β-cell mass, glucose clearance rate, and WAT insulin receptor. Hepatic Glut1 and DNL were also increased in lean IPGR and PNGR with increased hepatic ACC, phosphorylated ACC, and pAMPK and reduced WAT fatty acid transport protein-1, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and ACCα. We conclude the following: 1) the heavy, glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant IUGR adult phenotype is ameliorated by postnatal caloric restriction; 2) increased DNL paralleling hepatic Glut1 is a biomarker of exposure to early caloric restriction rather than the adult metabolic status; 3) hepatic lipid enzyme expression reflects GSIS rather than DNL; and 4) WAT gene expression reflects an obesogenic vs. lean phenotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta cell transcriptional factor musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family A (MafA) regulates genes important for beta cell function. Loss of nuclear MafA has been implicated in beta cell dysfunction in animal models of type 2 diabetes. We sought to establish if nuclear MafA is less abundant in beta cell nuclei in humans with type 2 diabetes.
Pancreas obtained at surgery from five non-diabetic individuals and six individuals with type 2 diabetes was immunostained for insulin, glucagon and MafA.
Beta cell nuclear MafA was markedly decreased in type 2 diabetes (1.6 ± 1.2% vs 46.3 ± 8.3%, p < 0.001).
Beta cell nuclear MafA is markedly decreased in humans with type 2 diabetes, which may contribute to impaired beta cell dysfunction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin is secreted as discrete insulin secretory bursts at ~5-min intervals into the hepatic portal vein, these pulses being attenuated early in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intraportal insulin infusions (pulsatile, constant, or reproducing that in T2DM) indicated that the pattern of pulsatile insulin secretion delivered via the portal vein is important for hepatic insulin action and, therefore, presumably for hepatic insulin signaling. To test this, we examined hepatic insulin signaling in rat livers exposed to the same three patterns of portal vein insulin delivery by use of sequential liver biopsies in anesthetized rats. Intraportal delivery of insulin in a constant versus pulsatile pattern led to delayed and impaired activation of hepatic insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 signaling, impaired activation of downstream insulin signaling effector molecules AKT and Foxo1, and decreased expression of glucokinase (Gck). We further established that hepatic Gck expression is decreased in the HIP rat model of T2DM, a defect that correlated with a progressive defect of pulsatile insulin secretion. We conclude that the physiological pulsatile pattern of insulin delivery is important in hepatic insulin signaling and glycemic control. Hepatic insulin resistance in diabetes is likely in part due to impaired pulsatile insulin secretion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) have been hypothesized to give rise to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Treatment with the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analog, exendin-4, for 12 weeks induced the expansion of PDGs with mucinous metaplasia and columnar cell atypia resembling low-grade PanIN in rats. In the pancreata of Pdx1-Cre; LSL-Kras(G12D) mice, exendin-4 led to acceleration of the disruption of exocrine architecture and chronic pancreatitis with mucinous metaplasia and increased formation of murine PanIN lesions. PDGs and PanIN lesions in rodent and human pancreata express the GLP-1 receptor. Exendin-4 induced proproliferative signaling pathways in human pancreatic duct cells, cAMP-protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, and increased cyclin D1 expression. These GLP-1 effects were more pronounced in the presence of an activating mutation of Kras and were inhibited by metformin. These data reveal that GLP-1 mimetic therapy may induce focal proliferation in the exocrine pancreas and, in the context of exocrine dysplasia, may accelerate formation of neoplastic PanIN lesions and exacerbate chronic pancreatitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex metabolic disease that arises as a consequence of interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. One recently described environmental trigger associated with development of T2DM is disturbance of circadian rhythms due to shift work, sleep loss, or nocturnal lifestyle. However, the underlying mechanisms behind this association are largely unknown. To address this, the authors examined the metabolic and physiological consequences of experimentally controlled circadian rhythm disruption in wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley and diabetes-prone human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic (HIP) rats: a validated model of T2DM. WT and HIP rats at 3 months of age were exposed to 10 weeks of either a normal light regimen (LD: 12:12-h light/dark) or experimental disruption in the light-dark cycle produced by either (1) 6-h advance of the light cycle every 3 days or (2) constant light protocol. Subsequently, blood glucose control, beta-cell function, beta-cell mass, turnover, and insulin sensitivity were examined. In WT rats, 10 weeks of experimental disruption of circadian rhythms failed to significantly alter fasting blood glucose levels, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell mass/turnover, or insulin sensitivity. In contrast, experimental disruption of circadian rhythms in diabetes-prone HIP rats led to accelerated development of diabetes. The mechanism subserving early-onset diabetes was due to accelerated loss of beta-cell function and loss of beta-cell mass attributed to increases in beta-cell apoptosis. Disruption of circadian rhythms may increase the risk of T2DM by accelerating the loss of beta-cell function and mass characteristic in T2DM.
Journal of Biological Rhythms 10/2011; 26(5):423-33. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In type II diabetes (T2DM), there is a deficit in β-cells, increased β-cell apoptosis and formation of intracellular membrane-permeant oligomers of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Human-IAPP (h-IAPP) is an amyloidogenic protein co-expressed with insulin by β-cells. IAPP expression is increased with obesity, the major risk factor for T2DM. In this study we report that increased expression of human-IAPP led to impaired autophagy, due at least in part to the disruption of lysosome-dependent degradation. This action of IAPP to alter lysosomal clearance in vivo depends on its propensity to form toxic oligomers and is independent of the confounding effect of hyperglycemia. We report that the scaffold protein p62 that delivers polyubiquitinated proteins to autophagy may have a protective role against human-IAPP-induced apoptosis, apparently by sequestrating protein targets for degradation. Finally, we found that inhibition of lysosomal degradation increases vulnerability of β-cells to h-IAPP-induced toxicity and, conversely, stimulation of autophagy protects β-cells from h-IAPP-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these data imply an important role for the p62/autophagy/lysosomal degradation system in protection against toxic oligomer-induced apoptosis.
Cell death and differentiation 03/2011; 18(3):415-26. · 8.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapy is gaining widespread use for type 2 diabetes, although there are concerns about risks for pancreatitis and pancreatic and thyroid cancers. There are also concerns that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors could cause cancer, given their effects on immune function.
We examined the US Food and Drug Administration's database of reported adverse events for those associated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic exenatide, from 2004-2009; data on adverse events associated with 4 other medications were compared as controls. The primary outcomes measures were rates of reported pancreatitis, pancreatic and thyroid cancer, and all cancers associated with sitagliptin or exenatide, compared with other therapies.
Use of sitagliptin or exenatide increased the odds ratio for reported pancreatitis 6-fold as compared with other therapies (P<2×10(-16)). Pancreatic cancer was more commonly reported among patients who took sitagliptin or exenatide as compared with other therapies (P<.008, P<9×10(-5)). All other cancers occurred similarly among patients who took sitagliptin compared with other therapies (P=.20).
These data are consistent with case reports and animal studies indicating an increased risk for pancreatitis with glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapy. The findings also raise caution about the potential long-term actions of these drugs to promote pancreatic cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is frequently complicated by cardiovascular disease, such as vascular calcification and endothelial dysfunction, which have been associated with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).
To determine whether hyperglycemia in vitro and diabetes in vivo promote vascular BMP activity and correlate with vascular calcification.
Increased glucose augmented expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4; the BMP inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and Noggin; activin-like kinase receptor (ALK)1, -2, -3 and -6; the BMP type 2 receptor; and the vascular endothelial growth factor in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Diabetes induced expression of the same factors in the aortic wall of 3 animal models of diabetes, Ins2(Akita/+) mice, db/db mice, and HIP rats (rats transgenic for human islet amyloid polypeptide), representative of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Conditioned media from glucose-treated HAECs increased angiogenesis in bovine aortic endothelial cells, as mediated by BMP-4, and osteogenesis in calcifying vascular cells, as mediated by BMP-2. BMP-4, MGP, ALK1, and ALK2 were predominantly expressed on the endothelial side of the aorta, and small interfering RNA experiments showed that these genes were regulated as a group. Diabetic mice and rats showed a dramatic increase in aortic BMP activity, as demonstrated by SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. This was associated with increased osteogenesis and calcium accumulation. These changes were prevented in the Ins2(Akita/+) mice by breeding them with MGP transgenic mice, which increased aortic BMP inhibition.
Hyperglycemia and diabetes activate vascular BMP activity, which is instrumental in promoting vascular calcification and may be limited by increasing BMP inhibition.
Circulation Research 02/2011; 108(4):446-57. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal nutrient and growth restriction is associated with development of type 2 diabetes. Although the exact mechanisms responsible for this association remain debated, intrauterine and/or postnatal maldevelopment of β-cell mass has been proposed as a potential mechanism. To address this hypothesis, β-cell mass development and turnover was assessed in rats exposed to either intrauterine and/or postnatal caloric/growth restriction. In total, four groups of male and female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 69) were developed and studied: 1) control rats, i.e. control mothers rearing control pups; 2) intrauterine calorically and growth-restricted rats, i.e. 50% prenatal calorically restricted pups cross-fostered to control mothers; 3) postnatal calorically and growth-restricted rats, i.e. 50% calorically restricted mothers rearing pups born to control mothers; and 4) prenatal and postnatal calorically and growth restricted rats, i.e. 50% calorically restricted mothers rearing intrauterine 50% calorically restricted pups. Intrauterine growth restriction resulted in approximately 45% reduction of postnatal β-cell fractional area and mass characterized by reduced rate of β-cell replication and decreased evidence of neogenesis. In contrast, β-cell fractional area and weight-adjusted β-cell mass in postnatal growth restriction was approximately 30% higher than in control rats. Rats exposed to both intrauterine and postnatal caloric and growth restriction demonstrated approximately 80% decrease in β-cell mass, reduction in β-cell replication, and decreased evidence of neogenesis compared with control. Neither intrauterine nor postnatal caloric restriction significantly affected the rate of β-cell apoptosis. These data support the hypothesis that intrauterine maldevelopment of β-cell mass may predict the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adult life.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue. Athymic nude rats were implanted with PE derived from hESC either via implantation into the epididymal fat pads or by subcutaneous implantation into TheraCyte encapsulation devices for 20 wk. Blood glucose, weight, and human insulin/C-peptide secretion were monitored by weekly blood draws. Graft β-cell function was assessed by a glucose tolerance test, and graft morphology was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 20 wk postimplantation, epididymal fat-implanted PE progressed to develop islet-like structures in 50% of implants, with a mean β-cell fractional area of 0.8 ± 0.3%. Human C-peptide and insulin were detectable, but at very low levels (C-peptide = 50 ± 26 pmol/l and insulin = 15 ± 7 pmol/l); however, there was no increase in human C-peptide/insulin levels after glucose challenge. There was no development of viable pancreatic tissue or meaningful secretory function when human PE was implanted in the TheraCyte encapsulation devices. These data confirm that islet-like structures develop from hESC differentiated to PE by the protocol developed by NovoCell. However, the extent of endocrine cell formation and secretory function is not yet sufficient to be clinically relevant.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 11/2010; 299(5):E713-20. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The islet in type 2 diabetes is characterized by β-cell apoptosis, β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress, and islet amyloid deposits derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Toxic oligomers of IAPP form intracellularly in β-cells in humans with type 2 diabetes, suggesting impaired clearance of misfolded proteins. In this study, we investigated whether human-IAPP (h-IAPP) disrupts the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation/ubiquitin/proteasome system.
We used pancreatic tissue from humans with and without type 2 diabetes, isolated islets from h-IAPP transgenic rats, isolated human islets, and INS 832/13 cells transduced with adenoviruses expressing either h-IAPP or a comparable expression of rodent-IAPP. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used to detect polyubiquitinated proteins and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) protein levels. Proteasome activity was measured in isolated rat and human islets. UCH-L1 was knocked down by small-interfering RNA in INS 832/13 cells and apoptosis was evaluated.
We report accumulation of polyubiquinated proteins and UCH-L1 deficiency in β-cells of humans with type 2 diabetes. These findings were reproduced by expression of oligomeric h-IAPP but not soluble rat-IAPP. Downregulation of UCH-L1 expression and activity to reproduce that caused by h-IAPP in β-cells induced endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to apoptosis.
Our results indicate that defective protein degradation in β-cells in type 2 diabetes can, at least in part, be attributed to misfolded h-IAPP leading to UCH-L1 deficiency, which in turn further compromises β-cell viability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a high-fat-fed rat model of type 2 diabetes we noted increased exocrine duct replication. This is a predisposing factor for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, both of which are more common in type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study reported here was to establish if obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are associated with increased pancreatic ductal replication in humans.
We obtained pancreas at autopsy from 45 humans, divided into four groups: lean (BMI <25 kg/m(2)); obese (BMI >27 kg/m(2)); non-diabetic; and with type 2 diabetes. Pancreases were evaluated after immunostaining for the duct cell marker cytokeratin and Ki67 for replication.
We show for the first time that both obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans are associated with increased pancreatic ductal replication. Specifically, we report that (1) replication of pancreatic duct cells is increased tenfold by obesity, and (2) lean subjects with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a fourfold increase in replication of pancreatic duct cells compared with their lean non-diabetic controls.
Pancreatic duct cell replication is increased in humans in response to both obesity and type 2 diabetes, potentially providing a mechanism for the increased risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in those with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, a deficit in beta-cells, increased beta-cell apoptosis, and islet amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). These characteristics are recapitulated in the human IAPP transgenic (HIP) rat. We developed a mathematical model to quantify beta-cell turnover and applied it to nondiabetic wild type (WT) vs. HIP rats from age 2 days to 10 mo to establish 1) whether beta-cell formation is derived exclusively from beta-cell replication, or whether other sources of beta-cells (OSB) are present, and 2) to what extent, if any, there is attempted beta-cell regeneration in the HIP rat and if this is through beta-cell replication or OSB. We conclude that formation and maintenance of adult beta-cells depends largely ( approximately 80%) on formation of beta-cells independent from beta-cell duplication. Moreover, this source adaptively increases in the HIP rat, implying attempted beta-cell regeneration that substantially slows loss of beta-cell mass.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2009; 297(2):E323-30. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent human genetics studies have revealed that common variants of the TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2, formerly known as TCF4) gene are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We have shown that TCF7L2 expression in the beta-cells is correlated with function and survival of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell. In order to understand how variations in TCF7L2 influence diabetes progression, we investigated its mechanism of action in the beta-cell. We show robust differences in TCF7L2 expression between healthy controls and models of T2DM. While mRNA levels were approximately 2-fold increased in isolated islets from the diabetic db/db mouse, the Vancouver Diabetic Fatty (VDF) Zucker rat and the high fat/high sucrose diet-treated mouse compared with the non-diabetic controls, protein levels were decreased. A similar decrease was observed in pancreatic sections from patients with T2DM. In parallel, expression of the receptors for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1R) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP-R) was decreased in islets from humans with T2DM as well as in isolated human islets treated with siRNA to TCF7L2 (siTCF7L2). Also, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, GLP-1 and GIP, but not KCl or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was impaired in siTCF7L2-treated isolated human islets. Loss of TCF7L2 resulted in decreased GLP-1 and GIP-stimulated AKT phosphorylation, and AKT-mediated Foxo-1 phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion. Our findings suggest that beta-cell function and survival are regulated through an interplay between TCF7L2 and GLP-1R/GIP-R expression and signaling in T2DM.
Human Molecular Genetics 05/2009; 18(13):2388-99. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to establish the extent and mechanisms by which sitagliptin and metformin singly and in combination modify islet disease progression in human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic (HIP) rats, a model for type 2 diabetes.
HIP rats were treated with sitagliptin, metformin, sitagliptin plus metformin, or no drug as controls for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell mass, function, and turnover were measured in each group.
Sitagliptin plus metformin had synergistic effects to preserve beta-cell mass in HIP rats. Metformin more than sitagliptin inhibited beta-cell apoptosis. Metformin enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity; sitagliptin enhanced extrahepatic insulin sensitivity with a synergistic effect in combination. beta-Cell function was partially preserved by sitagliptin plus metformin. However, sitagliptin treatment was associated with increased pancreatic ductal turnover, ductal metaplasia, and, in one rat, pancreatitis.
The combination of metformin and sitagliptin had synergistic actions to preserve beta-cell mass and function and enhance insulin sensitivity in the HIP rat model of type 2 diabetes. However, adverse actions of sitagliptin treatment on exocrine pancreas raise concerns that require further evaluation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, most obese individuals do not develop diabetes because they adapt to insulin resistance by increasing beta-cell mass and insulin secretion. Islet pathology in type 2 diabetes is characterized by beta-cell loss, islet amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), and increased beta-cell apoptosis characterized by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We hypothesized that IAPP-induced ER stress distinguishes successful versus unsuccessful islet adaptation to insulin resistance.
To address this, we fed wild-type (WT) and human IAPP transgenic (HIP) rats either 10 weeks of regular chow or a high-fat diet and prospectively examined the relations among beta-cell mass and turnover, beta-cell ER stress, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity.
A high-fat diet led to comparable insulin resistance in WT and HIP rats. WT rats compensated with increased insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. In HIP rats, in contrast, neither beta-cell function nor mass compensated for the increased insulin demand, leading to diabetes. The failure to increase beta-cell mass in HIP rats was the result of ER stress-induced beta-cell apoptosis that increased in proportion to diet-induced insulin resistance.
IAPP-induced ER stress distinguishes the successful versus unsuccessful islet adaptation to a high-fat diet in rats. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that IAPP oligomers contribute to increased beta-cell apoptosis and beta-cell failure in humans with type 2 diabetes.