[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) have been reported in rare individuals with large terminal deletions of chromosome 15q26. However, no single gene important for left ventricular outflow tract development has been identified in this region. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we identified two half-siblings with CoA with a 2.2 Mb deletion on 15q26.2, inherited from their mother, who was mosaic for this deletion. This interval contains an evolutionary conserved, protein-coding gene, MCTP2 (multiple C2-domains with two transmembrane regions 2). Using gene-specific array screening in 146 individuals with non-syndromic left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects, another individual with HLHS and CoA was found to have a de novo 41 kb intragenic duplication within MCTP2, predicted to result in premature truncation, p.F697X. Alteration of Mctp2 gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryos by morpholino knockdown and mRNA overexpresssion resulted in failure of proper outflow tract development, confirming the functional importance of this dosage sensitive gene for cardiogenesis. Our results identify MCTP2 as a novel genetic cause of CoA and related cardiac malformations.
Human Molecular Genetics 06/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hotspots of structural polymorphisms and structural mutability in the human genome remain to be explained mechanistically. We examine associations of structural mutability with germline DNA methylation and with non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by low-copy repeats (LCRs). Combined evidence from four human sperm methylome maps, human genome evolution, structural polymorphisms in the human population, and previous genomic and disease studies consistently points to a strong association of germline hypomethylation and genomic instability. Specifically, methylation deserts, the ~1% fraction of the human genome with the lowest methylation in the germline, show a tenfold enrichment for structural rearrangements that occurred in the human genome since the branching of chimpanzee and are highly enriched for fast-evolving loci that regulate tissue-specific gene expression. Analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) from 400 human samples identified using a custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) chip, combined with publicly available structural variation data, indicates that association of structural mutability with germline hypomethylation is comparable in magnitude to the association of structural mutability with LCR-mediated NAHR. Moreover, rare CNVs occurring in the genomes of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and developmental delay and de novo CNVs occurring in those diagnosed with autism are significantly more concentrated within hypomethylated regions. These findings suggest a new connection between the epigenome, selective mutability, evolution, and human disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with increasing evidence of heterogeneous genetic etiology including de novo and inherited copy number variants (CNVs). We performed array comparative genomic hybridization using a custom Agilent 1 M oligonucleotide array intended to cover 197 332 unique exons in RefSeq genes; 98% were covered by at least one probe and 95% were covered by three or more probes with the focus on detecting relatively small CNVs that would implicate a single protein-coding gene. The study group included 99 trios from the Simons Simplex Collection. The analysis identified and validated 55 potentially pathogenic CNVs, categorized as de novo autosomal heterozygous, inherited homozygous autosomal, complex autosomal and hemizygous deletions on the X chromosome of probands. Twenty percent (11 of 55) of these CNV calls were rare when compared with the Database of Genomic Variants. Thirty-six percent (20 of 55) of the CNVs were also detected in the same samples in an independent analysis using the 1 M Illumina single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Findings of note included a common and sometimes homozygous 61 bp exonic deletion in SLC38A10, three CNVs found in lymphoblast-derived DNA but not present in whole-blood derived DNA and, most importantly, in a male proband, an exonic deletion of the TMLHE (trimethyllysine hydroxylase epsilon) that encodes the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of carnitine. Data for CNVs present in lymphoblasts but absent in fresh blood DNA suggest that these represent clonal outgrowth of individual B cells with pre-existing somatic mutations rather than artifacts arising in cell culture. GEO accession number GSE23765 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/, date last accessed on 30 August 2011). Genboree accession: http://genboree.org/java-bin/gbrowser.jsp?refSeqId=1868&entryPointId=chr17&from=53496072&to=53694382&isPublic=yes, date last accessed on 30 August 2011.
Human Molecular Genetics 08/2011; 20(22):4360-70. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four unrelated families with the same unbalanced translocation der(4)t(4;11)(p16.2;p15.4) were analyzed. Both of the breakpoint regions in 4p16.2 and 11p15.4 were narrowed to large ∼359-kb and ∼215-kb low-copy repeat (LCR) clusters, respectively, by aCGH and SNP array analyses. DNA sequencing enabled mapping the breakpoints of one translocation to 24 bp within interchromosomal paralogous LCRs of ∼130 kb in length and 94.7% DNA sequence identity located in olfactory receptor gene clusters, indicating nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) as the mechanism for translocation formation. To investigate the potential involvement of interchromosomal LCRs in recurrent chromosomal translocation formation, we performed computational genome-wide analyses and identified 1143 interchromosomal LCR substrate pairs, >5 kb in size and sharing >94% sequence identity that can potentially mediate chromosomal translocations. Additional evidence for interchromosomal NAHR mediated translocation formation was provided by sequencing the breakpoints of another recurrent translocation, der(8)t(8;12)(p23.1;p13.31). The NAHR sites were mapped within 55 bp in ∼7.8-kb paralogous subunits of 95.3% sequence identity located in the ∼579-kb (chr 8) and ∼287-kb (chr 12) LCR clusters. We demonstrate that NAHR mediates recurrent constitutional translocations t(4;11) and t(8;12) and potentially many other interchromosomal translocations throughout the human genome. Furthermore, we provide a computationally determined genome-wide "recurrent translocation map."
Genome Research 01/2011; 21(1):33-46. · 14.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insertional translocations (ITs) are rare events that require at least three breaks in the chromosomes involved and thus qualify as complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR). In the current study, we identified 40 ITs from approximately 18,000 clinical cases (1:500) using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in conjunction with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmation of the aCGH findings, and parental follow-up studies. Both submicroscopic and microscopically visible IT events were detected. They were divided into three major categories: (1) simple intrachromosomal and interchromosomal IT resulting in pure segmental trisomy, (2) complex IT involving more than one abnormality, (3) deletion inherited from a parent with a balanced IT resulting in pure segmental monosomy. Of the cases in which follow-up parental studies were available, over half showed inheritance from an apparently unaffected parent carrying the same unbalanced rearrangement detected in the propositi, thus decreasing the likelihood that these IT events are clinically relevant. Nevertheless, we identified six cases in which small submicroscopic events were detected involving known disease-associated genes/genomic segments and are likely to be pathogenic. We recommend that copy number gains detected by clinical aCGH analysis should be confirmed using FISH analysis whenever possible in order to determine the physical location of the duplicated segment. We hypothesize that the increased use of aCGH in the clinic will demonstrate that IT occurs more frequently than previously considered but can identify genomic rearrangements with unclear clinical significance.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2010; 152A(5):1111-26. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) deficiency is characterized by a lack of sympathetic noradrenergic function. Affected individuals exhibit profound deficits in autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. The diagnosis of DBH deficiency is based on clinical findings, biochemical studies, and sequencing of DBH gene. We report here the characterization of a mosaic cytogenetic abnormality detected by array-CGH in a 16-year-old female with primary DBH deficiency together with dysmorphic features. These features could not be explained by DBH deficiency leading to further investigation. Karyotype was reported normal (46,XX), while a targeted genomic array-CGH revealed a mosaic loss for a segment of at least 1 Mb across 11p13. This segmental loss included the PAX6 and WT1 genes within the WAGR syndrome critical region. Interestingly, the derivative chromosome 11 was observed only in about 28% of cells analyzed. Utilizing a genome-wide oligonucleotide-based array, the deletion segment was estimated to encompass a segment of approximately 10 Mb. Mosaic deletions of 11p13 in WAGR are extremely uncommon. In this case it is distinctly possible that the patient's bilateral iris colobomata might be a manifestation, albeit abbreviated, of the haploinsufficiency for PAX6. This case highlights the importance of cytogenetic analysis when a mutation alone cannot account for the complete phenotype. It also emphasizes the enhanced ability of high-resolution array-CGH techniques in accurately detecting subtle rearrangements in a mosaic form. Finally, it demonstrates the possible phenotypic effects of low-level PAX6 haploinsufficiency in a dosage-sensitive manner.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 02/2010; 152A(3):732-6. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletions in the 17p13.3 region are associated with abnormal neuronal migration. Point mutations or deletion copy number variants of the PAFAH1B1 gene in this genomic region cause lissencephaly, whereas extended deletions involving both PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE result in Miller-Dieker syndrome characterised by facial dysmorphisms and a more severe grade of lissencephaly. The phenotypic consequences of YWHAE deletion without deletion of PAFAH1B1 have not been studied systematically.
We performed a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of five patients with deletions involving YWHAE but not PAFAH1B1, two with deletion including PAFAH1B1 but not YWHAE, and one with deletion of YWHAE and mosaic for deletion of PAFAH1B1.
Three deletions were terminal whereas five were interstitial. Patients with deletions including YWHAE but not PAFAH1B1 presented with significant growth restriction, cognitive impairment, shared craniofacial features, and variable structural abnormalities of the brain. Growth restriction was not observed in one patient with deletion of YWHAE and TUSC5, implying that other genes in the region may have a role in regulation of growth with CRK being the most likely candidate. Using array based comparative genomic hybridisation and long range polymerase chain reaction, we have delineated the breakpoints of these nonrecurrent deletions and show that the interstitial genomic rearrangements are likely generated by diverse mechanisms, including the recently described Fork Stalling and Template Switching (FoSTeS)/Microhomology Mediated Break Induced Replication (MMBIR).
Microdeletions of chromosome 17p13.3 involving YWHAE present with growth restriction, craniofacial dysmorphisms, structural abnormalities of brain and cognitive impairment. The interstitial deletions are mediated by diverse molecular mechanisms.
Journal of Medical Genetics 08/2009; 46(12):825-33. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Array comparative genomic hybridization studies were performed to further characterize cytogenetic abnormalities found originally by karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization in five clinical cases of distal 10q deletions, including several with complex cytogenetic rearrangements and one with a partial male-to-female sex-reversal phenotype. These results have enabled us to narrow the previously proposed critical regions for the craniofacial, urogenital, and neuropsychiatric disease-related manifestations associated with distal 10q deletion syndrome. Furthermore, we propose that haploinsufficiency of the DOCK1 gene may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the 10q deletion syndrome. We hypothesize that alteration of DOCK1 and/or other genes involved in regulation and signaling of multiple pathways can explain the wide range of phenotypic variability between patients with similar or identical cytogenetic abnormalities.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial disorders constitute a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases for which molecular diagnosis has been a challenge. The current procedures for diagnosis of mitochondrial DNA deletion and depletion syndromes based on Southern analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction are particularly inefficient for determining important parameters of deletion endpoints and percent heteroplasmy. We have developed an improved approach for routine analyses of these disorders in a clinical laboratory.
A custom-designed oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform was developed to provide both tiled coverage of the entire 16.6-kb mitochondrial genome and high-density coverage of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function, for quick evaluation of mitochondrial DNA deletion and depletion.
For initial validation, the performance of this array was characterized in 20 samples with known mitochondrial DNA deletions and 12 with apparent depletions. All previously known deletions were clearly detected and the break points were correctly identified by the oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization, within the limits of resolution of the array. The extent of mitochondrial DNA depletion and the percentage of deletion heteroplasmy were estimated using an automated computational approach that gave results comparable to previous methods. Conclusions from subsequent application of this approach with >300 new clinical samples have been in 100% concordance with those from standard methods. Finally, for one sample, we were able to identify an intragenic deletion in a nuclear gene that was responsible for the observed mitochondrial DNA depletion.
We conclude that this custom array is capable of reliably detecting mitochondrial DNA deletion with elucidation of the deletion break points and the percentage of heteroplasmy. In addition, simultaneous detection of the copy number changes in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes makes this dual genome array of tremendous value in the diagnoses of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 06/2009; 11(7):518-26. · 3.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangements in 28 unrelated patients with 9q34.3 subtelomeric deletions. Four distinct categories were delineated: terminal deletions, interstitial deletions, derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements; each results in haploinsufficiency of the EHMT1 gene and a characteristic phenotype. Interestingly, 25% of our patients had de novo interstitial deletions, 25% were found with derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements and only 50% were bona fide terminal deletions. In contrast to genomic disorders that are often associated with recurrent rearrangements, breakpoints involving the 9q34.3 subtelomere region are highly variable. Molecular studies identified three regions of breakpoint grouping. Interspersed repetitive elements such as Alu, LINE, long-terminal repeats and simple tandem repeats are frequently observed at the breakpoints. Such repetitive elements may play an important role by providing substrates with a specific DNA secondary structure that stabilizes broken chromosomes or assist in either DNA double-strand break repair or repair of single double-strand DNA ends generated by collapsed forks. Sequence analyses of the breakpoint junctions suggest that subtelomeric deletions can be stabilized by both homologous and nonhomologous recombination mechanisms, through a telomere-capture event, by de novo telomere synthesis, or multistep breakage-fusion-bridge cycles.
Human Molecular Genetics 04/2009; 18(11):1924-36. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) experiments, the measurement of DNA copy number of sex chromosomal regions depends on the sex of the patient and the reference DNAs used. We evaluated the ability of bacterial artificial chromosomes/P1-derived artificial and oligonucleotide array-CGH analyses to detect constitutional sex chromosome imbalances using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. Twenty-two samples with imbalances involving either the X or Y chromosome, including deletions, duplications, triplications, derivative or isodicentric chromosomes, and aneuploidy, were analyzed. Although concordant results were obtained for approximately one-half of the samples when using sex-mismatched and sex-matched reference DNAs, array-CGH analyses with sex-mismatched reference DNAs did not detect genomic imbalances that were detected using sex-matched reference DNAs in 6 of 22 patients. Small duplications and deletions of the X chromosome were most difficult to detect in female and male patients, respectively, when sex-mismatched reference DNAs were used. Sex-matched reference DNAs in array-CGH analyses provides optimal sensitivity and enables an automated statistical evaluation for the detection of sex chromosome imbalances when compared with an experimental design using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. Using sex-mismatched reference DNAs in array-CGH analyses may generate false-negative, false-positive, and ambiguous results for sex chromosome-specific probes, thus masking potential pathogenic genomic imbalances. Therefore, to optimize both detection of clinically relevant sex chromosome imbalances and ensure proper experimental performance, we suggest that alternative internal controls be developed and used instead of using sex-mismatched reference DNAs.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 04/2009; 11(3):226-37. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a patient with multiple congenital anomalies including deafness, lacrimal duct stenosis, strabismus, bilateral cervical sinuses, congenital cardiac defects, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Mutation analysis of EYA1, SIX1, and SIX5, genes that underlie otofaciocervical and/or branchio-oto-renal syndrome, was negative. Pathologic diagnosis of the excised cervical sinus tracts was revised on re-examination to heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Using high resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, we identified a novel 2.52 Mb deletion at 19p13.12, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and demonstrated to be a de novo mutation by testing of the parents. Overall, deletions of chromosome 19p13 are rare.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2009; 149A(3):396-402. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism characterized by impaired synthesis of citrulline from carbamylphosphate and ornithine. Previously reported data suggest that only approximately 80% of OTC deficiency (OTCD) patients have a mutation identified by OTC gene sequencing. To elucidate the molecular etiology in patients with clinical signs of OTCD and negative OTC sequencing, we subjected their DNA to array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using a custom-designed targeted 44k oligonucleotide array. Whenever possible, parental DNA was analyzed to determine the inheritance or to rule out copy number variants in the OTC locus. DNA samples from a total of 70 OTCD patients were analyzed. Forty-three patients (43/70 or 61.5%) were found to have disease-causing point mutations in the OTC gene. The remaining 27 patients (27/70 or 38.5%) showed normal sequencing results or failure to amplify all or part of the OTC gene. Among those patients, eleven (11/70 or 15.7%) were found to have deletions ranging from 4.5kb to 10.6Mb, all involving the OTC gene. Sixteen OTCD patients (16/70 or 22.8%) had normal sequencing and oligoarray results. Analysis of the deletions did not reveal shared breakpoints, suggesting that non-homologous end joining or a replication-based mechanism might be responsible for the formation of the observed rearrangements. In summary, we demonstrate that approximately half of the patients with negative OTC sequencing may have OTC gene deletions readily identifiable by the targeted oligonucleotide-based aCGH. Thus, the test should be considered in OTC sequencing-negative patients with classic symptoms of the disease.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2009; 96(3):97-105. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem congenital anomaly disorder. Heterozygous point mutations in three genes (NIPBL, SMC3 and SMC1A), encoding components of the sister chromatid cohesion apparatus, are responsible for approximately 50-60% of CdLS cases. Recent studies have revealed a high degree of genomic rearrangements (for example, deletions and duplications) in the human genome, which result in gene copy number variations (CNVs). CNVs have been associated with a wide range of both Mendelian and complex traits including disease phenotypes such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher, Parkinson, Alzheimer, autism and schizophrenia. Increased versus decreased copy number of the same gene can potentially cause either similar or different clinical features.
This study identified duplications on chromosomes 5 or X using genome wide array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). The duplicated regions contain either the NIPBL or the SMC1A genes. Junction sequences analyses revealed the involvement of three genomic rearrangement mechanisms. The patients share some common features including mental retardation, developmental delay, sleep abnormalities, and craniofacial and limb defects. The systems affected are the same as in CdLS, but clinical manifestations are distinct from CdLS; particularly the absence of the CdLS facial gestalt.
The results confirm the notion that duplication CNV of genes can be a common mechanism for human genetic diseases. Defining the clinical consequences for a specific gene dosage alteration represents a new "reverse genomics" trend in medical genetics that is reciprocal to the traditional approach of delineation of the common clinical phenotype preceding the discovery of the genetic aetiology.
Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2009; 46(9):626-34. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intragenic exonic deletions, which cannot be detected by direct DNA sequencing, are a common cause of Mendelian disease. Array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) is now widely used for the clinical diagnosis of large chromosomal deletions, but not small deletions or analysis of the mitochondrial genome. An oligonucleotide-based microarray that provides high-density coverage of the entire mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes related to mitochondrial disorders has been developed. In this report, the case of an infant referred with tyrosinaemia on newborn screening who developed liver failure is presented. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.679G>A, p.E227K) in the deoxyguanosine gene (DGUOK). Oligonucleotide aCGH allowed simultaneous detection of an intragenic heterozygous deletion of exon 4 of DGUOK and mitochondrial DNA depletion in blood and liver. Screening of the parents' DNA samples indicated that the patient was compound heterozygous for these mutations. An older sibling who had died from liver failure was then retrospectively diagnosed with the same mutations. This report shows the clinical utility of this oligoarray in the detection of changes in DNA copy number in both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, thus greatly improving the molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders caused by nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial DNA biosynthesis.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 01/2009; 94(1):55-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis.
Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated>150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions.
Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for "possible chromosomal abnormality"+/-"others" (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia+/-others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features+multiple congenital anomalies+/-others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features+/-others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease+/-others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies+/-others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates.
Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances and mosaic abnormalities as the cause of birth defects in neonates. Chromosomal microarray analysis allows for timely molecular diagnoses and detects many more clinically relevant genomic abnormalities than conventional cytogenetic studies, enabling more informed decision-making and management and appropriate assessment of recurrence risk.