[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with resectable stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer should receive induction chemotherapy before surgery. The aim is to early control systemic disease, eventually cure the mediastinal tumor spread and improve patients' survival. A recent metanalysis of randomized trials with second-generation platinum-based combinations has reinforced the evidence concerning the benefit of induction chemotherapy followed by surgery versus surgery alone in resectable disease. Moreover a large number of phase II trials have explored the activity and feasibility of platinum-based combinations with third-generation drugs in the same setting. Still opened questions to address with current clinical research are the eventual role of radiotherapy as induction treatment, the impact of definite chemoradiation versus induction treatment followed by surgical resection on local control and survival and finally the non-easy choice between neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to explore the activity and feasibility of gemcitabine plus cisplatin as induction chemotherapy in patients with Stage IIIA N(2) and selected IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
From September 1997 to July 2000, 70 chemonaive patients with Stage III NSCLC, median age of 64 years, World Health Organization performance status 0, 1, or 2, and the ability to tolerate a pneumonectomy entered the study and received gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) on day 2 every 3 weeks. After three cycles of induction chemotherapy, patients underwent resection or radiotherapy.
Responses were seen in 40 of the 69 assessable patients, for an intent-to treat overall response rate of 57.1% (95% confidence interval, 45-62%), with 4.2% complete response. Response rates were 68 and 35% in patients with Stage IIIA and IIIB disease, respectively. The overall pathological CR rate after induction chemotherapy was 3%, with an overall pathological downstaging rate of 20%. Median survival for all patients was 14.5 months, with an estimated 1-year survival rate of 67% (95% CI, 54.3-79.5%). The estimated time to treatment failure was 12.6 months. Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was the main hematologic toxicity, occurring in 26% of patients, but was not associated with life-threatening bleeding. Febrile neutropenia was rare and other severe non-hematologic toxicities were uncommon.
The 3-week schedule of gemcitabine plus cisplatin is highly active as induction chemotherapy in Stage IIIA N(2) unresectable NSCLC. This suggests a need for a multimodality approach upfront, such as concurrent chemoradiation therapy, particularly in patients with Stage IIIB disease.
Lung Cancer 04/2002; 35(3):319-27. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore a new schedule of gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) combination therapy using two different cisplatin doses in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
From May to December 1997, 92 chemonaive patients entered the study and 88 (28 with locally advanced and 60 with disseminated NSCLC) were evaluable for response and toxicity (45 in arm A and 43 in arm B). Patients were randomly assigned to arm A or arm B. Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 was given on days 1-8 plus cisplatin 100 mg/m2 in arm A and cisplatin 70 mg/m2 in arm B on day 2 of every 21-day cycle.
The overall response rates in arms A and B were 42% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27.8%-56.7%) and 47% (95% CI: 31.6%-61.5%), respectively. Median duration of response was 9.7 months (range 1.8 to 30.9 months; 13.1 and 9.5 months for arm A and B, respectively), and median survival was 12 months (range 0.2 to 31.1 months; 15.4 and 11.5 months for arm A and B, respectively). Major WHO grade 3-4 toxicities in arm A vs. arm B included: thrombocytopenia (23% vs. 17% of courses), leukopenia (15%, vs. 4% of courses), anemia (7% vs. 6% of courses), and nausea-vomiting (20% vs. 7% of patients). Grade 1-2 nephrotoxicity occurred in 20% of patients in arm A and in 7% of patients in arm B, with one grade 4 episode in arm A. Six patients discontinued treatment because of toxicities, 5 in arm A and I in arm B.
Results of this trial indicate that both schedules are feasible and active, with a milder toxicity in the arm with the lower cisplatin dose.
Annals of Oncology 11/2000; 11(10):1295-300. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by inflammation of deep lung and pulmonary hypoxemia. In order to investigate if the clinical manifestations of this disease can be correlated to specific alterations in red blood cell (RBC) morphology, the erythrocytes from 12 COPD patients and 12 control subjects were obtained and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the RBCs from COPD patients are greatly altered with respect to control erythrocytes. Specifically, SEM analysis revealed important shape changes while light fluorescence microscopy demonstrated microfilament network (actin and spectrin) redistribution. Finally, EPR spectroscopy, using the paramagnetic spin label 5-nitroxystearate, revealed an increase in membrane order (rigidity) in the erythrocytes of COPD patients with respect to controls. When taken together and when compared to the morphological variations present in the RBCs of other ill patients (i.e., diabetics), the data presented in this report seem to suggest that changes in erythrocyte shape and rheological properties play a key role in RBC dysfunction in the course of COPD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study comprised 30 patients who had not been exposed occupationally to dusts, but for whom a diagnosis of suspected pulmonary carcinoma had been made. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from these patients were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis in an effort to study the mineral particulate present in the alveolar region. Particles of silica, silicates, oxides, sulphates, and metal alloys were detected in various percentages in each subject. The smoking habits of two groups of patients that were defined by their bronchoalveolar lavage particulate concentrations (i.e., lower or higher than the median of the distribution) differed significantly.
Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal 01/1996; 51(2):157-61.