A Bouvet

Faculty of Medecine of Tunis, Tunis-Ville, Tūnis, Tunisia

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Publications (93)292.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies showed that the profile of infective endocarditis (IE) significantly changed over the past decades. However, most studies involved referral centers. We conducted a population-based study to control for this referral bias. The objective was to update the description of characteristics of IE in France and to compare the profile of community-acquired versus healthcare-associated IE. A prospective population-based observational study conducted in all medical facilities from 7 French regions (32% of French individuals aged ≥18 years) identified 497 adults with Duke-Li-definite IE who were first admitted to the hospital in 2008. Main measures included age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence of IE and multivariate Cox regression analysis for risk factors of in-hospital death. The age-standardized and sex-standardized annual incidence of IE was 33.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.8-36.9) cases per million inhabitants. The incidence was highest in men aged 75-79 years. A majority of patients had no previously known heart disease. Staphylococci were the most common causal agents, accounting for 36.2% of cases (Staphylococcus aureus, 26.6%; coagulase-negative staphylococci, 9.7%). Healthcare-associated IE represented 26.7% of all cases and exhibited a clinical pattern significantly different from that of community-acquired IE. S. aureus as the causal agent of IE was the most important factor associated with in-hospital death in community-acquired IE (hazard ratio [HR], 2.82 [95% CI, 1.72-4.61]) and the single factor in healthcare-associated IE (HR, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.33-4.85]). S. aureus became both the leading cause and the most important prognostic factor of IE, and healthcare-associated IE appeared as a major subgroup of the disease.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2012; 54(9):1230-9. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. A national survey was initiated to assess the burden of invasive GAS infections in France, describe their clinical characteristics, and assess the molecular characteristics of GAS strains responsible for these infections. The survey was conducted in 194 hospitals, accounting for 51% of acute care hospital admissions in France. Clinical data, predisposing factors, and demographic data were obtained, and all GAS isolates were emm sequence typed. We identified 664 cases of invasive GAS infections, with an annual incidence of 3.1 per 100,000 population. The case-fatality ratio was 14% and rose to 43% in the case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Bacteremia without identified focus (22%) and skin/soft tissue infections (30%) were the most frequent clinical presentations. Necrotizing fasciitis was frequent in adults (18%) and uncommon in children (3%). The 3 predominant emm types were emm1, emm89, and emm28, accounting for 33%, 16%, and 10% of GAS isolates, respectively. The emm1 type was associated with fatal outcomes and was more frequent in children than in adults. Six clusters of cases were identified, with each cluster involving 2 invasive cases due to GAS strains which shared identical GAS emm sequence types. Four clusters of cases involved eight postpartum infections, one family cluster involved a mother and child, and one cluster involved two patients in a nursing home. Invasive GAS infection is one of the most severe bacterial diseases in France, particularly in persons aged ≥ 50 years or when associated with toxic shock syndrome.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2011; 49(12):4094-100. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe invasive group A streptococcal diseases have re-emerged during the past 10-20 years. In order to provide a better insight into the current epidemiological situation in France, we analysed the questionnaires regarding all invasive strains received at the National Reference Center for Streptococci (CNR-Strep) between 2006 and 2010 from patients aged ≥ 18 and characterized them by emm typing, spe gene detection and antibiotic resistance. Among the 1542 invasive GAS strains studied, 78% (n=1206) were from blood cultures, and a streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) was described in 22% (n=340) of cases, mainly associated with necrotizing fasciitis (NF) and pleuro-pulmonary infections (p<0.001). The in-hospital fatality rate was 15%. A total of 83 different emm types were recovered but the three predominant emm types, representing almost 60% of the isolates, were emm1 (24%), emm28 (17%) and emm89 (15%). The preponderance of each emm type varied according to the year, with a significant constant increase of emm28 strains, whereas emm1 strains, representing approximately 32% of GAS invasive isolates in 2007 and 2008, dropped to <15% in 2010 (p<0.001). The distribution of phage-associated superantigen genes (speA, speC and ssa) was linked to certain emm types. Between 2006 and 2010, the percentage that was macrolide-resistant decreased from 11% to 5%, confirming the trend observed in 2007. Fortunately, emm1 strains associated with the most life-threatening clinical manifestations remain susceptible to all anti-streptococcal antibiotics.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 06/2011; 18(7):702-10. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pyogenes or group A Streptococcus, a major human pathogen, remains susceptible to beta-lactams, but resistance to other antibiotics is becoming more common. The purpose of this study was to characterize both phenotypic and genotypic epidemiological markers of group A Streptococcus and to identify the mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines. A total of 103 strains, isolated at Charles Nicolle University Hospital of Tunis, were investigated. The rate of resistance to erythromycin was low (5%), whereas a high rate of tetracycline resistance was found (70%). All the macrolide-resistant isolates expressed the constitutive macrolide, lincosamide, and streptograminB phenotype and harbored the erm(B) gene. Resistance to tetracycline was mainly due to the tet(M) gene, which is commonly associated with the conjugative transposon Tn916. No significant association was found between erm(B) and tet(M) genes. The tetracycline-resistant strains belonged to 28 distinct emm types. Among them, emm118 was the most prevalent type, followed by emm42, std432, emm76, and emm18. However, emm1, emm4, emm6, emm28, and emm3 were the most frequent types among tetracycline susceptible isolates. Only emm118 and emm42 types (p ≤ 0.05) were significantly associated with resistance to tetracycline.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 05/2011; 17(3):377-82. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To the Editor: Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A streptococci (GAS), are human pathogens responsible for pharyngitis as well as skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive GAS diseases, including bacteremia, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis, are life-threatening, especially when associated with toxic shock syndrome. Several risk factors for GAS infections are known, such as diabetes, immunosuppression, drug use, and skin lesions (1,2).
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 02/2011; 17(2):315-7. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To further understand the epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) infections in Tunisia, phenotypic and genomic markers of GAS isolates, including antibiotic susceptibility, biotypes, T and emm types and toxin gene profiles, have been characterized. A total of 103 isolates, collected between 2000 and 2006, were investigated; 47 were recovered from invasive infections, and 56 from non-invasive infections. Rates of resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampin were 70.8%, 4.8%, 4.8% and 0.9%, respectively. High levels of resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin were observed in 1.9% and 4.8% of isolates, respectively. Biotype 3 was most common. Twenty different T patterns were observed, with a predominance of T3/13/B3264, and 38 different emm types. In both invasive and non-invasive isolates, emm118 (9.7%), emm42 (8.7%), emm1 (7.8%), st432 (6.8%), emm28 (5.8%) and emm76 (5.8%) were the most prevalent types; emm1, emm76 and emm18 were mainly observed among invasive infections, whereas emm118 (12.5%), emm42 (10.7%) and emm28 (8.9%) were predominant among non-invasive infections. The speB gene was detected in all isolates, but there were variable frequencies of speA, speC and ssa (20.3%, 32% and 25.2% respectively). Significant associations of emm1, emm18 and emm3 with speA and of emm4 and st432 with ssa were found. This first report from Tunisia revealed a unique emm distribution of GAS that differs from those of other regions. This information on the distribution of such emm types will be useful for the development of an appropriate vaccine in a country where the incidence of rheumatic fever remains high.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2011; 17(1):63-8. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Given the increasing aetiological importance of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in diseases which are primarily attributed to S. pyogenes, molecular markers are essential to distinguish these species and delineate their epidemiology more precisely. Many clinical microbiology laboratories rely on agglutination reactivity and biochemical tests to distinguish them. These methods have limitations which are particularly exacerbated when isolates with mixed properties are encountered. In order to provide additional distinguishing parameters that could be used to unequivocally discriminate these two common pathogens, we assess here three molecular targets: the speB gene, intergenic region upstream of the scpG gene (IRSG) and virPCR. Of these, the former two respectively gave positive and negative results for S. pyogenes, and negative and positive results for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Thus, a concerted use of these nucleic acid-based methods is particularly helpful in epidemiological surveillance to accurately assess the relative contribution of these species to streptococcal infections and diseases.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2010; 29(5):585-9. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Globicatella sanguinis is a rare cause of acute meningitis. We demonstrated human carriage of Globicatella by identifying cefotaxime-resistant strains in groin and rectal specimens 9 months after invasive infection. The pathogenic strain isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and the carriage strains were accurately identified by sodA gene sequence analysis.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2010; 48(4):1491-3. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently observed a near fatal case of transfusion-transmitted infection with standard platelet concentrate. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis was isolated both from donor, residual component container and cultures of the patient's blood. This should question the usefulness of systematic bacterial detection in platelet concentrates, however a lethal accident has occurred recently which escaped bacterial detection. This observation calls for implementation of pathogen inactivation procedures for platelets concentrates.
    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 02/2010; 17(1):9-13. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently observed a near fatal case of transfusion-transmitted infection with standard platelet concentrate. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis was isolated both from donor, residual component container and cultures of the patient's blood. This should question the usefulness of systematic bacterial detection in platelet concentrates, however a lethal accident has occurred recently which escaped bacterial detection. This observation calls for implementation of pathogen inactivation procedures for platelets concentrates.
    Transfusion Clinique Et Biologique - TRANSFUS CLIN BIOLOGIQUE. 01/2010; 17(1):9-13.
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    ABSTRACT: New Caledonia is an archipelago in the South Pacific with a high prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Conducted in 2006, this study aimed at characterizing clinical manifestations and microbial features of isolates obtained from invasive Streptococcus pyogenes disease. Clinical and demographic data were collected prospectively. Isolates were biotyped, T typed, emm sequenced, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Detection of the speA, speB, speC, and ssa genes was also carried out. The estimated annual incidence of invasive S. pyogenes disease in 2006 was high at 38 cases/100,000 inhabitants in New Caledonia. Invasive isolates were obtained from 90 patients with necrotizing fasciitis (41 cases), bacteremia with no identified focus (12 cases), myositis (10 cases), septic arthritis (9 cases), erysipelas (8 cases), postpartum infection (4 cases), myelitis and osteomyelitis (3 cases), severe pneumonia (2 cases), and endocarditis (1 case). The most frequent associated comorbidities were skin lesions (71%) and obesity (29%). Thirty-one different emm types were identified, and the following six accounted for 54% of the isolates: emm15 (15.5%), emm92 (12.2%), emm106 (8.9%), emm74 (6.7%), emm89 (5.6%), and emm109 (5.6%). The speA, speC, and ssa genes were expressed at different frequencies in the various emm types. The first epidemiological study of invasive S. pyogenes disease in New Caledonia highlights that emm type distribution is particular and should be taken into account in the development of an appropriate vaccine. These findings support the prevention of pyoderma and other cutaneous lesions in order to limit the development of both invasive disease and poststreptococcal sequelae in the South Pacific.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2009; 48(2):526-30. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the 1980s, infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococci (GAS) were marked by the increase in invasive infections and the emergence of clones which were resistant to macrolides. Those challenges led the French national reference center for streptococci to enhance the epidemiological survey and the characterization of GAS strains, in collaboration with the National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Active surveillance is of major importance for implementation of therapeutic and prophylactic guidelines and for evaluation of future streptococcal vaccines.
    Archives de Pédiatrie 11/2009; 17(2):201-8. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus) is a motile gram-negative bacillus usually arising from urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. C. koseri rarely causes infection in immunocompetent patients and, thus far, has been considered an opportunistic pathogen. We report on a 30-year-old man, with no medical past, hospitalized for infective aortic endocarditis due to C. koseri. Four weeks of antibiotherapy led to a full recovery for this patient. However, this case is unusual, as previous history and 1 year of follow-up showed no features of intercurrent immunosuppression. Microbiological diagnosis was based on using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2009; 47(12):4185-6. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four cases of Streptococcus pyogenes infection due to an emm-type 11 strain, including one with a fatal outcome, occurred within a seven-member family. All strains shared biotype 5, pyrogenic exotoxin genes speB and speC, and resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, macrolides and lincosamides. The identity of SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns confirmed their clonal origin. This highlights the ability of S. pyogenes to spread rapidly among family members. This first report of a family outbreak due to emm11 S. pyogenes reinforces the importance of surveillance of close family contacts of individuals with invasive streptococcal disease, and provides further support for antibiotic prophylaxis among the elderly.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 07/2009; 16(3):292-5. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As antibiotic pressure often triggers bacterial resistance, the use of short-duration therapies is increasingly recommended. The objective of the present study was to evaluate both the clinical efficiency and the impact on oral streptococci of a 3 day versus a 7 day amoxicillin therapy for odontogenic infection requiring tooth extraction. On day 0, patients were randomly assigned to a 3 day or 7 day amoxicillin treatment. The tooth was extracted on day 2 and the post-operative follow-up was carried out on day 9. Oral flora was collected on days 0, 9 and 30, and the susceptibility of the streptococci to amoxicillin was determined. The results showed that treatment with amoxicillin for 3 or 7 days had a similar clinical efficiency, and also induced similar selection of oral streptococci with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin, suggesting that the selection of strains with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin is a rapid phenomenon, appearing even with short-duration therapies.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 07/2009; 58(Pt 8):1092-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Vox Sanguinis 05/2009; 96(3):271. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of invasive streptococcal pyogenic infections has been on a worldwide increase. The most frequent clinical manifestations start with cutaneous septicemias. We report an unusual case of Streptococcus pyogenes-based septicemia, secondary to appendicitis with rapidly evolving peritonitis.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 03/2009; 27(2):254.e1-2. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to compare the epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes infection within Europe, prospective data were collected through the Strep-EURO program. Surveillance for severe cases of S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe by using a standardized case definition and questionnaire. Patient data as well as bacterial isolates were collected and characterized by T and M/emm typing, and selected strains were analyzed for the presence of superantigen genes. Data were analyzed to compare the clinical and microbiological patterns of the infections across the participating countries. A total of 4,353 isolates were collected from 5,521 cases with severe S. pyogenes infections who were identified. A wide diversity of M/emm types (n = 104) was found among the S. pyogenes clinical isolates, but the M/emm type distribution varied broadly between participating countries. The 10 most predominant M/emm types were M/emm type 1 (M/emm1), M/emm28, M/emm3, M/emm89, M/emm87, M/emm12, M/emm4, M/emm83, M/emm81, and M/emm5, in descending order. A correlation was found between some specific disease manifestations, the age of the patients, and the emm types. Although streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis were caused by a large number of types, they were particularly associated with M/emm1 and M/emm3. The emm types included in the 26-valent vaccine under development were generally well represented in the present material; 16 of the vaccine types accounted for 69% of isolates. The Strep-EURO collaborative program has contributed to enhancement of the knowledge of the spread of invasive disease caused by S. pyogenes within Europe and encourages future surveillance by the notification of cases and the characterization of strains, which are important for vaccination strategies and other health care issues.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2009; 47(4):1155-65. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the production of superantigenic toxins in vivo and in vitro in two patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In the first patient, a woman with puerperal fever and Streptococcus pyogenes peritonitis, flow cytometry of blood cells and in vitro studies of the isolate showed massive expansion of Vbeta 2-positive T cells corresponding to SpeC production. In the second case, involving a patient with streptococcal TSS and purpura fulminans following non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy, no Vbeta expansion of T cells was observed in vivo, but the SpeC Vbeta signature was also detected in vitro. In this latter patient, NSAID administration and/or severe disseminated infection might partly explain the absence of Vbeta T cell expansion in vivo. Combined in vivo and in vitro detection of a superantigenic toxin Vbeta signature may be useful to determine which superantigenic toxin is involved in individual cases of streptococcal TSS.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2008; 28(6):671-6. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The past 2 decades have brought worrying increases in severe Streptococcus pyogenes diseases globally. To investigate and compare the epidemiological patterns of these diseases within Europe, data were collected through a European Union FP-5-funded program (Strep-EURO). Prospective population-based surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) using a standardized case definition. A total of 5,522 cases were identified across the 11 countries during this period. Rates of reported infection varied, reaching 3/100,000 population in the northern European countries. Seasonal patterns of infection showed remarkable congruence between countries. The risk of infection was highest among the elderly, and rates were higher in males than in females in most countries. Skin lesions/wounds were the most common predisposing factor, reported in 25% of cases; 21% had no predisposing factors reported. Skin and soft tissue were the most common foci of infection, with 32% of patients having cellulitis and 8% necrotizing fasciitis. The overall 7-day case fatality rate was 19%; it was 44% among patients who developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The findings from Strep-EURO confirm a high incidence of severe S. pyogenes disease in Europe. Furthermore, these results have identified targets for public health intervention, as well as raising awareness of severe S. pyogenes disease across Europe.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 08/2008; 46(7):2359-67. · 4.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
292.99 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Faculty of Medecine of Tunis
      Tunis-Ville, Tūnis, Tunisia
  • 2010
    • Université Paris Descartes
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brest
      Brest, Brittany, France
  • 2009
    • Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées Sainte-Anne
      Toulon-sur-Mer, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1988–2009
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Centre Hospitalier de Meaux
      Île-de-France, France
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1991–2007
    • Hôtel-Dieu de Paris – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Centre
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • Centre Hospitalier de Cahors
      Cahors, Midi-Pyrénées, France
    • Hôpital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Centre
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2004
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999
    • Hôpital de Poissy Saint Germain en Laye
      Saint-Germain, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Creteil
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1990
    • Hôpital Ambroise Paré – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Ile-de-France Ouest
      Billancourt, Île-de-France, France
  • 1989
    • Hôpital Bichat - Claude-Bernard (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Nord Val de Seine)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Institut Pasteur International Network
      • Département Bactériologie de Bangui
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1986
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France