[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pbx1 is the product of a proto-oncogene originally discovered at the site of chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias. It binds DNA as a complex with a broad subset of homeodomain proteins, but its contributions to hematopoiesis have not been established. This paper reports that Pbx1 is expressed in hematopoietic progenitors during murine embryonic development and that its absence results in severe anemia and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 15 (E15) or E16. Definitive myeloerythroid lineages are present in Pbx1(-/-) fetal livers, but the total numbers of colony-forming cells are substantially reduced. Fetal liver hypoplasia reflects quantitative as well as qualitative defects in the most primitive multilineage progenitors and their lineage-restricted progeny. Hematopoietic stem cells from Pbx1(-/-) embryos have reduced colony-forming activity and are unable to establish multilineage hematopoiesis in competitive reconstitution experiments. Common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), the earliest known myeloerythroid-restricted progenitors, are markedly depleted in Pbx1(-/-) embryos at E14 and display clonogenic defects in erythroid colony formation. Comparative cell-cycle indexes suggest that these defects result largely from insufficient proliferation. Megakaryocyte- and erythrocyte-committed progenitors are also reduced in number and show decreased erythroid colony-forming potential. Taken together, these data indicate that Pbx1 is essential for the function of hematopoietic progenitors with erythropoietic potential and that its loss creates a proliferative constriction at the level of the CMP. Thus, Pbx1 is required for the maintenance, but not the initiation, of definitive hematopoiesis and contributes to the mitotic amplifications of progenitor subsets through which mature erythrocytes are generated. (Blood. 2001;98:618-626)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic fate maps in the developing mouse embryo remain imprecise. Definitive, adult-type hematopoiesis first appears in the fetal liver, then progresses to the spleen and bone marrow. Clonogenic common lymphoid progenitors and clonogenic common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) in adult mouse bone marrow that give rise to all lymphoid and myeloid lineages, respectively, have recently been identified. Here it is shown that myelopoiesis in the fetal liver similarly proceeds through a CMP equivalent. Fetal liver CMPs give rise to megakaryocyte-erythrocyte-restricted progenitors (MEPs) and granulocyte-monocyte-restricted progenitors (GMPs) that can also be prospectively isolated by cell surface phenotype. MEPs and GMPs generate mutually exclusive cell types in clonogenic colony assays and in transplantation experiments, suggesting that the lineage restriction observed within each progenitor subset is absolute under normal conditions. Purified progenitor populations were used to analyze expression profiles of various hematopoiesis-related genes. Expression patterns closely matched those of the adult counterpart populations. These results suggest that adult hematopoietic hierarchies are determined early in the development of the definitive immune system and suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying cell fate decisions within the myeloerythroid lineages are conserved from embryo to adult. (Blood. 2001;98:627-635)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that there are at least 2 classes of dendritic cells (DCs), CD8alpha(+) DCs derived from the lymphoid lineage and CD8alpha(-) DCs derived from the myeloid lineage. Here, the abilities of lymphoid- and myeloid-restricted progenitors to generate DCs are compared, and their overall contributions to the DC compartment are evaluated. It has previously been shown that primitive myeloid-committed progenitors (common myeloid progenitors [CMPs]) are efficient precursors of both CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs in vivo. Here it is shown that the earliest lymphoid-committed progenitors (common lymphoid progenitors [CLPs]) and CMPs and their progeny granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) can give rise to functional DCs in vitro and in vivo. CLPs are more efficient in generating DCs than their T-lineage descendants, the early thymocyte progenitors and pro-T cells, and CMPs are more efficient DC precursors than the descendant GMPs, whereas pro-B cells and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors are incapable of generating DCs. Thus, DC developmental potential is preserved during T- but not B-lymphoid differentiation from CLP and during granulocyte-macrophage but not megakaryocyte-erythrocyte development from CMP. In vivo reconstitution experiments show that CLPs and CMPs can reconstitute CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs with similar efficiency on a per cell basis. However, CMPs are 10-fold more numerous than CLPs, suggesting that at steady state, CLPs provide only a minority of splenic DCs and approximately half the DCs in thymus, whereas most DCs, including CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) subtypes, are of myeloid origin. (Blood. 2001;97:3333-3341)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells which both initiate adaptive immune responses and control tolerance to self-antigens. It has been suggested that these different effects on responder cells depend on subsets of DCs arising from either myeloid or lymphoid hematopoietic origins. In this model, CD8 alpha+ Mac-1- DCs are supposed to be of lymphoid while CD8 alpha- Mac-1+ DCs are supposed to be of myeloid origin. Here we summarize our findings that both CD8 alpha+ and CD8 alpha- DCs can arise from clonogenic common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) in both thymus and spleen. Therefore CD8 alpha expression DCs does not indicate a lymphoid origin and differences among CD8 alpha+ and CD8 alpha- DCs might rather reflect maturation status than ontogeny. On the basis of transplantation studies, it seems likely that most of the DCs in secondary lymphoid organs and a substantial fraction of thymic DCs are myeloid-derived.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/2001; 938:167-73; discussion 173-4. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical in both initiating adaptive immune responses and maintaining tolerance to self antigens. These apparently contradictory roles have been suggested to depend on different subsets of DCs that arise from either myeloid or lymphoid hematopoietic origins, respectively. Although DC expression of CD8alpha is attributed to a lymphoid origin, here we show that both CD8alpha+ and CD8alpha- DCs can arise from clonogenic common myeloid progenitors in both thymus and spleen. Thus, expression of CD8alpha is not indicative of a lymphoid origin, and phenotypic and functional differences among DC subsets are likely to reflect maturation status rather than ontogeny.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to progeny that progressively lose self-renewal capacity and become restricted to one lineage. The points at which haematopoietic stem cell-derived progenitors commit to each of the various lineages remain mostly unknown. We have identified a clonogenic common lymphoid progenitor that can differentiate into T, B and natural killer cells but not myeloid cells. Here we report the prospective identification, purification and characterization, using cell-surface markers and flow cytometry, of a complementary clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages. Common myeloid progenitors give rise to either megakaryocyte/erythrocyte or granulocyte/macrophage progenitors. Purified progenitors were used to provide a first-pass expression profile of various haematopoiesis-related genes. We propose that the common lymphoid progenitor and common myeloid progenitor populations reflect the earliest branch points between the lymphoid and myeloid lineages, and that the commitment of common myeloid progenitors to either the megakaryocyte/erythrocyte or the granulocyte/macrophage lineages are mutually exclusive events.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms and pathways for commitment to the lymphoid lineage from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) remain controversial. The interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) transduces nonredundant signals for both T- and B-cell development. Recently, we identified a clonogenic common lymphoid progenitor population in mouse bone marrow that can give rise to T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells, but lacks myeloid differentiation capacity. These cells are not self-renewing stem cells, but progenitors that have a limited life span. HSC do not express IL-7R, and the upregulation of the IL-7R occurs at the stage of common lymphoid progenitors. The IL-7R mediates nonredundant signals to reinforce the survival of developing T cells, and to promote rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in B-cell progenitors. Thus, common lymphoid progenitors exist in early hematopoiesis, and expression of the IL-7R is a critical step in the initiation of lymphoid development from HSC.
International Journal of Hematology 07/1999; 69(4):217-26. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fas-deficient (Fas(lpr/lpr)) mice constitutively expressing Bcl-2 in myeloid cells by the hMRP8 promoter often develop a fatal disease analogous to human acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M2). Hematopoietic cells from leukemic Fas(lpr/lpr)hMRP8bcl-2 animals form clonogenic blast colonies in vitro and can transfer disease to wild-type mice. In vitro ligation of Fas on Fas+/+ hMRP8bcl-2 marrow cells depletes approximately 50% of myeloid progenitor activity, demonstrating that Bcl-2 can only partially block Fas-mediated death signals in myelomonocytic progenitors. In addition, Fas(lpr/lpr) marrow contains greatly increased numbers of myeloid colony-forming cells as compared to Fas+/+ controls. Taken together, these data suggest that Fas has a novel role in the regulation of myelopoiesis and that Fas may act as a tumor suppressor to control leukemogenic transformation in myeloid progenitor cells.