Carol Miller-Graziano

Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States

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Publications (69)299.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A subset of Pts develops dysfunctional MO to inflammatory DC differentiation and immunosuppression. MDDC, a newly described DC subset, is pivotal in initiating antibacterial responses. Endogenous proteins are known to alter MO to MDDC differentiation. In particular, trauma-elevated TSP-1, a protein that is known to affect MO functions, could trigger MDDC differentiation defects. We hypothesized that TSP-1-deranged differentiation of inflammatory CD1a(+)MDDC would negatively alter activation of immune functions, thereby increasing the risk of postinjury infections. Post-trauma increased TSP-1 levels in patients' plasma and MO correlated with two distinct MDDC differentiation dysfunctions: the previously described decreased CD1a(+)DC yields but also, development of an immunoincompetent CD1a(+)MDDC. The Pts' development of Dysf DC correlated to increased infectious complications. TSP-1 triggered its inhibitory receptor, CD47, activating an inhibitory phosphatase, SHP-1. Increased pSHP-1, decreased antigen processing, and depressed T cell stimulation characterized Pt Dysf DC. TSP-1 mimics added during Cnt MDDC differentiation depressed CD1a(+)DC yields but more importantly, also induced defective CD1a(+)MDDC, reproducing Pts' MDDC differentiation dysfunctions. CD47 triggering during Cnt MDDC differentiation increased SHP-1 activation, inhibiting IL-4-induced STAT-6 activation (critical for CD1a(+)MDDC differentiation). SHP-1 inhibition during MDDC differentiation in the presence of TSP-1 mimics restored pSTAT-6 levels and CD1a(+)MDDC immunogenicity. Thus, postinjury-elevated TSP-1 can decrease CD1a(+)DC yields but more critically, also induces SHP-1 hyperactivity, deviating MDDC differentiation to defective CD1a(+) inflammatory MDDCs by inhibiting STAT-6.
    Journal of leukocyte biology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play an important role in mediating the innate immune response after severe traumatic injury; however, the cellular proteome response to traumatic condition is still largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We applied 2D-LC-MS/MS based shotgun proteomics to perform comparative proteome profiling of human PMNs from severe trauma patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: A total of 197 out of ∼2500 proteins (being identified with at least two peptides) were observed with significant abundance changes following the injury. The proteomics data were further compared with transcriptomics data for the same genes obtained from an independent patient cohort. The comparison showed that the protein abundance changes for the majority of proteins were consistent with the mRNA abundance changes in terms of directions of changes. Moreover, increased protein secretion was suggested as one of the mechanisms contributing to the observed discrepancy between protein and mRNA abundance changes. Functional analyses of the altered proteins showed that many of these proteins were involved in immune response, protein biosynthesis, protein transport, NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and apoptosis pathways. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our data suggest increased neutrophil activation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis in response to trauma. The study not only reveals an overall picture of functional neutrophil response to trauma at the proteome level, but also provides a rich proteomics data resource of trauma-associated changes in the neutrophil that will be valuable for further studies of the functions of individual proteins in PMNs.
    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 04/2013; · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R(2) between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2013; 110(9):3507-12. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Paul E Bankey, Carol L Miller-Graziano
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    ABSTRACT: Immunosuppression resulting from excessive post-trauma apoptosis of hyperactivated T cells is controversial. TRAIL mediated T cell apoptosis decreases highly activated T cells' responses. Caspase-10, a particular TRAIL target, was increased in trauma patients' T cells with concomitantly elevated plasma TRAIL levels. These patients' T cells developed anergy, implicating increased TRAIL-mediated T cell apoptosis in post-trauma T cell anergy. Control T cells cultured with patients' sera containing high TRAIL levels increased their caspase-10 activity and apoptosis. Stimulated primary T cells are TRAIL apoptosis resistant. Increased plasma thrombospondin-1 and T cell expression of CD47, a thrombospondin-1 receptor, preceded patients' T cell anergy. CD47 triggering of T cells increased their sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Augmentation of T cell TRAIL-induced apoptosis was secondary to CD47 triggered activation of the Src homology-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and was partially blocked by a SHP-1 inhibitor. We suggest that combined post-trauma CD47 triggering, SHP-1 mediated NFκB suppression, and elevated TRAIL levels increase patients' CD47 expressing T cell apoptosis, thus contributing to subsequent T cell anergy.
    Clinical Immunology 08/2012; 145(1):44-54. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor cells release several factors that can help the progression of the tumor by directly supporting tumor growth and/or suppressing host antitumor immunity. Here, we report that human primary breast tumor cells not only express elevated levels of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) at the intracellular level but also release extremely high levels of Hsp27 compared with the same patients' serum Hsp27 levels, predicting an acutely increased concentration of soluble Hsp27 in the human breast tumor microenvironment (HBTM). We demonstrate that Hsp27 levels in the HBTM can be extremely elevated as evidenced by high soluble Hsp27 levels in patients' tumor interstitial fluid. Because increasing numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in the HBTM negatively correlate to patients' clinical outcomes and we have previously reported the immunoregulatory activity of soluble Hsp27, here, we tested for any specific effects of soluble Hsp27 on human monocyte to macrophage differentiation. We demonstrate that soluble Hsp27 causes the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages with immuno-tolerizing phenotypes (HLA-DRlow, CD86low, PD-L1high, ILT2high, and ILT4high). We detected the presence of TAMs with similar phenotypes in breast cancer patients. Hsp27-differentiated macrophages induce severe unresponsiveness/anergy in T cells. Moreover, these macrophages lose tumoricidal activity but become extremely proangiogenic, inducing significant neovascularization, a process that is critically important for tumor growth. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel immune escape and tumor growth-supporting mechanism mediated by soluble Hsp27 that may be operative in human breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 01/2011; 71(2):318-27. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils have key roles in modulating the immune response. We present a robust methodology for rapidly isolating neutrophils directly from whole blood with 'on-chip' processing for mRNA and protein isolation for genomics and proteomics. We validate this device with an ex vivo stimulation experiment and by comparison with standard bulk isolation methodologies. Last, we implement this tool as part of a near-patient blood processing system within a multi-center clinical study of the immune response to severe trauma and burn injury. The preliminary results from a small cohort of subjects in our study and healthy controls show a unique time-dependent gene expression pattern clearly demonstrating the ability of this tool to discriminate temporal transcriptional events of neutrophils within a clinical setting.
    Nature medicine 09/2010; 16(9):1042-7. · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Time-course microarray experiments are capable of capturing dynamic gene expression profiles. It is important to study how these dynamic profiles depend on the multiple factors that characterize the experimental condition under which the time course is observed. Analytic methods are needed to simultaneously handle the time course and factorial structure in the data. We developed a method to evaluate factor effects by pooling information across the time course while accounting for multiple testing and nonnormality of the microarray data. The method effectively extracts gene-specific response features and models their dependency on the experimental factors. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional time-course data can be handled by our approach. The method was used to analyze the impact of age on the temporal gene response to burn injury in a large-scale clinical study. Our analysis reveals that 21% of the genes responsive to burn are age-specific, among which expressions of mitochondria and immunoglobulin genes are differentially perturbed in pediatric and adult patients by burn injury. These new findings in the body's response to burn injury between children and adults support further investigations of therapeutic options targeting specific age groups. The methodology proposed here has been implemented in R package "TANOVA" and submitted to the Comprehensive R Archive Network at http://www.r-project.org/. It is also available for download at http://gluegrant1.stanford.edu/TANOVA/.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 107(22):9923-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicates that human neutrophils can serve as non-professional antigen presenting cells (APC). Although expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on human neutrophils is limited, these molecules can be significantly induced following in vitro exposure to the cytokines IFNgamma and GM-CSF. Since professional APCs such as dendritic cells express both co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules for activation and regulation of adaptive immunity, we determined whether cytokines induce increased expression of specific co-signaling molecules on human neutrophils. We report here that circulating human neutrophils express co-inhibitory molecules such as immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) 4 and 5, and also comparatively low and highly variable levels of ILT2 and ILT3, but the expression of these ILTs was not significantly changed by cytokine treatment. In contrast, we demonstrate for the first time that human peripheral blood neutrophils, although do not express the co-inhibitory molecule, programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1 on their surface, can express this molecule at moderate levels following cytokine exposure. Although moderate PD-L1 levels on healthy volunteers' neutrophils were not inhibitory to T cells, our findings do not exclude a possible robust increase in neutrophil PD-L1 expression in pathological conditions with immunosuppressive functions. These results suggest a possible immunoregulatory role for human neutrophils in adaptive immunity.
    Immunology letters 04/2010; 129(2):100-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2010; 135.
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between leukocyte gene expression and recovery of respiratory function after injury may provide information on the etiology of multiple organ dysfunction. To find a list of genes for which expression after injury predicts respiratory recovery, and to identify which networks and pathways characterize these genes. Blood was sampled at 12 hours and at 1, 4, 7, 21 and 28 days from 147 patients who had been admitted to the hospital after blunt trauma. Leukocyte gene expression was measured using Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays. A linear model, fit to each probe-set expression value, was used to impute the gene expression trajectory over the entire follow-up period. The proportional hazards model score test was used to calculate the statistical significance of each probe-set trajectory in predicting respiratory recovery. A list of genes was determined such that the expected proportion of false positive results was less than 10%. These genes were compared to the Gene Ontology for 'response to stimulus' and, using Ingenuity software, were mapped into networks and pathways. The median time to respiratory recovery was 6 days. There were 170 probe-sets representing 135 genes that were found to be related to respiratory recovery. These genes could be mapped to nine networks. Two known pathways that were activated were antigen processing and presentation and JAK-signaling. The examination of the relationship of gene expression over time with a patient's clinical course can provide information which may be useful in determining the mechanism of recovery or lack of recovery after severe injury.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e14380. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2009; 131.
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2009; 131.
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2009; 131.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acetaldehyde on various steps of the monocyte recruitment cascade. Human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC), primary blood monocytes (PBM) and THP-1 monocytes, were treated with acetaldehyde (0.1-0 microM) for 6h. Monocyte adherence experiments were performed using 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethylester labeled PBM or (3)H-thymidine labeled THP-1 cells. HUVEC TNFalpha mRNA and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoassay, respectively, and HUVEC P-selectin and monocyte CCR2 expression were determined by FACS analysis. Acetaldehyde dose-dependently increased the number of CCR2 positive THP-1 monocytes, with a maximal increase of approximately 50% observed in the presence of 10 microM acetaldehyde. There was a significant increase in both the number of P-selectin positive cells and P-selectin receptor density when HUVEC were incubated with acetaldehyde. HUVEC TNFalpha mRNA expression and secretion were enhanced by acetaldehyde. Moreover, acetaldehyde increased THP-1 and PBM adhesion to HUVEC. Inhibition of P-selectin or TNFalpha, using antibodies or siRNA-directed gene knockdown, attenuated acetaldehyde-induced monocyte adhesion. In conclusion, acetaldehyde increased the number of CCR2 positive monocytes and stimulated endothelial cell P-selectin and TNFalpha expression. Moreover, acetaldehyde increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, an effect that was both P-selectin- and TNFalpha-dependent. These effects of acetaldehyde may contribute, in part, to the increase in coronary heart disease that is associated with binge patterns of alcohol consumption.
    Atherosclerosis 11/2008; 204(2):372-80. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of HSP27 on human monocytes (MO) are predominantly antiinflammatory through preferential interleukin (IL)10 induction and by alteration of MO to immature dendritic cells (iDCs) or MO to macrophage (Mac) differentiation. Initial HSP27 inclusion in IL4+GM-CSF MO to iDC induction cultures allows Mac differentiation (CD14++, CD16+), decreases iDC (CD1a+) differentiation, and depresses DC induction of allogeneic T lymphocyte proliferation (MLR). HSP27 increased MO IL10 and M-CSF production but subsequent increased Mac differentiation isn't responsible for depressed MO to iDC differentiation and function. Mac function after IL10 induced MO to Mac differentiation is also altered by HSP27 inclusion so that Mac phagocytic activity and scavenger receptor expression (CD163) are depressed. HSP27, in addition to immature DCs, doesn't increase Mac differentiation but instead generates inhibitory DCs, which depress rather than stimulate T cell proliferation even during anti CD3+CD28 induction. Upon maturation, these HSP27-altered inhibitory DCs have increased production of the T cell and DC suppressive mediator, thrombospondin 1. HSP27's anti-inflammatory and immunodepressive effects include deranging MO differentiation to both Mac and DCs, altering their receptor expression, and inducing production of inhibitory mediators such as thrombospondin-1 as well as IL10. These data suggest HSP27 belongs to a new group of 'anti-danger signals'.
    Novartis Foundation symposium 02/2008; 291:196-208; discussion 208-11, 221-4.
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2008; 127.
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    Krzysztof Laudanski, Asit De, Carol Miller-Graziano
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating heat shock protein (HSP)-27 is associated with tumor progression and increased post-injury infection. Extracellular HSP-27 might alter monocyte (MO)-derived DC and/or MPhi function to mediate immunosuppression. HSP-27 treatment inhibited expression of CD1a and CD1b/c, antigen uptake, and allogeneic T cell induction (MLR) by IL-4 + GM-CSF-differentiated human DC while increasing some MPhi characteristics ( upward arrowCD14, upward arrowCD16, upward arrowCD163). MO cytokine receptor profiles elicited by 24-h exogenous HSP-27 treatment remained supportive of immature DC (iDC) emergence ( upward arrowIL-4R, downward arrowIL-6R, downward arrowM-CSFR). IL-10, IL-6, and M-CSF (which promote MPhi differentiation) were significantly increased in IL-4 + GM-CSF + HSP-27 MO-->iDC differentiation cultures. However, HSP-27 treatment during MO differentiation to DC increased programmed cell death ligand 1 coinhibitor and depressed CD86 costimulator expression in parallel to decreased iDC MLR activity. This suggested that increased MPhi differentiation was not solely responsible for HSP-27 reduction of differentiating DC activity. HSP-27 treatment actually depressed the phagocytic capacity of MO differentiated to MPhi by IL-10 or M-CSF culture. CD163 (hemoglobin receptor) expression was depressed on M-CSF + HSP-27 MO-derived MPhi. HSP-27-mediated inhibition of MO-->iDC differentiation was reversed by p38alpha & beta inhibitor (SB202190) addition or TLR4 receptor modulation. HSP-27 impaired appropriate MO-->iDC and MO-->MPhi differentiation modulating expression of receptors necessary for their proper functions. This suggests that endogenous HSP-27 has immunoregulatory activities which could contribute to immunopathology.
    European Journal of Immunology 10/2007; 37(10):2812-24. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maintenance of postinjury T-lymphocyte immune paralysis or anergy could result from failure to activate costimulatory receptors during T-cell receptor activation and/or from chronic stimulation of a competing set of elevated corepressor receptors. Our objective was to assess whether elevated posttrauma T-lymphocyte surface expression of corepressor receptors was associated with immunodepressed lymphocyte responses and corresponded to increased inhibitory and decreased activating signal transduction molecules. Prospective observational study. University trauma intensive care unit and research laboratory. Sixty-one severe thermal and mechanical trauma patients. None. Isolated trauma patients' and controls' peripheral blood T cells were assayed for negative and positive costimulation receptor expression. These receptor expression levels were compared (flow cytometry) between the two groups and correlated to T-cell levels of inhibitory and activating signal transduction molecules and proliferation capacity. Patients' proliferation hyporesponsive (anergic) T cells had increased expression of novel inhibitory receptors (corepressors) PD-1 (p < .05) and CD47 (p < .05) vs. patients' T-cell proliferation competent or controls' T cells. Patients' T-cell CD152 (CTLA-4) expression was also elevated vs. controls. Only patients' anergic T cells had simultaneously increased levels of the inhibitory signal transduction proteins, c-Cbl, a ubiquitin-ligase (p < .01) and SHP-1, a phosphatase (p < .01), concomitant to depressed phosphorylation of the activating signal kinases Erk, Zap70, and CD3Euro. T-cell receptor complex phosphorylation and activation of the interleukin-2 pivotal transcriptional complex protein CREB were also simultaneously depressed as c-Cbl and SHP-1 were elevated. Up-regulated corepressor receptor expression is novelly shown to characterize trauma patients' anergic T cells and correlate with predominance of inhibitory overactivating signal transduction molecules during T-cell stimulation. This could contribute to postinjury immunosuppression.
    Critical Care Medicine 04/2007; 35(3):794-801. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring genome-wide, cell-specific responses to human disease, although challenging, holds great promise for the future of medicine. Patients with injuries severe enough to develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome have multiple immune derangements, including T cell apoptosis and anergy combined with depressed monocyte antigen presentation. Genome-wide expression analysis of highly enriched circulating leukocyte subpopulations, combined with cell-specific pathway analyses, offers an opportunity to discover leukocyte regulatory networks in critically injured patients. Severe injury induced significant changes in T cell (5,693 genes), monocyte (2,801 genes), and total leukocyte (3,437 genes) transcriptomes, with only 911 of these genes common to all three cell populations (12%). T cell-specific pathway analyses identified increased gene expression of several inhibitory receptors (PD-1, CD152, NRP-1, and Lag3) and concomitant decreases in stimulatory receptors (CD28, CD4, and IL-2Ralpha). Functional analysis of T cells and monocytes confirmed reduced T cell proliferation and increased cell surface expression of negative signaling receptors paired with decreased monocyte costimulation ligands. Thus, genome-wide expression from highly enriched cell populations combined with knowledge-based pathway analyses leads to the identification of regulatory networks differentially expressed in injured patients. Importantly, application of cell separation, genome-wide expression, and cell-specific pathway analyses can be used to discover pathway alterations in human disease.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2006; 103(42):15564-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Possible defective trauma patients' Mphi-T-cell feedback interactions between T cell IL-13 production and IL-1beta and IL-18 Mphi secretion were assessed. Mphi produced IL-1 and IL-18 augment T cell IL-13, which in turn limits excessive macrophage activation. Immunodepressed patients' T cells (depressed proliferation to alphaCD3 + alphaCD4) had decreased IL-13 production concomitant to aberrant Mphi activities ( upward arrow mTNFalpha, downward arrow IL-10) and consequent multiple organ failure (MOF). Decreased IL-13 levels in patients' T cell and diminished Mphi supernatant augmentation of healthy controls' T cell IL-13 production appeared concomitantly, suggesting patients' aberrant monokine levels might intensify in vivo T cell dysfunction severity. Patients' Mphi supernatants, which failed to augment controls' T cell IL-13 production, had depressed IL-1beta and lower induction of IL-18 than immunocompetent patients' Mphi, but combined addition of IL-1beta and IL-18 restored these Mphis' IL-13 enhancing activity. These data suggest that immunodepressed patients' aberrant monokine and depressed T cell IL-13 production are independent but synergistic contributors to emergence of MOF.
    Clinical Immunology 01/2006; 118(2-3):332-41. · 3.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
299.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Stanford University
      • Stanford Genome Technology Center
      Palo Alto, CA, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Surgery
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • University Center Rochester
      • Department of Surgery
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1988–2002
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Worcester, MA, United States