P J Bairstow

University of Western Australia, Perth City, Western Australia, Australia

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Publications (16)63 Total impact

  • J I Laszlo, P J Bairstow
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 11/1988; 30(5):686-90. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • P J Bairstow, J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: Doyle and colleagues (1986) are critical of the methodology employed in previous studies on the measurement of kinaesthetic sensitivity. Their criticisms are inappropriate in the context of the purpose and the final form of a standardized test of kinaesthetic sensitivity (Laszlo and Bairstow 1985b). They suggest an alternative methodology and imply--on the basis of a lack of correlation between different measures of sensitivity--that it is superior to the earlier methodology. The two methodologies give different measures of kinaesthetic sensitivity, and the reasons for a lack of correlation are discussed.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 05/1986; 28(2):194-7. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • J. I. Laszlo, P. J. Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: The skill of handwriting is considered as a perceptual-motor skill. A closed-loop model of motor control is adapted to describe this skill. The role of kinaesthesis in the acquisition and performance of handwriting is described. Application of the Kinaesthetic Sensitivity Test shows that 33 per cent of five-and six-year-old children are kinaesthetically incompetent. The concept of kinaesthetic readiness is introduced, and the lack of kinaesthetic readiness is discussed as one possible source of the difficulty which may hinder effective training of writing in this age group. As a tentative suggestion it is proposed that formal training of handwriting could be delayed till the age of seven, by which age most children develop kinaesthetic readiness naturally.
    School Psychology International 01/1984; 5(4):207-213.
  • J I Laszlo, P J Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews studies which demonstrate the importance of kinaesthesis in the acquisition and performance of motor skills. A method of measuring kinaesthetic sensitivity in children and adults (recently developed) is briefly described. Developmental trends in kinaesthetic perception are discussed and large individual differences found within age groups. It was shown that kinaesthetically undeveloped children can be trained to perceive and memorize kinaesthetic information with greatly improved accuracy. Furthermore perceptual training facilitates the performance of a drawing skill. On the basis of these results an argument is made for the importance of kinaesthesis in skilled motor behaviour.
    The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 06/1983; 35(Pt 2):411-21. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • P J Bairstow, J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: In this study of kinaesthesis, the learning, retention, and recall of complex patterns was examined. Subjects were blindfolded, held a stylus in the right hand, and moved around stencil patterns, either actively or passively. The patterns were recalled with a free active movement of the right hand, after various amounts of practice, immediately or after a 60–s interval, once or twice in succession, with and without visual guidance. The shape and size of the drawings was compared with the criterion patterns. The effect of practice varied depending on whether the criterion movement was active or passive, and on the measure of recall performance. Even when the criterion patterns were freely practised, the recall traces showed large errors in shape and systematic shrinkage in size, and there were large individual differences. Regardless of these errors, recall performance was reliable. The effect of an unfilled retention interval varied as a function of practice. When the patterns were recalled under visual guidance, there was no shrinkage in the size of the drawings.
    The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 03/1982; 34(Pt 1):183-97. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Phillip J. Bairstow, Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARYA test of kinaesthetic sensitivity to passive movements of the upper limbs was constructed consisting of two tasks: position and movement discrimination, and movement pattern perception and memory. 475 subjects ranging in age from five years to adult were tested and developmental trends were established. The test was found to be a useful tool in measuring the kinaesthetic sensitivity of normal subjects, as well as of intellectually and physically handicapped children. Results for right and left arms did not differ in the test of kinaesthetic perception and memory. Kinaesthetic sensitivity was found to be correlated with everyday motor functions involving fine manual control, as well as with co-ordinated gross body movements.RÉSUMÉSensibilité kinesthésique des mouvements passifs et sa relation avec le développement moteur et le contrôle moteurUn test de sensibilité kinesthésique aux mouvements passifs du membre supérieur a étéétabli à partir de deux tâches: discrimination de la position et du mouvement, perception et mémoire d'un mouvement complexe. 475 sujets âgés de cinq ans au moins jusqu'a l'âge adulte ont été examinés et l'allure du développement a pu être établie. Le test s'est révélé un outil utile dans la mesure de la sensibilité kinesthésique chez les sujets normaux et aussi bien chez les enfants intellectuellement et physiquement handicapés. Les résultats pour le bras gauche et le bras droit étaient identiques dans le test de perception kinesthésique et de mémorisation. La sensibilité kinesthésique s'est révélée corrélée avec les fonctions motrices de la vie de tous les jours exigeant un contrôle gestuel fin aussi bien qu'avec les mouvements globaux coordonnés du corps.ZUSAMMENFASSUNGKinästhetische Sensitivität für passive Bewegungen und ihre Beziehung zur motorischen Entwicklung und – KontrolleEs wurde ein Test für kinästhetische Sensitivität für passive Bewegungen der oberen Extremität erarbeitet, der aus zwei Aufgaben bestand: Unterscheidung von Position und Bewegung und Perception und Erinnern von Bewegungsmustern. 475 Probanden im Alter von fünf Jahren bis zum Erwachsenenalter wurden gestestet und die Entwicklungstendenzen wurden registriert. Der Test stellte sich als brauchbare Methode heraus, um bei gesunden Probanden sowie bei geistig und körperlich behinderten Kindern die kinästhetische Sensitivitat zu prüfen. Die Ergebnisse für den rechten und den linken Arm unterschieden sich nicht in dem Test für kinästhetische Perception und Erinnerung. Man fand, daß die kinästhetische Sensitivität zu täglichen Motorfunktionen, die die feine manuelle Kontrolle beinhalten, sowie zu koordinierten großen Körperbewegungen korreliert ist.RESUMENSensibilidad cinéstésica a los movimientos pasivos y su relación con el desarrollo y control motoresSe elavoró un test de sensibilidad cinestésica para los movimientos pasivos de las extremidadas superiores, que consistía en dos tareas: discriminación de la posición y movimiento, y percepción y memoria de esquemas de movimiento. Fueron examinados 475 sujetos de edades comprendidas entre los cinco años y la edad adulta, estableciéndose las tendencias del desarrollo. Se halló que el test era un utensilio útil para medir la sensibilidad cinestésica en sujetos normales, lo mismo que para los niños con minusvalía intelectual y fisica. Pues los resultados eran iguales para las extremidades derecha e izquierda en el test de percepcepción y memoria cinestésica. La sensibilidad cinestésica se halló estar en correlación con las funciones motoras cotidianas en las que intervenía un control manual fino, lo mismo que con los movimientos groseros coordinados del cuerpo.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 11/1981; 23(6):606 - 616. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • J I Laszlo, P J Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: A test of kinaesthetic sensitivity was constructed, consisting of three tasks: localization, discrimination of position and movement, and perception of pattern. The purposes were to devise a test of kinaesthetic perception in children and adults, and to study possible developmental trends in such sensitivity. 180 children (five to 12 years) and adults were tested. The localization task was found to be not suitable and was omitted from the test, but the other two tasks proved to be suitable. Developmental trends in kinaesthetic acuity and perception were established.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 09/1980; 22(4):454-64. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • P J Bairstow, J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: Electrophysiological experiments have shown that during voluntary movement, the activity of kinesthetic receptors relevant to actively contracting muscles is modified. Furthermore, efferent motor commands interact with the central transmission and processing of kinesthetic sensory input. This article addresses itself to the question of whether the efferent motor commands of voluntary movement influence the perception and processing of kinesthetic spatial information. In two experiments, subjects moved around unfamiliar and unseen criterion stencil patterns with their right hands. In the first experiment subjects were required to concurrently track the constrained movements with their left hands. In the second experiment, following movement around a criterion pattern, the subjects had to recall it with their right hands. Tracking and recall movements in the two experiments showed a systematic spatial bias in the direction in which the right-hand constrained movements were commanded. It is argued that when a limb movement is contrained, the interaction between the efferent command pattern and the returning kinesthetic sensory input results in its position being perceived with a constant error in the direction in which the movement was commanded.
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance 03/1980; 6(1):1-12. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • J I Laszlo, P J Bairstow, G R Ward, H Bancroft
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    ABSTRACT: It is often argued that, in general, men are superior to women in perceptual motor skills (for example, car driving). Extensive reviews of the relevant literature do not give convincing evidence of sex differences in manual dexterity or motor skills in general. However, in the studies reported here, variables have been isolated which demonstrate that sex differences do exist in two perceptual motor tasks. These studies showed that females are adversely affected by irrelevant stimuli while performing tasks permitting freedom in movements but perform as well as males when the movement is stereotyped.
    Nature 02/1980; 283(5745):377-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is often argued that, in general, men are superior to women in perceptual motor skills (for example, car driving). Extensive reviews of the relevant literature do not give convincing evidence of sex differences in manual dexterity1 or motor skills in general2. However, in the studies reported here, variables have been isolated which demonstrate that sex differences do exist in two perceptual motor tasks. These studies showed that females are adversely affected by irrelevant stimuli while performing tasks permitting freedom in movements but perform as well as males when the movement is stereotyped.
    01/1980; 283(5745):377-378.
  • J I Laszlo, P J Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: Two points were made in support of the compression-block technique as a useful tool in motor-control research. The effect of motor impairment (if any) can be controlled (a) by only making direct comparisons between results obtained under block, and (b) by keeping muscle exertion during the entire course of the block to an absolute minimum to avoid muscle fatigue.
    Journal of Motor Behavior 12/1979; 11(4):283-4. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • P J Bairstow, J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: Physiological data suggest that perception and memory of kinesthesis may differ depending on whether a movement pattern is actively commanded or passively induced. An attempt was made to demonstrate a difference between these two types of movements by employing a cross-modal visual recognition test of size perception. Absolute and algebraic errors in the matching of kinesthesis with vision were measured. Positive algebraic errors were seen indicating that subjects' perception for the size of kinesthetic movement patterns was magnified as compared to vision. Active kinesthesis was matched with vision more accurately than was passive kinesthesis, and the data yielded information about the differential contribution of active and passive muscle compartments to the global kinesthetic perception of voluntary movement. Cross-modal matching of kinesthesis with vision was in certain cases as accurate as visual intramodal matching. It was argued that active kinesthesis has internal references, and vision has external references to facilitate the similar-size recognition performance.
    Journal of Motor Behavior 09/1979; 11(3):167-78. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • P J Bairstow, J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: The tracking of complex two-dimensional movement patterns was studied. Subjects were blindfolded, and their right hand moved around stencil patterns in the midsagittal plane, while the left hand concurrently reproduced the right-hand movement. The accuracy with which the left hand shadowed the criterion movements of the right hand was measured in shape and size. Right-hand movements were active or passive. Present tracking performance was contrasted with errors in recall reported by Bairstow and Laszlo (1978). Results showed that tracking performance was accurate. Active and passive criterion movements were tracked differently. Tracking was clearly superior to recall performance.
    Journal of Motor Behavior 02/1979; 11(1):35-48. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • P J Bairstow, J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: The present study attempted to characterize the perception retention, and recall of kinaesthetic information regarding movement sequences (patterns). An attempt was made to draw on and extend conclusions relevant to simple movements (movement amplitude). One group of 10 blindfolded subjects recalled criterion movement patterns that had been actively commanded and 10 subjects recalled passively induced movements. The following conclusions were made. (1) Previous reports of algebraic errors in the recall of simple movement amplitudes are consistency with the finding that criterion perimeter, area, and depth of features were underestimated when recalled. (2) Measures of the accuracy of kinaesthetic perception do not alone account for the generally low level of pattern recall, the large range of individual differences or the underestimation of amplitude. The process of percept formation and of translating a percept into recalled movement are implicated. (3) Conclusions based on the short-term retention and recall of simple movements do not account for the coding, retention, and recall of movement sequences (patterns). (4) Percepts were formed, and patterns were recalled as a sequence of features but not as a sequence of key positions. (5) No direct difference was demonstrated between the recall of actively commanded and passively induced criterion movement patterns. However, the finding of a high gross angle change in the active condition was explained in terms of an unfavourable interaction between corollary discharge and sensory information.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 09/1978; 47(1):287-305. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • P J Bairstow, J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: In a study by Kelso, Stelmach, and Wanamaker (1974), data were presented showing a progressive decrement in electromyographic responses to supramaximal whole-nerve stimulation with the development of ischemia-induced anoxia. Accordingly, they questioned the suitability of employing ischemia-induced anesthesia (nerve compression block) in the study of movement control. In the present paper issues relating to the review of existing literature, the methodology employed and the conclusions reached in the Kelso et al. study are discussed.
    Journal of Motor Behavior 06/1976; 8(2):147-53. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • J I Laszlo, R A Baguley, P J Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: Bilateral transfer in a fast tapping task was investigated under normal (+FB) and reduced (-FB) feedback conditions, in the -FB experiment 36 Ss were assigned to 3 groups: preferred (PH) to non-preferred (NPH) shift; NPH to PH; and alternating trials of PH and NPH. With + FB 2 further groups of 12 Ss transferred PH to NPH or NPH to PH. 8 preshift and 8 postshift trials were given. The alternating group had 8 PH and 8 NPH trials. In preshift performance increment was found in ail groups except in +FB with NPH. With +FB some facilitation in transfer was obtained for the NPH; under -FB marked positive transfer was found for the PH. Alternating PH and NPH performance conformed to preshift levels. Results were discussed in terms of differential central control processes for the two hands.
    Journal of Motor Behavior 12/1970; 2(4):261-71. · 1.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

165 Citations
63.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–1988
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Psychology
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia