S A Bright

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., DC, United States

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Publications (7)17.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-four Holstein cows, producing at least 21 kg of milk/d, were used in two replicate experiments to determine the effect of presence or absence of pulsation on loss of teat canal keratin during machine milking. Left quarters were milked without pulsation and right quarters were milked with pulsation. On d 0 and 10, keratin was collected from one left and from one right teat canal of each cow prior to milking and from the remaining two teat canals after milking. Milk was collected for assessment of SCC and bacteriological status on d 0 and approximately every 3 d until d 18. Quantity of keratin recovered before milking on d 10 did not differ between teats milked with or without pulsation, but loss of keratin because of milking was greater from teats milked with pulsation. By d 7, 30% (12 of 43) of quarters milked without pulsation had become infected, but no (0 of 47) quarters milked with pulsation were infected. By d 14 to 16, new infections had increased to 68% (28 of 41) of quarters milked without pulsation and 2% (1 of 43) in quarters milked with pulsation; mean SCC in pulsationless quarters increased sevenfold relative to pulsation quarters. Protein and water content of keratin did not differ because of treatment, and changes in lipid composition were minor. Histological analysis of the teats of 4 cows indicated that the mean diameter of the teat canal, within 2 h after milking, was greater without pulsation than with pulsation (680 vs. 483 microns).
    Journal of Dairy Science 02/1994; 77(1):64-74. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influence of teat canal keratin on susceptibility to intramammary infection was investigated in lactating Jersey cows. In each of two replicate trials, keratin was removed from the left teats of 20 cows immediately before milking. Immediately after milking, all teats were exposed to bacterial challenge by immersion in a suspension of Streptococcus agalactiae (5 x 10(7) cfu/ml). Bacterial challenge was repeated after the next four milkings. Foremilk samples were obtained for 8 d after keratin removal to determine infection status. A mammary quarter was classified as infected based solely upon the bacteriological criteria outlined by the National Mastitis Council. The rate of infection in quarters from which keratin was removed was greater than that in control quarters. Infection rates were 26.3% for keratin-removed quarters and 8.3% for control quarters in trial 1 and 13.5 and 0%, respectively, in trial 2. When more stringent criteria (recovery of greater than 100 cfu of S. agalactiae/ml in three or more successive milk samples and a SCC of greater than 10(6)) were used to identify a subset of infections that were clearly intramammary, infection rates were 9.3% for keratin-removed quarters and 1.4% for control quarters. Thus, partial removal of keratin from the teat canal compromised the ability of the teat to prevent passage of bacterial pathogens from the external environment into the mammary gland.
    Journal of Dairy Science 09/1992; 75(8):2126-30. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to investigate lipid composition of teat canal keratin when different conditions of bacterial colonization and quarter inflammation were present. In Experiment 1, 11 multiparous cows with subclinical mastitis (bacteria present but no visible inflammation) in at least one quarter were selected for study. Quarters that were sampled and found negative for bacterial growth were classified as control. In Experiment 2, 10 multiparous cows with clinical mastitis in one or more quarters were selected. Milk samples from inflamed quarters were cultured to identify mastitis pathogens; these quarters were classified as clinical; all other quarters were classified as control. Teat canal keratin was collected from all quarters just before an a.m. milking, samples were weighed, and lipid determinations were conducted by TLC. Keratin from subclinical quarters compared with keratin from control quarters did not differ in either neutral lipid or fatty acid composition. Total lipid was significantly higher in keratin from teats of clinical quarters than in keratin from control quarters (27.8 vs. 21.5 microgram/mg). Neutral lipid composition of keratin was similar between teats from clinical quarters and teats from control quarters. In Experiment 2, quarter foremilk samples were also obtained to determine lipid composition. The FFA in milk from clinical quarters contained fewer short-chain fatty acids, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in milk from clinical quarters.
    Journal of Dairy Science 07/1992; 75(6):1436-42. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In three experiments, keratin was collected from individual teats of 40 Holstein and 20 Jersey cows immediately before and after milking. In Experiments 1 and 2, keratin collected from teats of 20 Holstein cows before milking was compared with keratin collected after milking. In Experiment 3, keratin was collected from two teats of 20 Jersey and 20 Holstein cows before milking and compared to the other two teats of the same cows after milking. All three experiments yielded similar results. In Holsteins, keratin weight before milking was 1.6 times greater than keratin weight after milking (3.1 vs. 1.9 mg). In Jerseys, only small amounts of keratin were removed during milking (3.5 mg before vs. 3.1 mg after) In Holsteins and Jerseys, neutral lipid concentration was 1.6 times greater after milking than before, suggesting that when keratin was removed during milking, only moderate amounts of lipid were removed. In Holsteins, total lipid collected per teat was similar before or after milking (59.2 vs. 48.5 micrograms). Results demonstrate that keratin collected after milking had a different lipid composition than keratin collected before milking.
    Journal of Dairy Science 03/1991; 74(2):414-20. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the regeneration rate of teat canal keratin in two groups of 10 lactating Holstein cows. The weight of keratin obtained upon successive collections of keratin was determined. Intervals between successive collections were varied between 8 and 72 h. Following initial collection, the quantity of keratin removed was regenerated within 1 to 2.5 d. The rate of keratin regeneration per teat was approximately 1.5 mg of wet weight or .6 mg of dry weight per 24 h. The concentration (microgram lipid/mg keratin, wet weight) of lipid in keratin samples collected during regeneration was almost twice that present initially or after regeneration was complete. With the exception of free cholesterol, composition (%) of lipid components of keratin did not differ between samples collected initially, those collected early in the process of regeneration, and those collected after the mass of keratin removed had been replaced. Although data suggest that keratin matures during the process of regeneration, maturation appears complete by the time mass of keratin is fully regenerated. Additionally, the quantity of keratin recovered at initial sampling was inversely correlated with milk production. We hypothesize that as milk production increases, more keratin is lost during milking.
    Journal of Dairy Science 08/1990; 73(7):1745-50. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methods for collecting keratin from the teat canal were examined to select a procedure to obtain representative samples for lipid analysis. Data obtained by solvent extraction of excised teats were compared with those obtained by scraping keratin from dissected teats of lactating and dry cows. Solvent extraction with petroleum ether or 2:1 chloroform-methanol yielded similar dry weights of material. However, both solvents removed large amounts of material other than keratin from the teat canal. The lipid class and fatty acid profiles of the material extracted by solvent flushing were not similar to profiles obtained by scraping keratin from the teat canal. A metal tapestry needle was suitable for collection of keratin from the teat canal of living cows. About 78% of the keratin present in the teat was collected with the needle. Lipid composition of keratin collected with the needle was the same as in keratin scraped from excised teats. The tapestry needle was suitable as a tool for collecting repeatable, representative samples of keratin for analysis from single teat canals of living cows.
    Journal of Dairy Science 02/1990; 73(1):98-106. · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • J Bitman, D L Wood, S A Bright, R H Miller
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    ABSTRACT: Keratin was obtained by scraping the teat canals of excised teats from 12 lactating and 12 dry cows immediately after slaughter. Teats from four lactating and four dry cows were also stored at -20 degrees C for 2 wk to assess whether keratin composition was affected by frozen storage. Lipids were extracted from keratin of individual teats with 2:1 chloroform-methanol. Neutral lipid classes were determined by TLC and fatty acids by capillary GLC. Total lipid content of keratin was 4% of wet weight. Lipid composition of keratin from fresh and frozen teats was similar. Differences were observed in several lipid classes between keratin from lactating and dry cows. Triglycerides were higher in keratin from lactating cows, 58.4 vs. 28.1%, whereas cholesterol was lower in keratin from lactating cows, 18.5 vs. 37.5%. Short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids were 3x lower in keratin from dry than from lactating cows; 18:2 and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 2x higher in keratin from dry than from lactating cows. Results indicated that large differences exist between the detailed lipid composition of keratin from dry and lactating dairy cows.
    Journal of Dairy Science 06/1988; 71(5):1389-95. · 2.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

49 Citations
17.96 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 1990
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States