Trudy V Murphy

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (47)306.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the economic impact of the 2009 routine US childhood immunization schedule, including diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, inactivated poliovirus, measles/mumps/rubella, hepatitis B, varicella, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, and rotavirus vaccines; influenza vaccine was not included. Decision analysis was conducted using population-based vaccination coverage, published vaccine efficacies, historical data on disease incidence before vaccination, and disease incidence reported during 2005 to 2009. Costs were estimated using the direct cost and societal (direct and indirect costs) perspectives. Program costs included vaccine, administration, vaccine-associated adverse events, and parent travel and work time lost. All costs were inflated to 2009 dollars, and all costs and benefits in the future were discounted at a 3% annual rate. A hypothetical 2009 US birth cohort of 4 261 494 infants over their lifetime was followed up from birth through death. Net present value (net savings) and benefit-cost ratios of routine childhood immunization were calculated. Analyses showed that routine childhood immunization among members of the 2009 US birth cohort will prevent ∼42 000 early deaths and 20 million cases of disease, with net savings of $13.5 billion in direct costs and $68.8 billion in total societal costs, respectively. The direct and societal benefit-cost ratios for routine childhood vaccination with these 9 vaccines were 3.0 and 10.1. From both direct cost and societal perspectives, vaccinating children as recommended with these vaccines results in substantial cost savings.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To analyze the cost-effectiveness of the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) over the lifetime of the 2009 US birth cohort and compare the costs and outcomes of the program to a scenario without PHBPP support. PHBPP's goals are to ensure all infants born to hepatitis B (HepB) surface antigen-positive women receive timely postexposure prophylaxis, complete HepB vaccine series, and obtain serologic testing after series completion.METHODS:A decision analytic tree and a long-term Markov model represented the risk of perinatal and childhood infections under different prevention alternatives, and the long-term health and economic consequences of HepB infection. Outcome measures were the number of perinatal infections and childhood infections from infants born to HepB surface antigen-positive women, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and incremental cost per QALY gained. The health outcomes and total costs of each strategy were compared incrementally. Costs were evaluated from the health care system perspective and expressed in US dollars at a 2010 price base.RESULTS:In all analyses, the PHBPP increased QALYs and led to higher reductions in the number of perinatal and childhood infections than no PHBPP, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of $2602 per QALY. In sensitivity analyses, the cost-effectiveness ratio was robust to variations in model inputs, and there were instances where the program was both more effective and cost saving.CONCLUSIONS:This study indicated that the current PHBPP represents a cost-effective use of resources, and ensuring the program reaches all pregnant women could present additional public health benefits.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Annually, an estimated 25,000 infants are born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women in the United States. Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) are recommended at birth, followed by completion of vaccine series and post-vaccination serologic testing (PVST). In a large cohort of infants born to HBsAg-positive women, factors influencing vaccine response were evaluated. Methods Data were from HBsAg-negative infants born to HBsAg-positive women in the Enhanced Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (EPHBPP) from 2008 to 2013. Vaccine non-responders were defined as infants with antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) <10 mIU/mL at PVST after receiving ≥3 vaccine doses. Multivariable analyses modeled statistically significant predictor variables associated with non-response. Results A number of 17,951 maternal-infant pairs were enrolled; 8654 HBsAg-negative infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers received ≥3 doses of vaccine with anti-HBs results. 8199 (94.7%) infants responded to a primary HepB series; 199 (94.8%) to a second series. Factors associated with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL included gestational age <37 weeks, vaccine birth dose >12 h after birth, timing of final vaccine dose <6 months after birth, receipt of 3 vs. 4 vaccine doses, and PVST interval >6 months from final vaccine dose in bivariate analysis. PVST interval >6 months from final vaccine dose (OR = 2.7, CI = 2.0, 3.6) was significantly associated with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL; the proportion increased from 2% at 1–2 months to 21.6% at 15–16 months after the final dose. Receipt of a 4th dose improved the response rate (OR = 0.5, CI = 0.3, 0.8). Conclusions Ninety-five percent of a large cohort of uninfected infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers in the United States responded to primary HepB vaccine series. The proportion of infants with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL increased with longer interval between the final vaccine dose and PVST. Optimal timing of PVST is within 1–2 months of final vaccine dose to avoid unnecessary revaccination.
    Vaccine 01/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    Noele P Nelson, Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A is a communicable disease of the liver caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is a single-stranded, lin-ear, nonenveloped RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. The incubation period is 14 to 28 days (up to 50 days). The diagnosis is made with a positive test for immunoglob-ulin M antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV), which is detectable from 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms to 6 months afterward. Children are often asymptomatic; the severity of acute hepatitis A generally increases with age. HAV infection typically causes an acute viral illness with jaundice, is limited to several weeks' duration, and often results in substantial morbidity and associated costs. 1-5 Although uncommon, severe hepatic and extrahepatic com-plications, including liver failure, occur. HAV is shed in the feces. The primary mode of transmis-sion is fecal-oral, and transmission usually occurs through direct contact or person-person contact. HAV' s ability to sur-vive for extended periods in the environment facilitates its transmission through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Blood-borne transmission is rare. Hepatitis A Epidemiology
  • Kathy K Byrd, Peng-Jun Lu, Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: We compared self-reported hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine coverage among health-care personnel (HCP) with HepB vaccine coverage among the general population and determined trends in vaccination coverage among HCP. We used the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the weighted proportion of self-reported ≥1- and ≥3-dose HepB vaccine coverage among HCP aged ≥18 years. We used logistic regression to determine independent predictors of vaccination and performed a trend analysis to determine changes in coverage from 2004 to 2010 using data from the 2004-2010 NHIS. Overall, 69.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.2, 71.8) and 63.4% (95% CI 60.8, 65.9) of HCP reported receiving ≥1 and ≥3 doses of HepB vaccine, respectively, compared with 27.1% (95% CI 26.1, 28.1%) and 23.0% (95% CI 22.1, 24.0) among non-HCP. Among HCP with direct patient contact, 80.7% (95% CI 78.2, 83.1) and 74.0% (95% CI 71.2, 76.8) received ≥1 and ≥3 HepB vaccine doses, respectively. Independent predictors of vaccination included direct patient contact, having more than a high school education, influenza vaccination in the past year, and ever having been tested for HIV. There was no significant change in reported coverage from 2004 through 2010. The 2010 HepB vaccine coverage estimate among HCP remained well below the Healthy People 2010 goal of 90%. Efforts to target unvaccinated HCP for preexposure HepB protection should be encouraged.
    Public Health Reports 11/2013; 128(6):498-509. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Zhen Zhao, Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B birth dose vaccination is a critical step in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. This study assesses the prevalence of children who missed the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccination and identifies socio-demographic factors associated with non-receipt of the birth dose among children in the United States. A survey observation study was conducted with the national representative sample of 17,053 U.S. children aged 19-35months obtained from the 2009 National Immunization Survey. Categorical data analysis and multivariable logistic regression in the context of complex sample survey were applied to evaluate the prevalence and determine the independent risk factors. 39.2% of children missed the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccination. Children who reside in states without a universal hepatitis B vaccine supply policy, are not covered by health insurance, and have only 1 vaccination provider are significantly associated with non-receipt of the birth dose hepatitis B vaccination. Children who reside in states without a universal hepatitis B vaccine supply policy, and are not covered by health insurance are two important modifiable risk factors for not receiving the birth dose hepatitis B vaccination, future intervention studies could be needed to help control those modifiable risk factors.
    Preventive Medicine 08/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Peng-Jun Lu, Kathy K Byrd, Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since 1996, hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) has been recommended for adults at increased risk for infection including travelers to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries. In 2009, travel outside the United States and Canada was the most common exposure nationally reported for persons with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess HepA vaccination coverage among adults 18-49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to determine self-reported HepA vaccination coverage (=1 dose) and series completion (=2 dose) among persons 18-49 years who traveled, since 1995, to a country of high or intermediate HAV endemicity. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with HepA vaccine receipt. RESULTS: In 2010, approximately 36.6% of adults 18-49 years reported traveling to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries; among this group unadjusted HepA vaccination coverage was 26.6% compared to 12.7% among non-travelers (P-values<0.001) and series completion were 16.9% and 7.6%, respectively (P-values<0.001). On multivariable analysis among all respondents, travel status was an independent predictor of HepA coverage and series completion (both P-values<0.001). Among travelers, HepA coverage and series completion (=2 doses) were higher for travelers 18-25 years (prevalence ratios 2.3, 2.8, respectively, P-values<0.001) and for travelers 26-39 years (prevalence ratios 1.5, 1.5, respectively, P-value<0.001, P-value=0.002, respectively) compared to travelers 40-49 years. Other characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HepA receipt among travelers included Asian race/ethnicity, male sex, never having been married, having a high school or higher education, living in the western United States, having greater number of physician contacts or receipt of influenza vaccination in the previous year. HepB vaccination was excluded from the model because of the significant correlation between receipt of HepA vaccination and HepB vaccination could distort the model. CONCLUSIONS: Although travel to a country of high or intermediate hepatitis A endemicity was associated with higher likelihood of HepA vaccination in 2010 among adults 18-49 years, self-reported HepA vaccination coverage was low among adult travelers to these areas. Healthcare providers should ask their patients' upcoming travel plans and recommend and offer travel related vaccinations to their patients.
    Vaccine 03/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Sarah F Schillie, Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B vaccination starting at birth provides a safety net for infants exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) during delivery or in early life. Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended in the United States for infants prior to birthing facility discharge, and within the first 12h of life for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers. We performed a literature review and summarized the response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine among infants. METHODS: Studies published between 1987 and 2011 assessing seroprotection from recombinant hepatitis B vaccine starting within the first 30 days of life were eligible. Seroprotection was defined using an antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) threshold of 10mIU/mL at series completion. Infant seroprotection was compared in trial arms varying by maternal hepatitis B antigen status (e antigen [HBeAg], HBsAg), hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) administration, birth weight, vaccine dosage, schedule, and age at first dose. RESULTS: Forty-three studies were included. The median seroprotection proportion overall was 98% (range 52%, 100%). The final median seroprotection proportions did not vary appreciably by maternal HBsAg status, HBIG administration, or schedule. Higher compared to lower dosage resulted in earlier increases in anti-HBs but not in final seroprotection proportions. Infants with birth weights <2000g compared to ≥2000g had lower median seroprotection proportions (93% and 98%, respectively). Median seroprotection proportions were also lower when infants with birth weights <2000g were vaccinated at 0 through 3 days of age compared to 1 month of age or older (68% versus 95%, respectively). CONCLUSION: High levels of protection from recombinant hepatitis B vaccine are achieved in term infants vaccinated at birth, effectively preventing transmission of HBV and resultant morbidity and mortality. Implications, if any, for long-term protection are unknown for differences in responses among infants vaccinated at birth compared to ages older than 1 month.
    Vaccine 12/2012; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    Diabetes care 12/2012; 35(12):2690-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
  • S F Schillie, J Xing, T V Murphy, D J Hu
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among persons with diabetes has not been assessed among the US population, despite increasing reports of HBV transmission in institutional care settings. Using national survey data, we found a 60% higher prevalence of HBV infection among persons with (vs without) diagnosed diabetes.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 09/2012; 19(9):674-6. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To examine the cost-effectiveness of a hepatitis B vaccination program for unvaccinated adults with diagnosed diabetes in the U.S.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used a cost-effectiveness simulation model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating adults 20-59 years of age with diagnosed diabetes not previously vaccinated for or infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV). The model estimated acute and chronic HBV infections, complications, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Data sources included surveillance data, epidemiological studies, and vaccine prices.RESULTSWith a 10% uptake rate, the intervention will vaccinate 528,047 people and prevent 4,271 acute and 256 chronic hepatitis B infections. Net health care costs will increase by $91.4 million, and 1,218 QALYs will be gained, producing a cost-effectiveness ratio of $75,094 per QALY gained. Results are most sensitive to age, the discount rate, the hepatitis B incidence ratio for people with diabetes, and hepatitis B infection rates. Cost-effectiveness ratios rise with age at vaccination; an alternative intervention that vaccinates adults with diabetes 60 years of age or older had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $2.7 million per QALY.CONCLUSIONS Hepatitis B vaccination for adults with diabetes 20-59 years of age is modestly cost-effective. Vaccinating older adults with diabetes is not cost-effective. The study did not consider hepatitis outbreak investigation costs, and limited information exists on hepatitis progression among older adults with diabetes. Partly based on these results, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently recommended hepatitis B vaccination for people 20-59 years of age with diagnosed diabetes.
    Diabetes care 08/2012; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intussusception is the most common cause of infant bowel obstruction. Because delays in diagnosis can lead to severe outcomes, differentiating milder cases from those with potentially serious outcomes is important. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with bowel resection among intussusception cases using data from a large nationwide study, which investigated the association between intussusception and Rotashield. We examined characteristics of 376 intussusception cases not associated with Rotashield use. Cases were confirmed by a radiologic procedure, surgery, or autopsy. Clinical characteristics of infants with and without bowel resection were compared. During the week before hospitalization, 93% of the 376 infants with intussusception had vomiting, 72% reported bloody stool, 63% had hemoccult positive stool, 51% had diarrhea, 43% reported fever, and 14% had documented fever. Surgery was performed on 209 cases (56%). Of these 209 cases, 33% (67/209) required bowel resection. Documented fever on admission significantly increased the risk of bowel resection (odds ratio, adjusted for race and sex, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.0). Among infants with intussusception, the presence of a reported symptom for at least 2 days before hospital admission was also an independent predictor of bowel resection (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.8). Bowel resection appears to be more likely among intussusception patients with documented fever and symptoms for at least 2 days. However, because resection also occurred among those without fever or prolonged symptoms, severe disease must also be considered in absence of these symptoms.
    Pediatric emergency care 05/2012; 28(6):529-32. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Kathy K Byrd, Peng-jun Lu, Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that adults with diabetes are at increased risk of incident hepatitis B infection and may suffer increased morbidity or mortality from chronic hepatitis B infection. In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) for persons with diabetes aged 19-59 years and stated that persons with diabetes aged 60 years and older should be considered for vaccination. To determine HepB coverage among persons with diabetes aged ≥19 years prior to implementation of the new ACIP recommendation and to determine predictors for vaccination. We used the 2009 National Health Interview Survey to determine weighted proportions of self-reported HepB coverage (≥1 and ≥3 doses) among persons with diabetes aged ≥19 years. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with vaccination. Overall, 19.5% (95% CI: 17.4-21.6%) and 16.6% (14.7-18.6%) of persons with diabetes, aged ≥19 years, reported receiving ≥1 and ≥3 doses of HepB, respectively, compared with 30.3% (29.4-31.3%) and 26.5% (25.5-27.4%) among persons without diabetes. While unadjusted HepB coverage was higher among persons without diabetes, diabetes status was not associated with ≥1 or ≥3 dose vaccination. Among persons with diabetes, being a healthcare provider (OR 4.2, 2.5-7.0), ever tested for HIV (OR 2.6, 1.8-3.6), high-risk behaviors (OR 1.8, 1.0-3.4, P-value=0.053) and having some college education (OR 1.7, 1.2-2.4) were all independently associated with vaccination. HepB coverage among persons with diabetes is low. These data can be used to provide a baseline for measuring future progress toward vaccination of persons with diabetes.
    Vaccine 04/2012; 30(23):3376-82. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the trends and outcomes of the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) for infants born from 1994 to 2008. PHBPPs in state and city public health jurisdictions annually submitted program outcome reports to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The annual number of births to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women was estimated and used to evaluate the percentage of PHBPP-identified HBsAg-positive pregnant women. PHBPP reports were used to assess program objectives achieved, and infant outcomes by 12 to 24 months of age. From 1994 to 2008, the estimated number of annual births to HBsAg-positive women increased from 19 208 to 25 600 (P < .001). The annual number of PHBPP-managed infants increased (P < .001), comprising 40.8% to 50.5% of the estimated number. On average, 94.4% of PHBPP-managed infants received hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine within 1 day of birth. The percentage of infants who completed the vaccine series by age 12 months decreased from 86.0% to 77.7% (P = .004), but the percentage who received postvaccination testing increased from 25.1% to 56.0% (P < .001). Incidence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among tested infants decreased from 2.1% in 1999 to 0.8% in 2008 (P = .001). The PHBPP achieved substantial progress in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus infection in the United States, despite an increasing number of at-risk infants. Significant gaps remain in identifying HBsAg-positive pregnant women, and completing management and assessment of their infants to ensure prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2012; 129(4):609-16. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A infection causes severe disease among adolescents and adults. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices instituted incremental recommendations for hepatitis A vaccination (HepA) at 2 years of age based on risk (1996), in selected states (1999), and universally at 1 year of age, with vaccination through 18 years of age based on risk or desire for protection (2006). We assessed adolescent HepA coverage in the United States and factors independently associated with vaccination. Data from the 2009 National Immunization Survey-Teen (n = 20 066) were analyzed to determine ≥1- and ≥2-dose HepA coverage among adolescents 13 to 17 years of age. We used bivariate and multivariable analyses to test associations between HepA initiation and sociodemographic characteristics stratified by state groups: group 1, universal child vaccination since 1999; group 2, consideration for child vaccination since 1999; group 3, universal child vaccination at 1 year of age since 2006. In 2009, national 1-dose HepA coverage among adolescents was 42.0%. Seventy percent of vaccinees completed the 2-dose series. One-dose coverage was 74.3% among group 1 states, 54.0% for group 2 states, and 27.8% for group 3 states. The adjusted prevalence ratios of vaccination initiation were highest for states with a vaccination requirement and for adolescents whose providers recommended HepA. HepA coverage was low among most adolescents in the United States in 2009 leaving a large population susceptible to hepatitis A infection maturing into adulthood.
    PEDIATRICS 02/2012; 129(2):213-21. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of acute hepatitis B among adults with diabetes mellitus is unknown. We investigated the association between diagnosed diabetes and acute hepatitis B. Confirmed acute hepatitis B cases were reported in 2009-2010 to eight Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites; diagnosed diabetes status was determined. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents residing in EIP sites comprised the comparison group. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing acute hepatitis B among adults with diagnosed diabetes versus without diagnosed diabetes were determined by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and stratified by the presence or absence of risk behaviors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. During 2009-2010, EIP sites reported 865 eligible acute hepatitis B cases among persons aged ≥23 years; 95 (11.0%) had diagnosed diabetes. Comparison group diabetes prevalence was 9.1%. Among adults without hepatitis B risk behaviors and with reported diabetes status, the OR for acute hepatitis B comparing adults with and without diabetes was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.6); ORs for adults ages 23-59 and ≥60 years were 2.1 (95% CI = 1.6, 2.8) and 1.5 (95% = CI 0.9, 2.5), respectively. Diabetes was independently associated with an increased risk for acute hepatitis B among adults without HBV risk behaviors.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2012; 6(4):858-66.
  • Zhen Zhao, Trudy V Murphy, Lisa Jacques-Carroll
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    ABSTRACT: In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a joint statement on thimerosal in vaccines, which advised clinicians to temporarily postpone the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative women. In 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) updated the strategy to improve prevention of perinatal and early childhood hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. To evaluate the progress in hepatitis B birth dose vaccination coverage in birth year cohort from 1998 to 2007 and assess the impact of changes in ACIP recommendations on the birth dose coverage. Birth year cohort study of hepatitis B birth dose vaccination status of 200,865 children aged 19-35 months in the United States and by selected socio-demographic factors; percentage increases of hepatitis B birth dose vaccination coverage between two consecutive birth year cohorts from 1998 to 2007. From 1998 to 1999, hepatitis B birth dose vaccination coverage declined overall in the United States and among selected socio-demographic groups (P<0.001). Conversely, from 1999 to 2007 hepatitis B birth dose vaccination coverage increased significantly by birth year cohort (P<0.001), from approximately 30% in the 1999 birth year cohort to approximately 60% in the 2007 birth year cohort. The first significant increase in hepatitis B birth dose vaccination coverage occurred from 2000 to 2001 birth year cohort. Coverage increases ranged from 8.4% to 11.9% (P<0.001) in the U.S. and across all socio-demographic strata. The second largest increase in hepatitis B birth dose vaccination coverage occurred from 2005 to 2006 birth year cohort in the U.S. and among almost all socio-demographic strata, ranging from 5.6% to 8.7% (P<0.001). Forty-one of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (80%) in the U.S. had increases in hepatitis B birth dose vaccination coverage from 2005 to 2006 birth year cohort. The United States has made substantial progress in increasing hepatitis B birth dose vaccination and recovered from coverage declines associated with temporary postponement of the birth dose in 1999. The hepatitis B birth dose coverage in the U.S. remains substantially below the Healthy People 2020 target of 85%.
    Vaccine 11/2011; 30(1):14-20. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 43,000 new hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections occurred in 2007. Although hepB vaccination has been recommended for adults at high-risk for incident HBV infection for many years, coverage remains low. We used the 2009 National Health Interview Survey to assess self-reported HepB vaccine uptake (≥ 1 dose), series completion (≥ 3 dose), and independent predictors of vaccination among high-risk adults aged 18-49 years. High-risk adults were defined as those reporting male sex with men; injection drug use; hemophilia with receipt of clotting factors; sexually transmitted disease in prior five years; sex for money or drugs; HIV positive; sex with persons having any above risk factors; or who "felt they were at high risk for HIV". Persons with none of the aforementioned risk factors were considered non-high risk. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess vaccination coverage. Independent predictors of vaccine uptake and series completion were determined using a logistic regression. Overall, 7.0% adults aged 18-49 years had high-risk behaviors. Unadjusted coverage with ≥ 1 dose was 50.5% among high-risk compared to 40.5% among non-high-risk adults (p-values <0.001) while series completion (≥ 3 doses) was 41.8% and 34.2%, respectively (p-values <0.001). On multivariable analysis, ≥ 1 dose coverage, but not series completion, was higher (Risk Ratio 1.1, 95% CI=1.0-1.2, p-value=0.021) among high-risk compared to non-high risk adults. Other characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HepB vaccination among persons 18-49 years included younger age groups, females, higher education, ≥ 2 physician contacts in the past year, ever tested for HIV, health care personnel, received influenza vaccination in the previous year, and ever received hepatitis A vaccination. Vaccine uptake with ≥ 1 dose increased by 5.1% (p=0.047) among high-risk adults between 2004 and 2009. A small increase in ≥ 1 dose HepB vaccination coverage among high-risk adults compared with non-high risk adults was documented for the first time in 2009. Higher coverage among persons 18-30 years may reflect aging of persons vaccinated when they were children and adolescents. To improve protection against hepatitis B among high-risk adults, healthcare providers should offer hepatitis B vaccination to persons at high risk and those who seek vaccination to protect themselves and facilitate timely completion of the three (3) dose HepB series.
    Vaccine 07/2011; 29(40):7049-57. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1999, a US case-control study demonstrated a strong association between intussusception and a rotavirus vaccine (Rotashield). However, because most (87%) cases were not temporally associated with vaccination, we reanalyzed these data to assess risk factors for intussusception cases unrelated to Rotashield. Case-patients were infants with intussusception between November 1998 and June 1999. Controls were matched by age and hospital of birth. Sociodemographic and feeding practice data were collected through parent and provider interviews. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for intussusception, controlling for exposure to Rotashield <21 days before intussusception. Four hundred twenty-nine cases and 1763 controls were enrolled. Among case-patients, 372 (87%) had not received Rotashield within 21 days before intussusception. After adjusting for recent Rotashield administration, factors associated with intussusception included male sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.2), Hispanic (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.2) or black (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7) race/ethnicity, and Medicaid enrollment (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.0). Feeding practices modified the risk of intussusception. Interaction was found between introduction of solid food (ISF) and type of formula consumption. Using breast milk as the referent group, infants with ISF for at least 5 weeks who consumed soy milk-based formula had a lower risk (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and infants without ISF who consumed cow's-milk formula had an increased risk (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.4-3.9). Risk of intussusception among US infants varies based on sociodemographic characteristics and feeding patterns.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2010; 51(4):458-63. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infants aged <12 months have the highest rates of complications and death from pertussis of any age group. Factors that increase the risk of pertussis-related death in infants are not well defined. The US Multiple Cause-of-Death and Linked Birth/Infant Death databases were used for 1999 to 2004 to examine pertussis-related infant mortality rates and to obtain anonymous records of infants with pertussis listed as a cause of death and of surviving infants. Infant and maternal characteristics present at the time of birth for infants who died with pertussis were compared with those of surviving infants. During 1999 to 2004, 91 infant deaths were reported with pertussis as a cause of death. All infants were 7 months or younger; 58% were age <2 months. The average annual infant mortality rate attributed to pertussis was 3.8 (95% CI: 3.0-4.6) per 1,000,000 live births, and 13.1 (95% CI: 9.8-17.1) per 1,000,000 live births for infants aged <2 months. Infant pertussis deaths showed an independent association with birth weight <2500 g, female sex, Apgar score <8, and mother with <12 years education. The mortality rate among Hispanic infants aged <2 months was 2.6 times greater than among non-Hispanic infants of similar age. Ensuring pertussis booster vaccination of adults and adolescents in close contact with an infant is warranted to prevent transmission of pertussis to vulnerable infants, particularly infants too young to be immunized. Special emphasis should be given to women and infant settings in which the risk of infant pertussis death might be increased.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2009; 28(3):194-8. · 3.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
306.16 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Viral Hepatitis
      • • Immunization Services Division
      • • National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
      • • Division of Vector-Borne Diseases
      • • Division of Bacterial Diseases
      • • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Surveillance and Epidemiology
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • STD Med, Inc.
      Stoughton, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Malawi Centers of Disease Control and Prevention
      Lilongwe, Central Region, Malawi
  • 2007
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Louisville
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Louisville, KY, United States
  • 2005
    • Harvard Pilgrim Health Care
      Quincy, Massachusetts, United States