[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial glomerular hematuria(s) comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of conditions which include Alport Syndrome (AS) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). Here we investigated 57 Greek-Cypriot families presenting glomerular microscopic hematuria (GMH), with or without proteinuria or chronic kidney function decline, but excluded classical AS. We specifically searched the COL4A3/A4 genes and identified 8 heterozygous mutations in 16 families (28,1%). Eight non-related families featured the founder mutation COL4A3-p.(G1334E). Renal biopsies from 8 patients showed TBMN and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Ten patients (11.5%) reached end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at ages ranging from 37-69-yo (mean 50,1-yo). Next generation sequencing of the patients who progressed to ESKD failed to reveal a second mutation in any of the COL4A3/A4/A5 genes, supporting that true heterozygosity for COL4A3/A4 mutations predisposes to CRF/ESKD. Although this could be viewed as a milder and late-onset form of autosomal dominant AS, we had no evidence of ultrastructural features or extrarenal manifestations that would justify this diagnosis. Functional studies in cultured podocytes transfected with wild type or mutant COL4A3 chains showed retention of mutant collagens and differential activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) cascade. This signifies the potential role of the UPR cascade in modulating the final phenotype in patients with collagen IV nephropathies.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(12):e115015. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement factor H and related proteins (CFHR) are key regulators of the alternative complement pathway, where loss of function mutations lead to a glomerulopathy with isolated mesangial C3 deposits without immunoglobulins. Gale et al. (12) reported on 26 patients with the first familial, hematuric glomerulopathy caused by a founder mutation in the CFHR5 gene in patients of Cypriot descent living in the United Kingdom. CFHR5 nephropathy is clinically characterized by continuous microscopic hematuria whereas some patients present with additional episodes of synpharyngitic macrohematuria, associated with infection and pyrexia. A subgroup of patients, particularly men, develop additional proteinuria, hypertension, and chronic renal disease or ESRD.
We herewith expand significantly on the study by Gale et al., reporting on histologic, molecular, and clinical findings in 91 patients from 16 families with the same founder mutation.
Eighty-two patients (90%) exhibited microscopic hematuria; 51 (62%), exhibited only microscopic hematuria, whereas the remaining 31 additionally had proteinuria (38%); 28 proteinuric patients developed chronic renal failure (CRF). Among carriers of CFHR5 mutation aged >50 years, 80% of the men and 21% of the women developed CRF; 18 developed ESRD (14 men [78%], 4 women [22%]).
The diagnosis of CFHR5-related, isolated C3 glomerulopathy was established in 2009 using newly described mutation analysis after decades of follow-up with unclear diagnoses, occasionally confused with IgA nephropathy. This larger patient cohort establishes the clinical course, significant variable expressivity, and marked gender difference regarding the development of CRF and ESRD.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2011; 6(6):1436-46. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The X-linked Alport syndrome (ATS) is caused by mutations in COL4A5 and exhibits a widely variable expression. Usually ATS is heralded with continuous microhematuria which rapidly progresses to proteinuria, hypertension and chronic or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by adolescence, frequently accompanied by sensorineural deafness and ocular complications. Milder forms of ATS also exist. We studied 42 patients (19M, 23F) of nine Hellenic families suspected clinically of X-linked ATS who presented with marked phenotypic heterogeneity. We identified mutations in COL4A5 in six families. Two males with nonsense mutation E228X reached ESRD by ages 14 and 18. Frameshift mutation 2946delT followed the same course with early onset renal involvement and deafness. However, two males with the milder missense mutation G624D, reached ESRD after 39 years and one patient showed thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). Another 5/8 affected males with missense mutation P628L also developed ESRD between 30 and 57 years, while three exhibit only mild chronic renal failure (CRF). The data support previous findings that certain mutations are associated with milder phenotypes and confirm that mutation G624D may be expressed as TBMN with familial hematuria. Similar conclusions apply for missense mutation P628L. Interestingly, mutations G624D and P628L are near the 12th natural interruption of COL4A5 triple helical domain, which may explain the milder phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate clinically and genetically all the distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) cases in Cyprus, to study one more family from Greece and to perform the first dRTA prenatal diagnosis. We also tried to find any association with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) onset and particular mutations.
Nine dRTA families from Cyprus and one from Greece were analyzed for mutations in ATP6V1B1 gene by DNA resequencing and PCR-RFLPs. Clinical diagnosis was performed by standard criteria. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for one Cypriot family.
Results show that 7/9 dRTA cases in Cyprus are caused by 229+1G>T and R157C founder mutations in ATP6V1B1 gene. 229+1G>T mutation was estimated to be older than 400 years. No genotype- phenotype correlation was found with SNHL. A known (L81P) and a novel mutation (912delT) were found in the Greek family. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for one Cypriot family, after parents' demand, showing that the embryo was a heterozygous carrier.
Existence of only two ATP6V1B1 mutations in the Cypriot population is a diagnostic advantage. The age of onset of SNHL varies in our patients and probably is not related to ATP6V1B1 genotypes. Effective therapy for most of the syndrome symptoms is not satisfactory for some parents who choose prenatal diagnosis to ensure their child's health.
Nephron Clinical Practice 01/2011; 117(3):c206-12. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterozygous mutations in the COL4A3/ COL4A4 genes are currently thought to be responsible for familial benign microscopic haematuria and maintenance of normal long-term kidney function.
We report on 11 large Cypriot pedigrees with three such mutations. A total of 236 at-risk family members were genetically studied, and 127 (53.8%) carried a heterozygous mutation. Clinico-pathological correlations were available in all of these patients. Renal biopsies in 21 of these patients all showed various stages of focal, segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Thirteen of these biopsies were also studied with EM and showed thinning of the glomerular basement membrane.
Mutation G1334E (COL4A3) was found in six pedigrees, mutation G871C (COL4A3) in four and mutation 3854delG (COL4A4) in one pedigree. Clinical and laboratory correlations in all 127 mutation carriers (MC) showed that microscopic haematuria was the only urinary finding in patients under age 30. The prevalence of 'haematuria alone' fell to 66% between 31 and 50 years, to 30% between 51 and 70 and to 23% over age 71. Proteinuria with CRF developed on top of haematuria in 8% of all MC between 31 and 50 years, to 25% between 51 and 70 years and to 50% over 71 years. Altogether 18 of these 127 MC (14%) developed ESRD at a mean age of 60 years. Two members with different mutations married, and two of their children inherited both mutations and developed adolescent, autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ATS), confirming that these mutations are pathogenic.
Our data confirm for the first time a definite association of heterozygous COL4A3/COL4A4 mutations with familial microscopic haematuria, thin basement membrane nephropathy and the late development of familial proteinuria, CRF, and ESRD, due to FSGS, indicating that the term 'benign familial haematuria' is a misnomer, at least in this cohort. A strong hypothesis for a causal relationship between these mutations and FSGS is also made. Benign familial haematuria may not be so benign as commonly thought.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thin basement membrane nephropathy is one of the main causes of hematuria in both children and adults. It is often associated with a family history and its true incidence is unknown. Accurate diagnosis of thin basement membrane nephropathy relies on the presence of attenuated glomerular basement membranes, a finding that can be appreciated only by examination in the electron microscope. In Cyprus the department of electron microscopy has received 990 consecutive renal biopsies for diagnosis. The aim of this study is to define the incidence of thin basement membrane nephropathy in this population sample based on the results of electron microscopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant medullary cystic kidney disease (ADMCKD), a hereditary chronic interstitial nephropathy, recently attracted attention because of the cloning or mapping of certain gene loci, namely NPHP1, NPHP2 and NPHP3 for familial juvenile nephronophthisis (NPH) and MCKD1 and MCKD2 for the adult form of medullary cystic kidney disease. Our aim was to present and discuss the clinical, biochemical, sonographic and histopathological findings in six large Cypriot families in whom molecular analysis has confirmed linkage to the MCKD1 locus on chromosome 1q21.
The clinical, biochemical, sonographic and histopathological findings in 186 members of six large Cypriot families with ADMCKD-1 are presented. Creatinine clearance was calculated according to the Cockroft-Gault formula and was corrected to a body surface area (BSA) of 1.73 m2. DNA linkage analysis was performed with previously identified flanking polymorphic markers.
This disease is characterized by the absence of urinary findings in the vast majority of patients, leading to end-stage renal failure (ESRF) at a mean age of 53.7 years. Hypertension and hyperuricemia are common, especially in males, the former encountered more frequently in advanced chronic renal failure (CRF). Gout has been noted in a small percentage of male patients. Loss of urinary concentrating ability was not a prominent early feature of the disease, while severe natriuresis was observed in a few males toward ESRF. Renal cysts are mainly corticomedullary or medullary, and they are present in about 40.3% of patients and appear more frequently near ESRF.
ADMCKD type 1 is a common cause of ESRF among our dialysis population. The disease is difficult to diagnose clinically, particularly in the early stage when renal cysts are not usually present, making them a weak diagnostic finding. A dominant pattern of inheritance and DNA linkage analysis are helpful in the diagnosis of this disease.
Kidney International 11/2002; 62(4):1385-94. · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A detailed morphometric analysis of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness was carried out on biopsies from 16 patients exhibiting normal histology and unremarkable immunofluorescence. Eleven of these patients presented with proteinuria, 8 in the nephrotic syndrome range, while 5 had hematuria as well. The remaining 5 patients presented with hematuria only. Eight patients had an initial diagnosis of minimal change disease, 4 were diagnosed as thin-membrane nephropathy, 2 had Alport syndrome, and the remaining 2 had hypertensive nephropathy. Quantitative morphometric analysis of GBM identified 3 subsets of patients. The first subset consisted of 6 patients: 5 adults, with an average GBM width of 361 +/- 34 nm, and 1 child. The second subset included 8 patients with thin GBMs and a mean thickness of 253 +/- 15 nm. The last subset comprised 2 patients with Alport syndrome showing marked variability in GBM thickness. This study has confirmed the presence of thin GBMs in hematurics, but has also revealed GBM thinning in 50% of patients with a diagnosis of minimal change disease.