D G Peroni

University of Verona, Verona, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (151)603.35 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Sensitization to profilins and other cross-reacting molecules might hinder proper specific immunotherapy (SIT) prescription in polysensitized patients with pollen-related allergic rhinitis (AR). In these patients, component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) might modify SIT prescription by improving the identification of the disease-eliciting pollen sources. Objectives We sought to measure the effect of CRD on SIT prescription in children with pollen-related AR. Methods Children (n = 651) with moderate-to-severe pollen-related AR were recruited between May 2009 and June 2011 in 16 Italian outpatient clinics. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to grass, cypress, olive, mugwort, pellitory, and/or Betulaceae pollen was considered clinically relevant if symptoms occurred during the corresponding peak pollen season. IgE sensitization to Phl p 1, Phl p 5, Bet v 1, Cup a 1, Art v 1, Ole e 1, Par j 2, and Phl p 12 (profilin) was measured by using ImmunoCAP. SIT prescription was modeled on SPT responses first and then remodeled considering also CRD according to GA2LEN–European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology guidelines and the opinions of 14 pediatric allergists. Results No IgE to the respective major allergens was detected in significant proportions of patients with supposed clinically relevant sensitization to mugwort (45/65 [69%]), Betulaceae (146/252 [60%]), pellitory (78/257 [30%]), olive (111/390 [28%]), cypress (28/184 [15%]), and grass (56/568 [10%]). IgE to profilins, polcalcins, or both could justify 173 (37%) of 464 of these SPT reactions. After CRD, the SPT-based decision on SIT prescription or composition was changed in 277 (42%) of 651 or 315 (48%) of 651 children according to the European or American approach, respectively, and in 305 (47%) of 651 children according to the opinion of the 14 local pediatric allergists. Conclusions In children with pollen-related AR, applying CRD leads to changes in a large proportion of SIT prescriptions as opposed to relying on clinical history and SPT alone. The hypothesis that CRD-guided prescription improves SIT efficacy deserves to be tested.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2014; 02 may 2014(in press). · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is being used increasingly to sample airway lining fluid. In asthmatic patients, the concentration of pH in EBC has been found to be decreased and to be related to airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine exhaled pH levels during acute asthma exacerbations in relation to pharmacologic treatment in asthmatic children and compare these with control subjects. Twelve asthmatic children with asthma exacerbation and 27 healthy children were enrolled. Clinical observations and pH in EBC before and after standard treatment for asthma attack, based administration of inhaled beta2-agonist, and corticosteroid, according to international Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, were compared with those in healthy subjects. All children performed skin-prick tests to aeroallergens. Asthmatic children underwent spirometry. Exhaled pH levels were significantly lower in children with asthma exacerbation before treatment (mean ± SD = 7.87 ± 0.66; p = 0.03) but not after treatment (8.11 ± 0.06; p = 0.40) compared with controls (8.12 + 0.19). Intragroup analyses found that condensate pH levels in asthmatic children before treatment were lower, but not significantly, than those after treatment. No correlation was found between pH values and treatment with systemic corticosteroids or lung function. Asthmatic children were atopic in 75% of cases. Levels of pH are decreased in EBC of asthmatic children with exacerbation before treatment. Larger studies are required to determine whether EBC pH levels may be a useful noninvasive biomarker to guide treatment of asthma exacerbations in childhood.
    Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 05/2014; 35(3):51-6. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sensitization to profilins and other cross-reacting molecules might hinder proper specific immunotherapy (SIT) prescription in polysensitized patients with pollen-related allergic rhinitis (AR). In these patients, component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) might modify SIT prescription by improving the identification of the disease-eliciting pollen sources. We sought to measure the effect of CRD on SIT prescription in children with pollen-related AR. Children (n = 651) with moderate-to-severe pollen-related AR were recruited between May 2009 and June 2011 in 16 Italian outpatient clinics. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to grass, cypress, olive, mugwort, pellitory, and/or Betulaceae pollen was considered clinically relevant if symptoms occurred during the corresponding peak pollen season. IgE sensitization to Phl p 1, Phl p 5, Bet v 1, Cup a 1, Art v 1, Ole e 1, Par j 2, and Phl p 12 (profilin) was measured by using ImmunoCAP. SIT prescription was modeled on SPT responses first and then remodeled considering also CRD according to GA(2)LEN-European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology guidelines and the opinions of 14 pediatric allergists. No IgE to the respective major allergens was detected in significant proportions of patients with supposed clinically relevant sensitization to mugwort (45/65 [69%]), Betulaceae (146/252 [60%]), pellitory (78/257 [30%]), olive (111/390 [28%]), cypress (28/184 [15%]), and grass (56/568 [10%]). IgE to profilins, polcalcins, or both could justify 173 (37%) of 464 of these SPT reactions. After CRD, the SPT-based decision on SIT prescription or composition was changed in 277 (42%) of 651 or 315 (48%) of 651 children according to the European or American approach, respectively, and in 305 (47%) of 651 children according to the opinion of the 14 local pediatric allergists. In children with pollen-related AR, applying CRD leads to changes in a large proportion of SIT prescriptions as opposed to relying on clinical history and SPT alone. The hypothesis that CRD-guided prescription improves SIT efficacy deserves to be tested.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast milk and colostrum are the first feeding sources for a child, providing nutrients, growth factors and immunological components, which are crucial for the newborn's correct development and health. Length of exclusive breastfeeding and time of solid foods introduction is a key factor that may influence allergy development. There is an emerging evidence of a relationship between breastfeeding, milk composition and lower risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension and allergies. This review examines current evidence regarding humoral and cellular characteristics of breast-milk, and potential role of environment, maternal diet and breastfeeding on the allergy development in children.
    Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that vitamin D regulates immune responses. There is also epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and development of asthma. In addition, several epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D during pregnancy and early life are inversely associated with the risk of developing respiratory infections and wheezing in childhood. Vitamin D also seems to reduce asthma exacerbation and increase the response to glucocorticoids. These findings have led to considering a possible link between the occurrence of allergic respiratory diseases and low levels of vitamin D. However, the precise role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of asthma still remains unclear, emphasizing the need for well-designed trials on vitamin D supplementation to decipher its role in preventing and/or managing the disease. This review examines the relationship that exists between vitamin D deficiency and childhood wheezing and asthma.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2014; 6:31-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a multifactorial disease in which many factors play a role in its development and exacerbations. Viral infections are known to be the main cause of asthmatic exacerbations and are often the first manifestation of asthma in preschool age. However, there is much evidence suggesting a role of viral infections even in asthma development. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). has been first associated with an increased risk to develop asthma, but recently new viruses have been proposed to be involved in asthma pathogenesis. Further studies will be needed to demonstrate a causative role of viral infections in asthma development, in order to implement preventive strategies in high-risk children.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2014; 6:46-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a potentially severe non-IgE-mediated food allergy usually caused by cow's milk or soy, and more rarely by solid foods such as rice, oats, barley, chicken, turkey, egg white, green peas and peanuts. In children with FPIES, the presence of specific IgE antibodies to the causative food, either at presentation or during follow-up, defines an "atypical form" of FPIES characterized by a lesser probability of developing tolerance and a potential progression to typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Although it is uncommon, the shift from non-IgE-mediated milk-protein induced enterocolitis syndrome to IgE-mediated milk allergy has recently been described. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a shift from IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy to pure non-IgE-mediated FPIES, in a 4-month-old male infant.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2013; 45(6):209-11.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR) is highly prevalent and rapidly evolving during childhood. General practitioners may not be fully aware of the nature and severity of symptoms experienced by patients and might underestimate the prevalence of moderate or severe disease. Thus, the relevance of early diagnosis and intervention may be overlooked. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the severity of pollen-induced AR and its determinants in Italian children referred to allergy specialists and who had never received specific immunotherapy (SIT). METHODS: Children (age 4-18 yr) affected by pollen-induced AR who had never undergone SIT were recruited between May 2009 and June 2011 in 16 pediatric outpatient clinics in 14 Italian cities. Recruited children's parents answered standardized questionnaires on atopic diseases (International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood, Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, Global Initiative for Asthma). The children underwent skin-prick test (SPT) with several airborne allergens and six food allergens. Information on socio-demographic factors, parental history of allergic diseases, education, perinatal events, breastfeeding, nutrition and environmental exposure in early life was collected through an informatics platform shared by the whole network of clinical centers (AllergyCARD™). RESULTS: Among the 1360 recruited patients (68% males, age 10.5 ± 3.4 yr), 695 (51%) had moderate-to-severe AR, 533 (39%) asthma, and 325 (23.9%) oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Reported onset of pollen-induced AR was on average at 5.3 ± 2.8 yr, and its mean duration from onset was 5.2 ± 3.3 yr. Only 6.2% of the patients were pollen-monosensitized, and 84.9% were sensitized to ≥3 pollens. A longer AR duration was significantly associated with moderate-to-severe AR symptoms (p 0.004), asthma (p 0.030), and OAS comorbidities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study may raise awareness of the severity of pollen-induced AR among Italian children who have never received pollen SIT. The strong association between pollen-induced AR duration and several markers of disease severity needs replication in longitudinal studies, while suggesting that countrywide initiatives for earlier diagnosis and intervention should be planned.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 11/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Diego G Peroni, Attilio L Boner
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the scientific publications in the last 2 years on the connections between vitamin D and food allergy, and endeavor to focus on the possible indications for supplementation in order to prevent allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ecological studies have suggested a possible relationship between sun exposure and atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis. However, no direct evaluation of vitamin D status has been performed. Recent studies evaluating the relationship with vitamin D levels at birth or during pregnancy have shown conflicting results with the lower levels of vitamin D associated with eczema, the higher with increased food allergy prevalence. SUMMARY: Although the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal function is certainly intriguing and must not be underestimated, at the moment there is a lack of consistent data addressing the topic of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of food allergies. However, in light of the vast amount of literature regarding the mechanisms connected with atopic diseases, an evaluation of serum levels of vitamin D and eventually supplementation must be considered as a further opportunity to understand and treat atopic diseases. In this regard, well designed trials on vitamin D supplementation to prevent food allergies are urgently needed.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 04/2013; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strategies to prevent or reduce the risk of allergic diseases are needed. The time of exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of solid foods is a key factor that may influence the development of allergy. For this reason, the aim of this review was to examine the association between exposure to solid foods in the infant's diet and the development of allergic diseases in children. Classical prophylactic feeding guidelines recommended a delayed introduction of solids for the prevention of atopic diseases. Is it really true that a delayed introduction of solids (after the 4th or 6th month) is protective against the development of eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis and food or inhalant sensitisation? In recent years, many authors have found that there is no statistically significant association between delayed introduction of solids and protection for the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, late introduction of solid foods could be associated with increased risk of allergic sensitisation to foods, inhalant allergens and celiac disease in children. Tolerance may be driven by the contact of the mucosal immune system with the allergen at the right time of life; the protective effects seem to be enhanced by the practice of the breastfeeding at the same time when weaning is started. Therefore, recent guidelines propose a "window" approach for weaning practice starting at the 17th week and introducing almost all foods within the 27th week of life to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as allergic ones and the celiac disease. Guidelines emphasize the role of breastfeeding during the weaning practice.
    Allergologia et Immunopathologia 12/2012; · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colostrum contains cellular components that convey immunological protection to offspring. In the present study the main subsets of lymphocytes present in colostrum and in peripheral blood of healthy screened mothers were compared through the evaluation of >15 different flow cytometry markers. Colostrum and peripheral blood samples were collected within 3 days after full-term delivery. Flow cytometry assays and laboratory tests were performed soon after collection. Among B cells, percentages of CD19(+)CD5(+) cells, pertaining to natural immunity system, were significantly higher in colostrum than in peripheral blood (33 vs. 5%, p = 0.047). CD4(+) T cells, effector cells (CD45RA(+)/CD27(-)) and effector memory cells (CD45RA(-)/CD27(-)) were significantly higher in colostrum (p < 0.001) than in peripheral blood, as well as activated CD4(+) T cells (HLA(-)DR(+)) (36% vs. 6% p = 0.0022) and CD4(+) terminally differentiated effector T cells (CD57(+)) (p < 0.001). With regards to CD8(+) T cells, a comparable significant increase in effector (p < 0.02) and effector memory cells (p < 0.001) was also observed. Moreover, an increased surface expression of HLA-DR and CD57 (p < 0.001) on CD8(+) T cells in colostrum was detected. Colostrum contains a different distribution of lymphocyte subsets with respect to peripheral blood from mothers, confirming the observation that lymphocytes probably migrate in milk in a selective way. Colostrum T and B lymphocytes appear to be enriched with subsets possessing effector functions or belonging to the innate immune system, what could transfer a prompt line of defence to offspring.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 09/2012; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide at the flow of 50 mL/s (FeNO(50)). However, no study has assessed the correlation between alveolar production (C(alv)) and bronchial flux (J(NO)) of nitric oxide (NO) and EIB in asthmatic children. To identify the relationship between severity of EIB and bronchial or alveolar nitric oxide. Our group included 36 allergic children with intermittent asthma. The EIB was determined by a standard exercise challenge and the severity was expressed as the maximum change in percentage from the baseline value of lung function (ΔFEV(1)%, ΔFEF(25-75)%) after exercising. A chemiluminescence analyser at multiple flows was used to calculate FeNO(50), J(NO) and C(alv,) which reflect large airways, J(NO) and alveolar concentration of NO respectively. Sixteen (44.4%) children presented a ∆FEV(1) ≥ 10%, eight (22.2%) had ∆FEV(1) ≥ 15% and nine (25%) children had a ∆FEF(25-75) ≥ 26%. A significant correlation was observed between severity of EIB and FeNO(50) , J(NO) and C(alv.) EIB was significantly more severe in children sensitive to indoor allergens compared with outdoor allergens only (P = 0.014); those children showed also higher levels of C(alv) (P = 0.003) and of J(NO) (P = 0.044). Our results suggest that inflammation is present in the central and peripheral airways and that it is associated with the severity of EIB. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00952835.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 08/2012; 42(8):1190-6. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a symptomatic disorder of the nose induced after allergen exposure by an IgE-mediated inflammation of the nasal mucosa. This study was designed to investigate the role of nasal mucosa temperature in AR. We investigated the relationship between eosinophilic infiltration, nasal obstruction, and nasal mucosa temperature in 35 children with rhinitis aged 6-12 years. A significant relationship was shown between nasal temperature values and eosinophil infiltration at nasal cytology (p < 0.01). Nasal temperature was also significantly associated with nasal obstruction, assessed in terms of nasal volume (Vol [2-5 cm]; p < 0.05) and minimum cross-sectional area (p < 0.01). No significant correlation emerged between the degree of nasal obstruction and presence of eosinophils at nasal cytology (p > 0.05). These results suggest a relationship between nasal temperature and nasal mucosa inflammation and obstruction.
    American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 07/2012; 26(4):e115-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Suspected vaccine allergy may be a cause of incomplete or delayed vaccination. Patients at risk of adverse reactions or suspected contraindications need specialized consultation about subsequent vaccinations. To analyse consultancy results for patients at risk of allergic reactions to vaccines as evaluated by the Green Channel University Hospital Immunization Consultancy Clinic. A review of cases of allergic reactions to vaccines or contraindications due to underlying diseases or sensitization to vaccine components submitted to the Green Channel was carried out. Analysed data included detailed clinical reaction history, skin and in vitro allergy testing with vaccine components, recommendations for vaccination and outcome of subsequent vaccine administrations. A total of 519 cases, 370 referred for previous local or systemic reactions to vaccines, mostly cutaneous, and 149 sent for suspected contraindications were evaluated. Skin testing was performed on 152 patients, specific IgE determination in 37 subjects and patch testing in 173 cases. After consultation, 442 (85%) subjects were advised to continue vaccination, with personalized precautions (premedication, or alternative brand, or administration in graded doses) for 200 of them. Among the 352 (80%) patients vaccinated as per Green Channel instructions, 33 subjects (9.3%) reported mild allergic or non-specific symptoms and one (0.3%) urticaria with bronchospasm. Even though vaccine allergy occurs very rarely, a safe procedure for immunization can be applied, through specialized allergy consultancy, for most subjects with suspected allergy to vaccines, and who could be potentially excluded from vaccination for risk of adverse reactions.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 07/2012; 42(7):1088-96. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal malabsorption can cause urinary stone disease via enteric hyperoxaluria. It has been shown that celiac disease, a common malabsorption disorder, is associated with an increased risk of calcium oxalate kidney stones in adults. Since no published data are available in the pediatric population, we analyzed urinary excretion of electrolytes in children with celiac disease to assess the risk of nephrolithiasis. The study population consisted of 115 children 1 to 16 years old (mean 5 years) with positive serological tests for celiac disease (anti-endomysium and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies) referred to us for jejunal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Assessment was requested because patients presented with poor growth, anemia, gastrointestinal disorders or a family history of celiac disease. After obtaining informed consent we performed urine tests to measure urinary variables and blood tests to exclude metabolic disorders and evaluate renal function. All patients had a biopsy confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease. Oxaluria was normal in all children studied. However, levels of urinary calcium were decreased in patients with celiac disease and were inversely associated with disease severity (p = 0.0004). In contrast to adults, increased urinary excretion of oxalate was not detectable in children presenting with celiac disease. Therefore, the risk of nephrolithiasis appears not to be increased compared to healthy children. The observed hypocalciuria probably further decreases the tendency to form kidney stones.
    The Journal of urology 06/2012; 188(2):566-70. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. ASTRATTO: La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi correlati. Gli alimenti che possono prevenire lo sviluppo di respiro sibilante (wheezing) attraverso i loro effetti antiossidanti contengono vitamina C e selenio; i livelli ematici di questi elementi sono correlati negativamente con il rischio di wheezing. Inoltre l'assunzione di vitamina E durante la gravidanza sembra essere correlato con un rischio ridotto di respiro sibilante per il nascituro. Allo stesso modo, basso apporto di zinco e di carotenoidi in donne in gravidanza è associata ad un aumentato rischio di wheezing e asma nell'infanzia. Anche le fibre hanno proprietà anti-infiammatorie ed effetti protettivi contro le malattie allergiche come la dermatite atopica e l'asma. Il consumo di grassi influenza lo sviluppo delle vie aeree. Le popolazioni dei paesi occidentali hanno aumentato il loro consumo di n-6 PUFA e, parallelamente, ridotto n-3 PUFA. Ciò ha portato alla diminuzione della produzione di PGE2, che si ritiene abbia un effetto protettivo contro l'infiammazione delle vie aeree. Ipotesi contrastanti riguardano la vitamina D, sia un eccesso che una carenza di vitamina D, infatti, sono stati associati ad un aumentato rischio di asma. Ulteriori studi sul ruolo di queste sostanze sono necessari prima di trarre conclusioni sul piano clinico.
    Italian Journal of Pediatrics 05/2012; 38:22. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) is universally considered an indirect marker of eosinophilic airways inflammation, playing an important role in the physiopathology of childhood asthma. Advances in technology and standardization have allowed a wider use of FeNO in clinical practice in children from the age of four years. FeNO measurements add a new dimension to the traditional clinical tools (symptoms scores, lung function tests) in the assessment of asthma. To date a number of studies have suggested a possible use of FeNO in early identification of exacerbation risk and in inhaled corticosteroids titration. The aim of this paper is to address practical issues of interest to paediatric clinicians who are attempting to use FeNO measurements as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis and management of childhood airway diseases.
    Journal of Breath Research 04/2012; 6(2):027103. · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Archives of Disease in Childhood 03/2012; 97(3):205. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2012; · 2.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
603.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2013
    • University of Verona
      • Section of Pediatrics
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 2011–2012
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona
      • Department of Pathology and Diagnostics
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Translational Medical Sciences
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Università degli studi di Parma
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 2006
    • Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara
      Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 2004
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Biology
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2003
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
  • 1994–1996
    • University of Southampton
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      La Jolla, California, United States