D G Peroni

University of Ferrara, Ferrare, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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Publications (164)651.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Childhood immunisation is one of the greatest public health successes of the last century. Vaccines contain an active component (the antigen) which induces the immune response. They may also contain additional components such as preservatives, additives, adjuvants and traces of other substances. This review provides information about risks of hypersensitivity reactions to components of vaccines. Furthermore, recommendations to avoid or reduce reactions to vaccine components have been detailed.
    12/2015; 4(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s40169-014-0043-0
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of pediatric food allergy and anaphylaxis has increased in the last decades, especially in westernized countries where this emerging phenomenon was marked as a “second wave” of the allergic epidemic. Over recent years great advances have been achieved in the field of in vitro allergy testing and component-resolved diagnosis has increasingly entered clinical practice. Testing for allergen components can contribute to a more precise diagnosis by discriminating primary from cross-reactive sensitizations and assessing the risk of severe allergic reactions. The basic concept of the management of food allergy in children is also changing. Avoidance of the offending food is still the mainstay for disease management, especially in primary health care settings, but it severely affects the patients’ quality of life without reducing the risk of accidental allergic reactions. There is a growing body of evidence to show that specific oral tolerance induction can represent a promising treatment option for food allergic patients. In parallel, education of food allergic patients and their caregivers as well as physicians about anaphylaxis and its treatment is becoming recognized a fundamental need. International guidelines have recently integrated these new evidences and their broad application all over Europe represents the new challenge for food allergy specialists.
    Italian Journal of Pediatrics 12/2015; 41(1). DOI:10.1186/s13052-014-0108-0 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both extensively hydrolysed formulas (eHF) and amino acid-based formula (AAFs) have been demonstrated effective for the treatment of CMA. However, in clinical practice, parents complain that hydrolysates are rejected by children due to their bad taste. Flavor of hydrolysed formulas has been poorly investigated although it affects the acceptance of milk over all the other attributes. One hundred and fifty trained panelists performed a randomized-order-double-blind test with different milks. The smell, texture, taste and aftertaste of each formula were evaluated on a scale ranging from -2 (worst) to 2 (best). Formulas showed significant difference, as compared to cow's milk, in smell, texture, taste and aftertaste. Overall, whey eHFs were judged of better palatability than casein eHF and the AAFs (p < 0.05). However, whey eHF showed significant differences among them for sensory attributes, especially for taste and aftertaste. These results suggest that a broad range of flavor exists among the hydrolysed formulas. Further studies, adequately designed to investigate the relationship between milks' flavor and nutrient profile of hydrolysed formulas are warranted. The aim of the present study was to understand the factors underlying the unpleasant flavour of hydrolysed formulas and amino acid-based formula.
    Italian Journal of Pediatrics 06/2015; 41(1):42. DOI:10.1186/s13052-015-0141-7 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Diego G Peroni, Cecilia Benetti
    Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 05/2015; 36(3):235. DOI:10.2500/aap.2015.36.9433 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diaphragmatic hernia in pediatric emergency department poses a diagnostic challenge because of the acute or subtle timing of onset and the wide variety of clinical features. We describe 3 different late presentations of Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia in a pediatric emergency department. These reports may help physicians avoid delayed diagnosis of late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, thereby reducing the risk of inappropriate treatments and life-threatening conditions in children.
    Pediatric emergency care 05/2015; 31(5):354-6. DOI:10.1097/PEC.0000000000000425 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by a complex pathogenesis not completely understood despite numerous studies to date. The clinical patterns result from interactions between genetic disorders determining abnormalities in the epidermis differentiation complex, modification of the cutaneous barrier, and dysfunction of immune responses. Several studies have shown that an alteration of the skin barrier combined with immune dysfunction is important for the onset, maintenance, and risk of exacerbations of the disease. In recent years, new aspects regarding the pathogenesis of the disease, such as the effects of vitamin D (VD) on immunity at the skin level and the role of certain microorganisms (particularly Staphylococcus and Malassezia species) on eczema exacerbations, have been evaluated. This article provides an overview of the evidences supporting the link between VD (deficiency) and microorganisms (skin colonization/sensitization) in AD pathogenesis, based on comprehensive review of the literature. By considering different aspects of disease, it might be possible to improve our understanding, particularly in those patients refractory to conventional treatments. An electronic research strategy was used to search in Medline Pub-Med Library using as research words AD, exacerbation, VD, Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and Malassezia. The results were downloaded and analyzed for systematic review. Few studies actually consider the relationship between VD deficiency (VDD), AD, and SA and Malassezia, but many suggest a correlation between these factors. VDs play a major role against microorganisms in the development of AD and should be considered when treating patients.
    Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 02/2015; 36(1). DOI:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3807 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Sensitization to profilins and other cross-reacting molecules might hinder proper specific immunotherapy (SIT) prescription in polysensitized patients with pollen-related allergic rhinitis (AR). In these patients, component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) might modify SIT prescription by improving the identification of the disease-eliciting pollen sources. Objectives We sought to measure the effect of CRD on SIT prescription in children with pollen-related AR. Methods Children (n = 651) with moderate-to-severe pollen-related AR were recruited between May 2009 and June 2011 in 16 Italian outpatient clinics. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to grass, cypress, olive, mugwort, pellitory, and/or Betulaceae pollen was considered clinically relevant if symptoms occurred during the corresponding peak pollen season. IgE sensitization to Phl p 1, Phl p 5, Bet v 1, Cup a 1, Art v 1, Ole e 1, Par j 2, and Phl p 12 (profilin) was measured by using ImmunoCAP. SIT prescription was modeled on SPT responses first and then remodeled considering also CRD according to GA2LEN–European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology guidelines and the opinions of 14 pediatric allergists. Results No IgE to the respective major allergens was detected in significant proportions of patients with supposed clinically relevant sensitization to mugwort (45/65 [69%]), Betulaceae (146/252 [60%]), pellitory (78/257 [30%]), olive (111/390 [28%]), cypress (28/184 [15%]), and grass (56/568 [10%]). IgE to profilins, polcalcins, or both could justify 173 (37%) of 464 of these SPT reactions. After CRD, the SPT-based decision on SIT prescription or composition was changed in 277 (42%) of 651 or 315 (48%) of 651 children according to the European or American approach, respectively, and in 305 (47%) of 651 children according to the opinion of the 14 local pediatric allergists. Conclusions In children with pollen-related AR, applying CRD leads to changes in a large proportion of SIT prescriptions as opposed to relying on clinical history and SPT alone. The hypothesis that CRD-guided prescription improves SIT efficacy deserves to be tested.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2014; 02 may 2014(in press). · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is being used increasingly to sample airway lining fluid. In asthmatic patients, the concentration of pH in EBC has been found to be decreased and to be related to airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine exhaled pH levels during acute asthma exacerbations in relation to pharmacologic treatment in asthmatic children and compare these with control subjects. Twelve asthmatic children with asthma exacerbation and 27 healthy children were enrolled. Clinical observations and pH in EBC before and after standard treatment for asthma attack, based administration of inhaled beta2-agonist, and corticosteroid, according to international Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, were compared with those in healthy subjects. All children performed skin-prick tests to aeroallergens. Asthmatic children underwent spirometry. Exhaled pH levels were significantly lower in children with asthma exacerbation before treatment (mean ± SD = 7.87 ± 0.66; p = 0.03) but not after treatment (8.11 ± 0.06; p = 0.40) compared with controls (8.12 + 0.19). Intragroup analyses found that condensate pH levels in asthmatic children before treatment were lower, but not significantly, than those after treatment. No correlation was found between pH values and treatment with systemic corticosteroids or lung function. Asthmatic children were atopic in 75% of cases. Levels of pH are decreased in EBC of asthmatic children with exacerbation before treatment. Larger studies are required to determine whether EBC pH levels may be a useful noninvasive biomarker to guide treatment of asthma exacerbations in childhood.
    Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 05/2014; 35(3):51-6. DOI:10.2500/aap.2014.35.3740 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sensitization to profilins and other cross-reacting molecules might hinder proper specific immunotherapy (SIT) prescription in polysensitized patients with pollen-related allergic rhinitis (AR). In these patients, component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) might modify SIT prescription by improving the identification of the disease-eliciting pollen sources. We sought to measure the effect of CRD on SIT prescription in children with pollen-related AR. Children (n = 651) with moderate-to-severe pollen-related AR were recruited between May 2009 and June 2011 in 16 Italian outpatient clinics. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to grass, cypress, olive, mugwort, pellitory, and/or Betulaceae pollen was considered clinically relevant if symptoms occurred during the corresponding peak pollen season. IgE sensitization to Phl p 1, Phl p 5, Bet v 1, Cup a 1, Art v 1, Ole e 1, Par j 2, and Phl p 12 (profilin) was measured by using ImmunoCAP. SIT prescription was modeled on SPT responses first and then remodeled considering also CRD according to GA(2)LEN-European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology guidelines and the opinions of 14 pediatric allergists. No IgE to the respective major allergens was detected in significant proportions of patients with supposed clinically relevant sensitization to mugwort (45/65 [69%]), Betulaceae (146/252 [60%]), pellitory (78/257 [30%]), olive (111/390 [28%]), cypress (28/184 [15%]), and grass (56/568 [10%]). IgE to profilins, polcalcins, or both could justify 173 (37%) of 464 of these SPT reactions. After CRD, the SPT-based decision on SIT prescription or composition was changed in 277 (42%) of 651 or 315 (48%) of 651 children according to the European or American approach, respectively, and in 305 (47%) of 651 children according to the opinion of the 14 local pediatric allergists. In children with pollen-related AR, applying CRD leads to changes in a large proportion of SIT prescriptions as opposed to relying on clinical history and SPT alone. The hypothesis that CRD-guided prescription improves SIT efficacy deserves to be tested.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.042 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: House dust mites (HDMs) are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years) with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations.
    Journal of Inflammation Research 03/2014; 7:39-44. DOI:10.2147/JIR.S54581
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    ABSTRACT: Breast milk and colostrum are the first feeding sources for a child, providing nutrients, growth factors and immunological components, which are crucial for the newborn's correct development and health. Length of exclusive breastfeeding and time of solid foods introduction is a key factor that may influence allergy development. There is an emerging evidence of a relationship between breastfeeding, milk composition and lower risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension and allergies. This review examines current evidence regarding humoral and cellular characteristics of breast-milk, and potential role of environment, maternal diet and breastfeeding on the allergy development in children.
    01/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.2174/1871530314666140121145045
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that vitamin D regulates immune responses. There is also epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and development of asthma. In addition, several epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D during pregnancy and early life are inversely associated with the risk of developing respiratory infections and wheezing in childhood. Vitamin D also seems to reduce asthma exacerbation and increase the response to glucocorticoids. These findings have led to considering a possible link between the occurrence of allergic respiratory diseases and low levels of vitamin D. However, the precise role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of asthma still remains unclear, emphasizing the need for well-designed trials on vitamin D supplementation to decipher its role in preventing and/or managing the disease. This review examines the relationship that exists between vitamin D deficiency and childhood wheezing and asthma.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2014; 6:31-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a multifactorial disease in which many factors play a role in its development and exacerbations. Viral infections are known to be the main cause of asthmatic exacerbations and are often the first manifestation of asthma in preschool age. However, there is much evidence suggesting a role of viral infections even in asthma development. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). has been first associated with an increased risk to develop asthma, but recently new viruses have been proposed to be involved in asthma pathogenesis. Further studies will be needed to demonstrate a causative role of viral infections in asthma development, in order to implement preventive strategies in high-risk children.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2014; 6:46-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a potentially severe non-IgE-mediated food allergy usually caused by cow's milk or soy, and more rarely by solid foods such as rice, oats, barley, chicken, turkey, egg white, green peas and peanuts. In children with FPIES, the presence of specific IgE antibodies to the causative food, either at presentation or during follow-up, defines an "atypical form" of FPIES characterized by a lesser probability of developing tolerance and a potential progression to typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Although it is uncommon, the shift from non-IgE-mediated milk-protein induced enterocolitis syndrome to IgE-mediated milk allergy has recently been described. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a shift from IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy to pure non-IgE-mediated FPIES, in a 4-month-old male infant.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2013; 45(6):209-11.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR) is highly prevalent and rapidly evolving during childhood. General practitioners may not be fully aware of the nature and severity of symptoms experienced by patients and might underestimate the prevalence of moderate or severe disease. Thus, the relevance of early diagnosis and intervention may be overlooked. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the severity of pollen-induced AR and its determinants in Italian children referred to allergy specialists and who had never received specific immunotherapy (SIT). METHODS: Children (age 4-18 yr) affected by pollen-induced AR who had never undergone SIT were recruited between May 2009 and June 2011 in 16 pediatric outpatient clinics in 14 Italian cities. Recruited children's parents answered standardized questionnaires on atopic diseases (International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood, Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, Global Initiative for Asthma). The children underwent skin-prick test (SPT) with several airborne allergens and six food allergens. Information on socio-demographic factors, parental history of allergic diseases, education, perinatal events, breastfeeding, nutrition and environmental exposure in early life was collected through an informatics platform shared by the whole network of clinical centers (AllergyCARD™). RESULTS: Among the 1360 recruited patients (68% males, age 10.5 ± 3.4 yr), 695 (51%) had moderate-to-severe AR, 533 (39%) asthma, and 325 (23.9%) oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Reported onset of pollen-induced AR was on average at 5.3 ± 2.8 yr, and its mean duration from onset was 5.2 ± 3.3 yr. Only 6.2% of the patients were pollen-monosensitized, and 84.9% were sensitized to ≥3 pollens. A longer AR duration was significantly associated with moderate-to-severe AR symptoms (p 0.004), asthma (p 0.030), and OAS comorbidities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study may raise awareness of the severity of pollen-induced AR among Italian children who have never received pollen SIT. The strong association between pollen-induced AR duration and several markers of disease severity needs replication in longitudinal studies, while suggesting that countrywide initiatives for earlier diagnosis and intervention should be planned.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 11/2013; 24(8). DOI:10.1111/pai.12136 · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2013; 24(5). DOI:10.1111/pai.12096 · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Diego G Peroni, Attilio L Boner
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the scientific publications in the last 2 years on the connections between vitamin D and food allergy, and endeavor to focus on the possible indications for supplementation in order to prevent allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ecological studies have suggested a possible relationship between sun exposure and atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis. However, no direct evaluation of vitamin D status has been performed. Recent studies evaluating the relationship with vitamin D levels at birth or during pregnancy have shown conflicting results with the lower levels of vitamin D associated with eczema, the higher with increased food allergy prevalence. SUMMARY: Although the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal function is certainly intriguing and must not be underestimated, at the moment there is a lack of consistent data addressing the topic of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of food allergies. However, in light of the vast amount of literature regarding the mechanisms connected with atopic diseases, an evaluation of serum levels of vitamin D and eventually supplementation must be considered as a further opportunity to understand and treat atopic diseases. In this regard, well designed trials on vitamin D supplementation to prevent food allergies are urgently needed.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 04/2013; DOI:10.1097/ACI.0b013e328360ed9c · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strategies to prevent or reduce the risk of allergic diseases are needed. The time of exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of solid foods is a key factor that may influence the development of allergy. For this reason, the aim of this review was to examine the association between exposure to solid foods in the infant's diet and the development of allergic diseases in children. Classical prophylactic feeding guidelines recommended a delayed introduction of solids for the prevention of atopic diseases. Is it really true that a delayed introduction of solids (after the 4th or 6th month) is protective against the development of eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis and food or inhalant sensitisation? In recent years, many authors have found that there is no statistically significant association between delayed introduction of solids and protection for the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, late introduction of solid foods could be associated with increased risk of allergic sensitisation to foods, inhalant allergens and celiac disease in children. Tolerance may be driven by the contact of the mucosal immune system with the allergen at the right time of life; the protective effects seem to be enhanced by the practice of the breastfeeding at the same time when weaning is started. Therefore, recent guidelines propose a "window" approach for weaning practice starting at the 17th week and introducing almost all foods within the 27th week of life to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as allergic ones and the celiac disease. Guidelines emphasize the role of breastfeeding during the weaning practice.
    Allergologia et Immunopathologia 12/2012; 41(5). DOI:10.1016/j.aller.2012.08.012 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is universally considered a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Several noninvasive markers, such as exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled breath temperature (PletM), have been proposed to evaluate the degree of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between diffusion lung capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and these inflammatory markers in asthmatic children. We compared data of FeNO, PletM, and DLCO collected in 35 asthmatic children at admission (T0) and discharge (T1) after a period spent in a dust-mite-free environment (Misurina, Italian Dolomites, 1756 m). PletM showed a reduction from 29.48°C at T0 to 29.13°C at T1 (p = 0.17); DLCO passed from 93 to 102 (p = 0.085). FeNO mean value was 29.7 ppb at admission and 18.9 ppb at discharge (p = 0.014). Eosinophil mean count in induced sputum was 4 at T0 and 2 at T1 (p = 0.004). Spearman standardization coefficient beta was 0.414 between eosinophils and FeNO and -0.278 between eosinophils and DLCO. Pearson's correlation index between DLCO and PletM was -0.456 (p = 0.019). A negative correlation between DLCO and PletM was found. However, DLCO did not show a significant correlation with FeNO and eosinophils in the airways. Additional studies are needed to clarify the role of DLCO as a potential tool in monitoring childhood asthma.
    12/2012; 3(2):e66-73. DOI:10.2500/ar.2012.3.0033
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    ABSTRACT: In this preliminary study, the effects of nedocromil sodium (3 or 300μM) on the Superoxide anion production and secretion of β-glucuronidase and vitamin B12-binding protein were investigated using human neutrophils stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 10 or 100nM) or phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA; 100 μg/L). O− 2 production was significantly inhibited (≈80%) in the presence of nedocromil sodium 300μM, but only when a low dose of FMLP (10nM) was used. In contrast, nedocromil was without effect on O− 2 production induced by high doses of FMLP (100μM) or by PMA (100 μg/L), and on secretion induced by either of these stimulants. Studies are in progress to ascertain whether this inhibitory effect on receptor mediated O− 2 production can be related to the therapeutic effect of nedocromil sodium.
    10/2012; 4(5):386-390. DOI:10.1007/BF03258415

Publication Stats

2k Citations
651.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Ferrara
      • Section of Pediatrics
      Ferrare, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1988–2015
    • University of Verona
      • • Department of Life and Reproduction Sciences
      • • Section of Pediatrics
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 2011–2012
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona
      • Department of Pathology and Diagnostics
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
    • Università degli studi di Parma
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 2003
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
  • 1994–1996
    • University of Southampton
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom