[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) action on gut barrier in preoperative and postoperative experimental obstructive jaundice in rats.
Forty rats were randomly divided into groups of sham-operation, bile duct ligation (BDL), BDL + L. plantarum, BDL + internal biliary drainage (IBD), and BDL + IBD + L. plantarum. Ten days after L. plantarum administration, blood and ileal samples were collected from the rats for morphological examination, and intestinal barrier function, liver function, intestinal oxidative stress and protein kinase C (PKC) activity measurement. The distribution and expression of the PKC and tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as occludin, zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junction adhesion molecule-A and F-actin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.
L. plantarum administration substantially restored gut barrier, decreased enterocyte apoptosis, improved intestinal oxidative stress, promoted the activity and expression of protein kinase (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.295 ± 0.007 vs 0.349 ± 0.003, P < 0.05; BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.407 ± 0.046 vs 0.465 ± 0.135, P < 0.05), and particularly enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of TJ proteins in the experimental obstructive jaundice (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.266 ± 0.118 vs 0.326 ± 0.009, P < 0.05). The protective effect of L. plantarum was more prominent after internal biliary drainage ( BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.415 ± 0.105 vs 0.494 ± 0.145, P < 0.05).
L. plantarum can decrease intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, reduce oxidative stress, and prevent TJ disruption in biliary obstruction by activating the PKC pathway.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2012; 18(30):3977-91. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is reported that defects exist in the small intestinal epithelial barrier of inflammatory bowel disease, which might be associated with increased intestinal permeability at a very early stage. Our study aims to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum on the decrease of epithelial permeability and the further protective effects on the intestinal epithelial barrier using the IL-10-deficient mouse model. Our study showed that tight junction associated proteins were increased after the pre-treatment of L. plantarum by fluorescence staining, western blot, real-time PCR and transmission electron microscope. Oral gavage of milk containing L. plantarum was effective in decreasing small intestinal permeability using methods of Ussing chamber assay and sugar probe. Assay of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, MPO, and colonic histology by ELISA showed protective effects of L. plantarum on the intestinal epithelial barrier. Therefore, L. plantarum may prevent the development of colitis in IL-10-deficient mice by blocking changes in the expression of TJ proteins, TJ structure and intestinal permeability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The micro integral membrane protein (MIMP), the domain within the integral membrane protein of Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1258, has been shown to adhere to mucin and antagonize the adhesion of enteroinvasive E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. To further characterize the functions of MIMP, we investigated its effects on the intestinal permeability, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and TJ ultrastructure in vitro and in vivo. We also determined the interaction between MIMP and dendritic cells (DCs). We observed that MIMP reduced intestinal permeability and restored the expression and distribution of TJ proteins in both NCM460 cell monolayers and in IL-10(-/-) mice. MIMP adhered to immature (i) DCs by binding to DC-SIGN, and induced DCs to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines and to mediate Th2 differentiation. Moreover, MIMP stimulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines in colonic mucosa and attenuated colitis in IL-10(-/-) mice. In conclusion, MIMP is the main functional component of L. plantarum that contributes to its protective effects, and thus may be a potential therapeutic agent for intestinal diseases.
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2011; 16:2106-27. · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus plantarum can exert additional probiotic effects via regulation of human immune system. However, the direct interaction between probiotics
and the receptors of immune cells still needs to be further studied. To identify the receptor of dendritic cells during the
interaction with L. plantarum. Dendritic cells were pretreated with L. plantarum and the antibody to dendritic cells specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), toll like receptor
(TLR)-2 and TLR-4. The maturation of immature dendritic cells, cytokine production, and modulation of T cells were studied
by flow cytometry. Adherence between L. plantarum and dendritic cells were studied by ELISA, flow cytometry, and Western blot. L. plantarum could mature dendritic cells by up-regulating MHC-II and CD80 and CD86. Anti-inflammatory interlectin (IL)-10 and IL-6 was
up-regulated and pro-inflammatory IL-12p70 was retro-regulated by L. plantarum. L. plantarum may interact with DC-SIGN and modulate of T to differentiate into IL-4 producing T cells. The interaction of L. plantarum and DC-SIGN and the biological effects could be blocked by EDTA and antibody to DC-SIGN. Effects of L. plantarum were concentration-dependent. L. plantarum could bind to DC-SIGN to improve DC maturation at different ratios, regulate the secretion of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory
cytokines, and induce the polarization of interlectin-4-producing T cells.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2011; 27(3):603-611. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both open appendicectomy and laparoscopic appendicectomy have their own advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of our meta-analysis is to compare the surgical effects of laparoscopic versus open appendicectomy. In our study, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Only prospective randomized controlled trials that compared the 2 methods of operation were included. Evaluation indexes in our study involved are operating time, complications, hospital stay, time to return to normal activities, time to return to normal diet, and the overall cost. Results showed that operating time of laparoscopic appendicectomy was significantly longer [weighted mean difference (WMD) 7.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.03-9.17 min; P<0.00001]. Time of hospital stay (WMD -0.82; 95% CI: -0.93 to -0.70 d), time to return to normal activities (WMD -6.85; 95% CI: -7.62 to -6.09 d), and diet (WMD -0.61; 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.36 d) were significantly decreased in the laparoscopic appendicectomy group (all P<0.00001). There is no convincing difference in complications (odds ratio 0.99; 95% CI: 0.80-1.22; P=0.92) and death rates (odds ratio 0.97; 95% CI: 0.29-3.25; P=0.96). In conclusion, laparoscopic appendicectomy may have advantages over open appendicectomy in hospital stay and postoperative recovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although probiotic consumption has generally been shown to have many beneficial effects for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on intestinal nutrient absorption, particularly oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1)-mediated absorption of dietary protein under inflammatory conditions, has not yet been characterized. In this study, we first investigated the effects of LP consumption on plasma amino acid concentrations and PepT1-mediated absorption of cephalexin in the small intestine of wild-type (WT) mice and interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. We then analyzed expression and distribution of PepT1 and protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the jejunum of these mice. LP consumption (10(9) colony-forming units/0.5 mL) delivered by gavage once per day for 4 wk increased the total plasma amino acid concentration and the concentration of plasma cephalexin through enhancement of PepT1-mediated uptake in LP treated IL-10(-/-) mice compared with IL-10(-/-) mice. However, Western blotting and quantitative PCR analysis revealed no significant differences in PepT1 protein and mRNA expression between LP-treated and untreated mice. Additionally, immunofluorescence analysis showed that PepT1 did not appear to be mislocalized in IL-10(-/-) mice. Interestingly, IL-10(-/-) mice had significantly lower PKC activity and expression of phosphorylated PKC compared with WT mice, and these decreases could be prevented by LP treatment. These data suggest that consumption of LP enhances PepT1-mediated amino acid absorption, likely through alterations in PKC activity, as opposed to changes in expression or distribution of PepT1 in the small intestine of IL-10(-/-) mice.
Journal of Nutrition 10/2010; 140(12):2201-6. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotics are efficacious in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. To determine whether probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) ameliorates colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction present in interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10⁻(/)⁻) mice, IL-10⁻(/)⁻ and wild-type mice received LP or the vehicle for 4 wk. Colitis was assessed by histological scores and clinical manifestation, and gut paracellular permeability was measured by Ussing chamber. Oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1)-mediated transepithelial transport was evaluated by measuring the plasma cephalexin concentration. The expression and distribution of apical junctional complex (AJC) proteins and PepT1 were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence and their mRNA by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Spontaneous colitis was observed in all IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice in which paracellular permeability was increased, in conjunction with decreased expression and redistribution of zonula occludens-1, occludin, claudin-1, and β-catenin. PepT1 expression was increased, accompanied with an enhanced cephalexin transport. Colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction was further confirmed by increased bacterial translocation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Treatment with LP decreased colonic paracellular permeability with restoration of expression and distribution of AJC proteins and partially prevented PepT1 expression and cephalexin transport in IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice. Moreover, treatment with LP also prevented bacterial translocation and proinflammatory cytokine production in IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice. Results from this study indicated that treatment with LP may ameliorate colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice, by modulating the AJC- and PepT1-mediated transepithelial transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a large number of in vitro and in vivo tests have confirmed that taking probiotics can improve the intestinal barrier, few studies have focused on the relationship between probiotics and the intestinal epithelial barrier in hyperbilirubinaemia. To investigate the effects of and mechanisms associated with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum; LP) and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) on the intestinal epithelial barrier, we measured the viability, apoptotic ratio and protein kinase C (PKC) activity of Caco-2 cells. We also determined the distribution and expression of tight junction proteins such as occludin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-1 and F-actin using confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR. The present study demonstrated that high concentrations of UCB caused obvious cytotoxicity and decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Low concentrations of UCB inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins and PKC but could induce UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1 family-polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) expression. UCB alone caused decreased PKC activity, serine phosphorylated occludin and ZO-1 levels. After treatment with LP, the effects of UCB on TER and apoptosis were mitigated; LP also prevented aberrant expression and rearrangement of tight junction proteins. Moreover, PKC activity and serine phosphorylated tight junction protein levels were partially restored after treatment with LP, LP exerted a protective effect against UCB damage to Caco-2 monolayer cells, and it restored the structure and distribution of tight junction proteins by activating the PKC pathway. In addition, UGT1A1 expression induced by UCB in Caco-2 cells could ameliorate the cytotoxicity of UCB.
The British journal of nutrition 08/2010; 104(3):390-401. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil has been the chemotherapy agent of first-choice for colorectal cancer for many years, but since there are no proven predictors of a patient's response to therapy, all patients receive similar treatment. Consequently, identification of biomarkers for therapeutic effect is crucial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Two human colorectal cancer cell lines of different metastatic potential (LoVo and SW480) were studied. IC50 of 5-FU for both cell lines were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethy-lthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay and validated by cell cycle analysis. Then the cell lines were treated with 5-FU at IC50 concentration and protein was extracted for 2-DE. Differential protein spots were examined by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The expression levels of the different proteins were further confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Eleven proteins were identified. Expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) in LoVo cells was higher than in SW480 cells, while protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) displayed the opposite trend. After treatment with 5-FU, the expression of hnRNP K in LoVo decreased more significantly than in SW480, while PDI in SW480 increased more significantly than in LoVo cells. Conclusion: hnRNP K and PDI in the two cell lines have different expression characteristics. The sensitivity to 5-FU is not consistent in tumor progression. It may assist in development of novel treatment strategies for colorectal cancer metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus consumption has been shown to attenuate the severity of experimental colitis. Whether the effects of Lactobacillus on colitis are related to modulation of leukocyte recruitment into the inflamed intestine is unclear.
To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum daily intragastric administration on lymphocyte homing and intestinal inflammation in interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout mice, an experimental model of colitis.
Two groups of ten IL-10 knockout mice were fed phosphate buffered saline containing Lactobacillus plantarum 1258 or unmodified vehicle for 4 weeks. Two groups of ten wild-type mice were used as controls. At killing, the bowels were histologically scored and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were determined by ELISA. In addition, levels of CD3, alpha4beta7, ICAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.
L. plantarum treatment improved the histological damage score in KO mice compared to untreated KO mice. L. plantarum significantly attenuated the expression of MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1, CD3, and alpha4beta7, but did not affect the levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma when treated KO mice were compared to untreated KO mice.
L. plantarum interfered with the upregulation of adhesion molecules observed in IL-10 knockout mice compared to wild-type mice, attenuating the symptoms of colitis.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2009; 55(9):2505-13. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the potential markers of colorectal cancer metastasis and the influence of 5-FU on differentially expressed proteins by using proteomic technology, and to elucidate the mechanism of colorectal cancer metastasis.
Human colorectal carcinoma cell lines of different metastatic potential, Lovo and SW480 were conventionally cultured, and the protein was extracted. 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 5-FU to these two cell lines was measured by MTT assay. Proteins of these two cell lines after intervention by 5-FU at IC(50) were extracted, then 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis was conducted for the proteins. The differential protein spots were examined by mass spectrometry and analyzed by bioinformatics. Difference of expressed proteins in two cell lines before and after the intervention of 5-FU was validated by Western blot and immunofluorescence.
Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The hnRNP K protein and PDI were selected to be examined by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results revealed that the expression of hnRNP K in Lovo was higher than that in SW480, while the expression of PDI was lower in Lovo. After intervention by 5-FU at IC(50), the expression of hnRNP K in Lovo decreased more as compared to SW480, while the expression of PDI in SW480 increased more as compared to Lovo.
There are significant differences in expression of hnRNP K and PDI proteins between Lovo and SW480 cell lines, and the proteins alter regularly after 5-FU intervention.
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery 11/2009; 12(6):618-22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgery and infection are prominent risk factors for the development of obstructive cholestasis which in turn is associated with failure of the liver barrier. We studied the effects of oral Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) supplementation on endotoxemia, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and tight junctions of hepatocytes in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 10 each: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, BLD followed by oral LP treatment; group IV, BDL followed by internal biliary drainage (IBD); group V, BDL followed by IBD and oral LP treatment. Hepatocyte apoptosis, plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and portal blood endotoxin levels were measured and changes in tight junction-associated proteins occludin, claudin-1, claudin-4, and ZO-1 were observed. Compared to the sham-operated group I, significant increases in endotoxemia, apoptosis, and GSSG were observed in group II and significant decreases were observed in group V. Tight junctions were destroyed in group II animals but were not in animals treated with oral LP (groups III and V). An increase in occludin, claudin-1, claudin-4, and ZO-1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in livers in LP-treated animals (group V) compared with group II levels. Oral LP treatment of rats with obstructive jaundice assisted in the return of active hepatic barrier function. These results may lead to treatments to prevent the deleterious effects of obstructive jaundice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and has poor prognosis. To identify the proteins involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, we employed 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-based proteomics approach to study the differentially expressed proteins in tumor and adjacent nontumor tissue samples. Samples from 10 colorectal patients were analyzed. Of the 7 significantly and consistently altered proteins identified, hnRNP A1 was one of the most significantly altered proteins and its overexpression was confirmed using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the enhanced expression of hnRNP A1 was correlated with the increasing severity of colorectal tissue and the progression of the colorectal cancer, as well as UICC (International Union against Cancer) staging, histo-differentiation, recurrence and decreased survival. By developing a highly sensitive immunoassay, hnRNP A1 could be detected in human serum and was significantly elevated in CRC patients compared with healthy volunteers. We proposed that hnRNP A1 could be considered as a novel serum tumor marker for CRC that may have significance in the detection and in the management of patients with this disease. Knockdown of hnRNP A1 expression by RNA interference led to the significant suppression of the cell growth in colorectal cancer SW480 cells in vitro. These data suggested that hnRNP A1 may be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring in the therapy of colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to fully assess the potential clinical value of this biomarker candidate.
Journal of Proteome Research 09/2009; 8(10):4525-35. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and has poor prognosis. To identify the oncofetal proteins involved in CRC carcinogenesis, differentially expressed proteins among fetal colorectal tissues, CRC, and the paired tumor-adjacent normal colorectal tissues were investigated by a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF-based proteomics approach. 42 protein spots were differentially expressed among these tissues, and 22 proteins were identified by MS analysis. Desmin and zinc finger protein 829 were found to be elevated in CRC tissue and fetal colorectal tissue compared with normal colorectal tissue. The elevated expression of desmin in CRC tissue and different developmental stages of fetus colon was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the elevated expression of desmin was correlated with the severity and differentiation of CRC and decreased survival rate of CRC patients. Finally by developing a highly sensitive immunoassay, desmin could be detected in human serum and was significantly elevated in CRC patients compared with healthy volunteers. We propose that desmin be considered a potential oncofetal serum tumor marker for CRC that may have significance in the detection of patients with CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic barrier is a very important structure to protect hepar, and also considerable to protect liver's function. It can prevent endotoxin and virus from entering hepar to damage hepatocyte. The primary aim of this review is to introduce the research status of hepatic barrier and analyze its function and structure. We also introduce several kinds of factors that can induce the failure of the barrier's structure and function and some countermeasures that can resist this factors.