[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a number of proteins and genes relevant to schizophrenia have been identified in recent years, few are known about the exact metabolic pathway involved in this disease. Our previous proteomic study has revealed the energy metabolism abnormality in subchronic MK-801 treated rat, a well-established animal model for schizophrenia. This prompted us to further investigate metabolite levels in the same rat model to better delineate the metabolism dysfunctions and provide insights into the pathology of schizophrenia.
Metabolomics, a high-throughput investigatory strategy developed in recent years, can offer comprehensive metabolite-level insights that complement protein and genetic findings. In this study, we employed a nondestructive metabolomic approach (1H-MAS-NMR) to investigate the metabolic traits in cortex and hippocampus of MK-801 treated rats. Multivariate statistics and ingenuity pathways analyses (IPA) were applied in data processing. The result was further integrated with our previous proteomic findings by IPA analysis to obtain a systematic view on our observations.
Clear distinctions between the MK-801 treated group and the control group in both cortex and hippocampus were found by OPLS-DA models (with R(2)X = 0.441, Q(2)Y = 0.413 and R(2)X = 0.698, Q(2)Y = 0.677, respectively). The change of a series of metabolites accounted for the separation, such as glutamate, glutamine, citrate and succinate. Most of these metabolites fell in a pathway characterized by down-regulated glutamate synthesis and disturbed Krebs cycle. IPA analysis further confirmed the involvement of energy metabolism abnormality induced by MK-801 treatment.
Our metabolomics findings reveal systematic changes in pathways of glutamate metabolism and Krebs cycle in the MK-801 treated rats' cortex and hippocampus, which confirmed and improved our previous proteomic observation and served as a valuable reference to the etiology research of schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60598. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060598 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) action on gut barrier in preoperative and postoperative experimental obstructive jaundice in rats.
Forty rats were randomly divided into groups of sham-operation, bile duct ligation (BDL), BDL + L. plantarum, BDL + internal biliary drainage (IBD), and BDL + IBD + L. plantarum. Ten days after L. plantarum administration, blood and ileal samples were collected from the rats for morphological examination, and intestinal barrier function, liver function, intestinal oxidative stress and protein kinase C (PKC) activity measurement. The distribution and expression of the PKC and tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as occludin, zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junction adhesion molecule-A and F-actin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.
L. plantarum administration substantially restored gut barrier, decreased enterocyte apoptosis, improved intestinal oxidative stress, promoted the activity and expression of protein kinase (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.295 ± 0.007 vs 0.349 ± 0.003, P < 0.05; BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.407 ± 0.046 vs 0.465 ± 0.135, P < 0.05), and particularly enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of TJ proteins in the experimental obstructive jaundice (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.266 ± 0.118 vs 0.326 ± 0.009, P < 0.05). The protective effect of L. plantarum was more prominent after internal biliary drainage ( BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.415 ± 0.105 vs 0.494 ± 0.145, P < 0.05).
L. plantarum can decrease intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, reduce oxidative stress, and prevent TJ disruption in biliary obstruction by activating the PKC pathway.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2012; 18(30):3977-91. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i30.3977 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a complex mental disease caused by a combination of serial alterations in genetic and environmental factors. Although the brain is usually considered as the most relevant organ in schizophrenia, accumulated evidence suggests that peripheral tissues also contribute to this disease. In particular, abnormalities of the immune system have been identified in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients. To screen the serum proteomic signature of schizophrenia patients, we conducted shotgun proteomic analysis on serum samples of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. High-abundance proteins were eliminated by immunoaffinity before LC-MS/MS analysis. The multivariate statistical test partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to build models for screening out variable importance in the projection (VIP) and 27 proteins were identified as being responsible for discriminating between the proteomic profiles of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Pathway analysis based on these 27 proteins revealed that complement and coagulation cascades was the most significant pathway. ELISA-based activity analyses indicated that the alternative complement pathway was suppressed in schizophrenia patients. Ingenuity pathways analysis was used to conduct the interaction network of 27 proteins. The network exhibited common features such as, nervous system development and function, humoral immune response and inflammatory response, and highlighted some proteins with important roles in the immune system, such as hub nodes. Our findings indicate dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway in schizophrenia patients. The protein interaction network enhances the interpretation of proteomic data and provides evidence that the immune system may contribute to schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that the human histamine H3 receptor (HRH3) may be involved in the pharmacodynamics of risperidone and influence clinical efficacy. More information on the pharmacogenetics of this receptor may therefore be useful in developing individualized therapy. However, to our knowledge, no study has been reported in this area. The aim of this investigation was to clarify whether H3 receptor polymorphism could affect risperidone efficacy. We genotyped tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HRH3 gene (rs3787429 and rs3787430) and analyzed their association with the reduction of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score in Chinese Han schizophrenia patients (N = 129), following an eight-week period of risperidone monotherapy. The confounding effects of non-genetic factors were estimated, and then the significant one was included as the covariate for adjustment in statistical analysis. Baseline symptom score was the only significant confounding effect and thus the covariate. After adjustment, significant association of HRH3 with antipsychotic efficacy was detected (for rs3787429, p = 0.013, 0.087 after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment, respectively; for rs3787430, p = 0.024, 0.010 after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment, respectively) and stood up to conservative Bonferroni correction. Our results demonstrate that polymorphism of the HRH3 gene may be a potential genetic marker for predicting the therapeutic effect of risperidone, and suggest novel pharmacological links between HRH3 and risperidone. Further studies with larger samples and different ethnic populations are warranted to confirm our results.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 06/2011; 26(6):813-8. DOI:10.1177/0269881111405358 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The micro integral membrane protein (MIMP), the domain within the integral membrane protein of Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1258, has been shown to adhere to mucin and antagonize the adhesion of enteroinvasive E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. To further characterize the functions of MIMP, we investigated its effects on the intestinal permeability, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and TJ ultrastructure in vitro and in vivo. We also determined the interaction between MIMP and dendritic cells (DCs). We observed that MIMP reduced intestinal permeability and restored the expression and distribution of TJ proteins in both NCM460 cell monolayers and in IL-10(-/-) mice. MIMP adhered to immature (i) DCs by binding to DC-SIGN, and induced DCs to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines and to mediate Th2 differentiation. Moreover, MIMP stimulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines in colonic mucosa and attenuated colitis in IL-10(-/-) mice. In conclusion, MIMP is the main functional component of L. plantarum that contributes to its protective effects, and thus may be a potential therapeutic agent for intestinal diseases.
Frontiers in Bioscience 06/2011; 16(1):2106-27. DOI:10.2741/3842 · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is reported that defects exist in the small intestinal epithelial barrier of inflammatory bowel disease, which might be associated with increased intestinal permeability at a very early stage. Our study aims to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum on the decrease of epithelial permeability and the further protective effects on the intestinal epithelial barrier using the IL-10-deficient mouse model. Our study showed that tight junction associated proteins were increased after the pre-treatment of L. plantarum by fluorescence staining, western blot, real-time PCR and transmission electron microscope. Oral gavage of milk containing L. plantarum was effective in decreasing small intestinal permeability using methods of Ussing chamber assay and sugar probe. Assay of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, MPO, and colonic histology by ELISA showed protective effects of L. plantarum on the intestinal epithelial barrier. Therefore, L. plantarum may prevent the development of colitis in IL-10-deficient mice by blocking changes in the expression of TJ proteins, TJ structure and intestinal permeability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus plantarum can exert additional probiotic effects via regulation of human immune system. However, the direct interaction between probiotics
and the receptors of immune cells still needs to be further studied. To identify the receptor of dendritic cells during the
interaction with L. plantarum. Dendritic cells were pretreated with L. plantarum and the antibody to dendritic cells specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), toll like receptor
(TLR)-2 and TLR-4. The maturation of immature dendritic cells, cytokine production, and modulation of T cells were studied
by flow cytometry. Adherence between L. plantarum and dendritic cells were studied by ELISA, flow cytometry, and Western blot. L. plantarum could mature dendritic cells by up-regulating MHC-II and CD80 and CD86. Anti-inflammatory interlectin (IL)-10 and IL-6 was
up-regulated and pro-inflammatory IL-12p70 was retro-regulated by L. plantarum. L. plantarum may interact with DC-SIGN and modulate of T to differentiate into IL-4 producing T cells. The interaction of L. plantarum and DC-SIGN and the biological effects could be blocked by EDTA and antibody to DC-SIGN. Effects of L. plantarum were concentration-dependent. L. plantarum could bind to DC-SIGN to improve DC maturation at different ratios, regulate the secretion of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory
cytokines, and induce the polarization of interlectin-4-producing T cells.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2011; 27(3):603-611. DOI:10.1007/s11274-010-0495-3 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both open appendicectomy and laparoscopic appendicectomy have their own advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of our meta-analysis is to compare the surgical effects of laparoscopic versus open appendicectomy. In our study, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Only prospective randomized controlled trials that compared the 2 methods of operation were included. Evaluation indexes in our study involved are operating time, complications, hospital stay, time to return to normal activities, time to return to normal diet, and the overall cost. Results showed that operating time of laparoscopic appendicectomy was significantly longer [weighted mean difference (WMD) 7.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.03-9.17 min; P<0.00001]. Time of hospital stay (WMD -0.82; 95% CI: -0.93 to -0.70 d), time to return to normal activities (WMD -6.85; 95% CI: -7.62 to -6.09 d), and diet (WMD -0.61; 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.36 d) were significantly decreased in the laparoscopic appendicectomy group (all P<0.00001). There is no convincing difference in complications (odds ratio 0.99; 95% CI: 0.80-1.22; P=0.92) and death rates (odds ratio 0.97; 95% CI: 0.29-3.25; P=0.96). In conclusion, laparoscopic appendicectomy may have advantages over open appendicectomy in hospital stay and postoperative recovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin A regulates the development and maintenance of the central nervous system. Studies of vitamin A depletion (VAD) and mutations of retinoid receptors in rodents have revealed a dysfunction of motor and cognitive abilities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral changes are not well understood. In this study, VAD mice were examined and abnormal motor behavior related to psychosis symptoms was found. With the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies, 44 and 23 altered protein spots were identified in the cortex and hippocampus, respectively, in VAD mice. By Western blot, the up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) and proteasome subunit beta type 2 (PSMB2) in the cortex and that of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DPYSL2) and PSMB2 in the hippocampus were observed in VAD mice. Bioinformatic analysis using DAVID revealed that altered proteins induced by VAD showed significant enrichment of (i) glycolysis, cytoskeleton, mitochondrion and glutamate metabolism in the cortex; and (ii) actin binding, dopamine receptor signaling and transmission of nerve impulse in the hippocampus. The up-regulations of DPYSL2, MAPK1 and PSMB2 may indicate the activated neuronal defensive mechanism in VAD brain regions, which may underlie the VAD-related psychosis behavior.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 12/2010; 22(11):1003-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.08.012 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is considerable evidence to suggest that aberrations of synapse connectivity contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamate transmission is especially important. Administration of MK-801 ([+]-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a, d]-cycloheptene-5, 10-iminehydrogenmaleate) induces hypofunction of NMDA receptors in rats, which are widely used as a model for schizophrenia. We investigated synaptosomal proteome expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of MK-801-treated Sprague-Dawley rats using the 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis method, and 49 differentially expression proteins were successfully identified using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight/Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. We carried out a literature search for further confirmation of subsynaptic locations and to explore the relevance to the diseases of differentially expressed proteins. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) was used to further examine the underlying relationship between the changed proteins. The network encompassing "cell morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, nervous system development and function" was found to be significantly altered in the MK-801-treated rats. "Energy metabolism" and "semaphorin signaling in neurons" are the most significant IPA canonical pathways to be affected by MK-801 treatment. Using western blots, we confirmed the differential expression of Camk2a, Crmp2, Crmp5, Dnm1, and Ndufs3 in both synaptosome proteins and total proteins in the cerebral cortex of the rats. Our study identified the change and/or response of the central nervous transmission system under the stress of NMDA hypofunction, underlining the importance of the synaptic function in schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although probiotic consumption has generally been shown to have many beneficial effects for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on intestinal nutrient absorption, particularly oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1)-mediated absorption of dietary protein under inflammatory conditions, has not yet been characterized. In this study, we first investigated the effects of LP consumption on plasma amino acid concentrations and PepT1-mediated absorption of cephalexin in the small intestine of wild-type (WT) mice and interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. We then analyzed expression and distribution of PepT1 and protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the jejunum of these mice. LP consumption (10(9) colony-forming units/0.5 mL) delivered by gavage once per day for 4 wk increased the total plasma amino acid concentration and the concentration of plasma cephalexin through enhancement of PepT1-mediated uptake in LP treated IL-10(-/-) mice compared with IL-10(-/-) mice. However, Western blotting and quantitative PCR analysis revealed no significant differences in PepT1 protein and mRNA expression between LP-treated and untreated mice. Additionally, immunofluorescence analysis showed that PepT1 did not appear to be mislocalized in IL-10(-/-) mice. Interestingly, IL-10(-/-) mice had significantly lower PKC activity and expression of phosphorylated PKC compared with WT mice, and these decreases could be prevented by LP treatment. These data suggest that consumption of LP enhances PepT1-mediated amino acid absorption, likely through alterations in PKC activity, as opposed to changes in expression or distribution of PepT1 in the small intestine of IL-10(-/-) mice.
Journal of Nutrition 10/2010; 140(12):2201-6. DOI:10.3945/jn.110.123265 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotics are efficacious in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. To determine whether probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) ameliorates colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction present in interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10⁻(/)⁻) mice, IL-10⁻(/)⁻ and wild-type mice received LP or the vehicle for 4 wk. Colitis was assessed by histological scores and clinical manifestation, and gut paracellular permeability was measured by Ussing chamber. Oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1)-mediated transepithelial transport was evaluated by measuring the plasma cephalexin concentration. The expression and distribution of apical junctional complex (AJC) proteins and PepT1 were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence and their mRNA by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Spontaneous colitis was observed in all IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice in which paracellular permeability was increased, in conjunction with decreased expression and redistribution of zonula occludens-1, occludin, claudin-1, and β-catenin. PepT1 expression was increased, accompanied with an enhanced cephalexin transport. Colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction was further confirmed by increased bacterial translocation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Treatment with LP decreased colonic paracellular permeability with restoration of expression and distribution of AJC proteins and partially prevented PepT1 expression and cephalexin transport in IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice. Moreover, treatment with LP also prevented bacterial translocation and proinflammatory cytokine production in IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice. Results from this study indicated that treatment with LP may ameliorate colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in IL-10⁻(/)⁻ mice, by modulating the AJC- and PepT1-mediated transepithelial transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a large number of in vitro and in vivo tests have confirmed that taking probiotics can improve the intestinal barrier, few studies have focused on the relationship between probiotics and the intestinal epithelial barrier in hyperbilirubinaemia. To investigate the effects of and mechanisms associated with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum; LP) and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) on the intestinal epithelial barrier, we measured the viability, apoptotic ratio and protein kinase C (PKC) activity of Caco-2 cells. We also determined the distribution and expression of tight junction proteins such as occludin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-1 and F-actin using confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR. The present study demonstrated that high concentrations of UCB caused obvious cytotoxicity and decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Low concentrations of UCB inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins and PKC but could induce UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1 family-polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) expression. UCB alone caused decreased PKC activity, serine phosphorylated occludin and ZO-1 levels. After treatment with LP, the effects of UCB on TER and apoptosis were mitigated; LP also prevented aberrant expression and rearrangement of tight junction proteins. Moreover, PKC activity and serine phosphorylated tight junction protein levels were partially restored after treatment with LP, LP exerted a protective effect against UCB damage to Caco-2 monolayer cells, and it restored the structure and distribution of tight junction proteins by activating the PKC pathway. In addition, UGT1A1 expression induced by UCB in Caco-2 cells could ameliorate the cytotoxicity of UCB.
The British journal of nutrition 08/2010; 104(3):390-401. DOI:10.1017/S0007114510000474 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil has been the chemotherapy agent of first-choice for colorectal cancer for many years, but since there are no proven predictors of a patient's response to therapy, all patients receive similar treatment. Consequently, identification of biomarkers for therapeutic effect is crucial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Two human colorectal cancer cell lines of different metastatic potential (LoVo and SW480) were studied. IC50 of 5-FU for both cell lines were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethy-lthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay and validated by cell cycle analysis. Then the cell lines were treated with 5-FU at IC50 concentration and protein was extracted for 2-DE. Differential protein spots were examined by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The expression levels of the different proteins were further confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Eleven proteins were identified. Expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) in LoVo cells was higher than in SW480 cells, while protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) displayed the opposite trend. After treatment with 5-FU, the expression of hnRNP K in LoVo decreased more significantly than in SW480, while PDI in SW480 increased more significantly than in LoVo cells. Conclusion: hnRNP K and PDI in the two cell lines have different expression characteristics. The sensitivity to 5-FU is not consistent in tumor progression. It may assist in development of novel treatment strategies for colorectal cancer metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the mutant gene for autosomal dominant posterior polar congenital cataract in a four-generation Chinese pedigree.
The clinical data of patients from the family were recorded by slit-lamp photography. Genomic DNA samples from peripheral blood of the pedigree members were then isolated to map the relevant gene, using microsatellite markers for two-point linkage analysis. Genotype and haplotypes of the pedigree were constructed using Cyrillic software to locate the relevant region. Direct sequencing was performed to screen out the disease-causing mutation.
The congenital cataract phenotype of the pedigree was labeled as the posterior polar type by using slit-lamp photography. Linkage analysis results indicated a maximum logarithm of odds LOD score of (Z(max)) 2.02 at D17S1800 (theta(max)=0.00). Haplotyping identified a 26-cM region flanked by D17S921 and D17S800 on 17p12-21.2, namely at the betaA1/A3-crystallin (CRYBA1/A3) gene locus. Sequencing revealed a splice site mutation, G-->A, at the first base of intron 3 of CRYBA1/A3, which co-segregated with the affected individuals in the pedigree but which was not found in the unaffected members of the family or in the 50 unrelated controls.
Our results demonstrated that a splice site mutation of CRYBA1/A3 was responsible for the autosomal dominant posterior polar congenital cataract in a four-generation Chinese pedigree. The same mutation in this gene had previously been reported to be associated with other phenotype cataracts. This study is the first report relating a mutation of CRYBA1/A3 to posterior polar cataract.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been identified as a possible element in the neuropathological processes of schizophrenia (SCZ). Alteration of oxidative stress markers has been reported in SCZ studies, but with inconsistent results. To evaluate the risk of oxidative stress to schizophrenia, a meta analysis was conducted, including five markers of oxidative stress [thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] in SCZ patients versus healthy controls. This study showed that TBARS and NO significantly increased in SCZ, while SOD activity significantly decreased in the disorganized type of SCZ patients. No significant effect size was found for the activities of GP and CAT in SCZ patients (P>0.05). Egger's regression test observed no significant publication bias across the oxidative stress markers, but found high heterogeneities in all the 5 markers. The subgroup analysis suggested that the ethnicity, sample size of patients and sample sources may contribute to the heterogeneity of the results for TBARS, NO and SOD. The result further demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the ApoE polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy. However, the results have been inconclusive. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies dealing with the relationship between the ApoE polymorphism and DN. The 23 studies in the meta- analysis included 6,012 diabetic patients with (n = 2,979) and without (n = 3,033) DN. The ApoE ε2 allele was significantly associated with DN (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.13; P(Z) = 0.00027), whereas the ε4 allele was non-significantly associated with DN (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.78-1.11; P(Z) = 0.418). However, significant heterogeneity was detected. In further subgroup analyses, genotyping methods, outcome of cases and duration of diabetes in controls were found to explain some of the heterogeneity. Genotypic analysis also found a strong association between the ε2 carriers and DN (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.22-2.13; P(Z) = 0.001) and indicated that ε4 tended to have a marginally significant protective effect for DN (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.65-1.03; P(Z) = 0.085). The results of our meta-analysis support a genetic association between the ApoE polymorphism and DN. ε2 increases the risk of DN in diabetes patients, while ε4 trends to be protective. These findings may have implications for therapeutic intervention in diabetic nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) are crucial for the development, maintenance and morphogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS). Although motor impairment has been reported in postnatal vitamin A depletion rodents, the effect of vitamin A depletion on homeostasis maintaining capability in response to external interference is not clear.
In the current study, we measured the effect of vitamin A depletion on motor ability and pain sensitivity under two different conditions: 1. prior to any injection and 2. after the injection of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (MK-801).
Vitamin A depletion mice showed decreased body weight, enhanced locomotor activity, increased rearing and less tail flick latency. Vitamin A depletion also induced hypersensitivity of stereotypy, ataxia, rearing, and tail flick latency to MK-801, but hyposensitivity of locomotion to MK-801.
These findings suggest that vitamin A depletion affect broad basal behavior and disrupt homeostasis maintaining capability in response to glutamate perturbation. We provide a useful animal model for assessing the role of vitamin A depletion in regulating animal behavior, and for detecting how neurotransmitter pathways might be involved in vitamin A depletion related behavioral abnormalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus consumption has been shown to attenuate the severity of experimental colitis. Whether the effects of Lactobacillus on colitis are related to modulation of leukocyte recruitment into the inflamed intestine is unclear.
To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum daily intragastric administration on lymphocyte homing and intestinal inflammation in interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout mice, an experimental model of colitis.
Two groups of ten IL-10 knockout mice were fed phosphate buffered saline containing Lactobacillus plantarum 1258 or unmodified vehicle for 4 weeks. Two groups of ten wild-type mice were used as controls. At killing, the bowels were histologically scored and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were determined by ELISA. In addition, levels of CD3, alpha4beta7, ICAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.
L. plantarum treatment improved the histological damage score in KO mice compared to untreated KO mice. L. plantarum significantly attenuated the expression of MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1, CD3, and alpha4beta7, but did not affect the levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma when treated KO mice were compared to untreated KO mice.
L. plantarum interfered with the upregulation of adhesion molecules observed in IL-10 knockout mice compared to wild-type mice, attenuating the symptoms of colitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the potential markers of colorectal cancer metastasis and the influence of 5-FU on differentially expressed proteins by using proteomic technology, and to elucidate the mechanism of colorectal cancer metastasis.
Human colorectal carcinoma cell lines of different metastatic potential, Lovo and SW480 were conventionally cultured, and the protein was extracted. 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 5-FU to these two cell lines was measured by MTT assay. Proteins of these two cell lines after intervention by 5-FU at IC(50) were extracted, then 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis was conducted for the proteins. The differential protein spots were examined by mass spectrometry and analyzed by bioinformatics. Difference of expressed proteins in two cell lines before and after the intervention of 5-FU was validated by Western blot and immunofluorescence.
Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The hnRNP K protein and PDI were selected to be examined by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results revealed that the expression of hnRNP K in Lovo was higher than that in SW480, while the expression of PDI was lower in Lovo. After intervention by 5-FU at IC(50), the expression of hnRNP K in Lovo decreased more as compared to SW480, while the expression of PDI in SW480 increased more as compared to Lovo.
There are significant differences in expression of hnRNP K and PDI proteins between Lovo and SW480 cell lines, and the proteins alter regularly after 5-FU intervention.
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery 11/2009; 12(6):618-22.