Stephen B Gruber

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (194)1639.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background We previously reported a significant association between higher ultraviolet radiation exposure before diagnosis and greater survival with melanoma in a population-based study in Connecticut. We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that sun exposure prior to diagnosis was associated with greater survival in a larger, international population-based study with more detailed exposure information. Methods We conducted a multi-center, international population-based study in four countries - Australia, Italy, Canada and the United States - with 3,578 cases of melanoma with an average of 7.4 years of follow-up. Measures of sun exposure included sunburn, intermittent exposure, hours of holiday sun exposure, hours of water-related outdoor activities, ambient UVB dose, histological solar elastosis and season of diagnosis. Results Results were not strongly supportive of the earlier hypothesis. Having had any sunburn in one year within 10 years of diagnosis was inversely associated with survival; solar elastosis - a measure of lifetime cumulative exposure - was not. Additionally, none of the intermittent exposure measures - water related activities and sunny holidays - were associated with melanoma-specific survival. Estimated ambient UVB dose was not associated with survival. Conclusion Although there was an apparent protective effect of sunburns within 10 years of diagnosis, there was only weak evidence in this large, international, population-based study of melanoma that sun exposure prior to diagnosis is associated with greater melanoma-specific survival. Impact This study adds to the evidence that sun exposure prior to melanoma diagnosis has little effect on survival with melanoma.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Only a fraction of colorectal cancer heritability is explained by known risk-conferring genetic variation. This study was designed to identify novel risk alleles in Europeans. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of colorectal cancer in participants from a population-based case control study in Israel (n = 1,616 cases, 1,329 controls) and a consortium study from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (n=1,977 cases, 999 controls). We used a two-stage (discovery-replication) GWAS design, followed by a joint meta-analysis. A combined analysis identified a novel susceptibility locus that reached genome-wide significance on chromosome 4q32.2 (rs35509282, risk allele = T (minor allele frequency = 0.09); odds ratio per risk allele = 1.53; p-value = 8.2x10(-9); nearest gene = FSTL5). The direction of the association was consistent across studies. In addition, we confirmed that 14 of 29 previously identified susceptibility variants were significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer in this study. Genetic variation on chromosome 4q32.2 is significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer in Ashkenazi Jews and Europeans in this study.
    Carcinogenesis 07/2014; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) define the Muir-Torre syndrome variant of Lynch syndrome (LS), which is associated with increased risk for colon and other cancers necessitating earlier and more frequent screening to reduce morbidity and mortality. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in SNs can be used to screen for LS, but data on subsequent germline genetic testing to confirm LS diagnosis are limited.
    JAMA dermatology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: With limited funding and biological specimen availability, choosing an optimal sampling design to maximize power for detecting gene-by-environment (G–E) interactions is critical. Exposure-enriched sampling is often used to select subjects with rare exposures for genotyping to enhance power for tests of G–E effects. However, exposure misclassification (MC) combined with biased sampling can affect characteristics of tests for G–E interaction and joint tests for marginal association and G–E interaction. Here, we characterize the impact of exposure-biased sampling under conditions of perfect exposure information and exposure MC on properties of several methods for conducting inference. We assess the Type I error, power, bias, and mean squared error properties of case-only, case–control, and empirical Bayes methods for testing/estimating G–E interaction and a joint test for marginal G (or E) effect and G–E interaction across three biased sampling schemes. Properties are evaluated via empirical simulation studies. With perfect exposure information, exposure-enriched sampling schemes enhance power as compared to random selection of subjects irrespective of exposure prevalence but yield bias in estimation of the G–E interaction and marginal E parameters. Exposure MC modifies the relative performance of sampling designs when compared to the case of perfect exposure information. Those conducting G–E interaction studies should be aware of exposure MC properties and the prevalence of exposure when choosing an ideal sampling scheme and method for characterizing G–E interactions and joint effects.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 06/2014; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Known genetic loci explain only a small proportion of the familial relative risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a genome-wide association study of CRC in East Asians with 14,963 cases and 31,945 controls and identified 6 new loci associated with CRC risk (P = 3.42 [times] 10-8 to 9.22 [times] 10-21) at 10q22.3, 10q25.2, 11q12.2, 12p13.31, 17p13.3 and 19q13.2. Two of these loci map to genes (TCF7L2 and TGFB1) with established roles in colorectal tumorigenesis. Four other loci are located in or near genes involved in transcriptional regulation (ZMIZ1), genome maintenance (FEN1), fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 and FADS2), cancer cell motility and metastasis (CD9), and cell growth and differentiation (NXN). We also found suggestive evidence for three additional loci associated with CRC risk near genome-wide significance at 8q24.11, 10q21.1 and 10q24.2. Furthermore, we replicated 22 previously reported CRC-associated loci. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CRC and suggests the in
    Nature Genetics 06/2014; 46(6):533-542. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Mutations in the genes encoding subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex cause hereditary paraganglioma syndromes. While the phenotypes associated with the more commonly mutated genes, SDHB and SDHD, are well described, less is known about SDHC-associated paragangliomas. Objective: To describe functionality, penetrance, number of primary tumors, biological behavior and location of paragangliomas associated with SDHC mutations. Design: Families with an SDHC mutation were identified through a large cancer genetics registry. A retrospective chart review was conducted with a focus on patient and tumor characteristics. In addition clinical reports on SDHC-related paragangliomas were identified in the medical literature to further define the phenotype and compare findings. Setting: A cancer genetics clinic and registry at a tertiary referral center. Patients: Eight index patients with SDHC-related paraganglioma were identified. Results: Three of the eight index patients had mediastinal paraganglioma and 4 of 8 patients had more than one paraganglioma. Interestingly, the index patients were the only affected individuals in all families. When combining these index cases with reported cases in the medical literature, the mediastinum is the second most common location for SDHC-related paraganglioma (10% of all tumors) occurring in up to 13% of patients. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that thoracic paragangliomas are common in patients with SDHC mutations, and imaging of this area should be included in surveillance of mutation carriers. In addition, the absence of paragangliomas among at-risk relatives of SDHC mutation carriers suggests a less penetrant phenotype as compared to SDHB and SDHD mutations.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 04/2014; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A rare germline variant in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene, E318K, has been reported as associated with melanoma. We confirmed its independent association with melanoma [odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1, 2.7, P = 0.03]; adjusted for age, sex, center, age × sex interaction, pigmentation characteristics, family history of melanoma, and nevus density). In stratified analyses, carriage of MITF E318K was associated with melanoma more strongly in people with dark hair than fair hair (P for interaction, 0.03) and in those with no moles than some or many moles (P for interaction, <0.01). There was no evidence of interaction between MC1R 'red hair variants' and MITF E318K. Moreover, risk of melanoma among carriers with 'low risk' phenotypes was as great or greater than among those with 'at risk' phenotypes with few exceptions.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 01/2014; · 5.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe cumulative radiation exposure in a large single-center cohort of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and identify risk factors for greater exposure. A detailed medical radiation exposure history was collected retrospectively for patients aged <18 years who underwent surgery for CHD between January 1, 2001, and July 22, 2009. Cumulative per patient exposure was quantified as the effective dose in millisieverts (mSv) and annualized (mSv/year). A total of 4132 patients were subjected to 134 715 radiation examinations at a median follow-up of 4.3 years (range, 0-8.6 years). Exposure clustered around the time of surgery. The median exposure was 14 radiologic tests (the majority of which were plain film radiographs) at an effective dose of 0.96 mSv (the majority of which was from cardiac catheterization), although this distribution had a very wide range. Almost three-quarters (73.7%) were exposed to <3 mSv/year, and 5.3% were exposed to >20 mSv/year. Neonates, children with genetic syndromes, and children requiring surgery for cardiomyopathy, pulmonary valve, single ventricle, or tricuspid valve diseases were more likely to have higher exposure levels, and those requiring surgery for aortic arch anomalies or atrioventricular septal defects were more likely to have lower levels. Children with CHD requiring surgery are exposed to numerous medical forms of ionizing radiation. Although the majority of patients receive <3 mSv/year, there are identifiable risk factors for higher exposure levels. This may have important health implications as these patients age.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk since n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after 6 months. Each individual was genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6, AA) but not significantly associated with serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for AA concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower AA concentrations in the colon after 6 months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on AA concentrations in the colon.
    Cancer Prevention Research 09/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: While colorectal cancer (CRC) is common, its incidence significantly varies around the globe. The incidence of CRC in West Africa is relatively low, but it has a distinctive clinical pattern and its molecular characteristics have not been studied. This study is one of the first attempts to analyze molecular, genetic, and pathological characteristics of colorectal cancer in Ghana. Methods: DNA was extracted from microdissected tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 90 paraffin blocks of CRC cases (1997-2007) collected at the University of Ghana. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined using fragment analysis of ten microsatellite markers. We analyzed expression of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins by immunohistochemistry and sequenced exons 2 and 3 of KRAS and exon 15 of BRAF. Results: MSI analysis showed 41% (29/70) MSI-High, 20% (14/70) MSI-Low, and 39% (27/70) microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors. Sequencing of KRAS exons 2 and 3 identified activating mutations in 32% (24/75) of tumors, and sequencing of BRAF exon 15, the location of the common activating mutation (V600), did not show mutations at codons 599 and 600 in 88 tumors. Conclusions: Our study found a high frequency of MSI-High colorectal tumors (41%) in Ghana. While the frequency of KRAS mutations is comparable with other populations, absence of BRAF mutations is intriguing and would require further analysis of the molecular epidemiology of CRC in West Africa.
    Cancer epidemiology. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A 62-year old female patient was initially diagnosed with a histologically confirmed trichodiscoma. Due to the association of trichodiscomas with Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD), the patient underwent screening for renal tumors, which revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass (Figure 1a). The patient did not have any clinical hormone excess. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Endocrinology 07/2013; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Little is known about survival after a diagnosis of a second or higher-order (multiple) primary melanoma, and no study has explored survival in a population-based sample that included patients with single primary melanomas (SPMs) and multiple primary melanomas (MPMs) of any stage. Because people with a first primary melanoma are known to have an increased risk of being diagnosed with another, evidence for prognosis is needed. OBJECTIVE To determine whether survival after diagnosis was better in patients with MPMs than with SPMs, as suggested in a recent study. DESIGN Survival analysis with median follow-up of 7.6 (range, 0.4-10.6) years. SETTING The Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study enrolled incident cases of melanoma from population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Italy, and the United States. Multiple primary melanomas were ascertained during a longer period than SPM. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand three hundred seventy-two patients with SPM and 1206 with MPM. EXPOSURE Diagnosis with melanoma. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Melanoma-specific fatality hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of SPM, MPM, and both in Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS Melanoma thickness was the main determinant of fatality (HR for >4 mm, 7.68 [95% CI, 4.46-13.23]); other independent predictors were ulceration, mitoses, and scalp location. After adjustment for these other predictors, we found little difference in fatality between MPM and SPM (HR for MPM relative to SPM, 1.24 [95% CI, 0.91-1.69; P = .18]). Thicker SPM, however, had higher fatality (HR for >4 mm, 13.56 [95% CI, 6.47-28.40]) than thicker MPM (2.93 [1.17-7.30]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although overall fatalities due to SPM and MPM were similar, relative fatality for thicker SPM was greater than that for thicker MPM. This finding may offer support for a difference in outcome between patients with SPM and MPM related to factors other than closer surveillance and earlier diagnosis. The better outcomes are worth further exploration.
    JAMA dermatology (Chicago, Ill.). 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEAdrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an endocrine malignancy with a poor prognosis. The association of adult-onset ACC with inherited cancer predisposition syndromes is poorly understood. Our study sought to define the prevalence of Lynch syndrome (LS) among patients with ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS One hundred fourteen patients with ACC were evaluated in a specialized endocrine oncology clinic and were prospectively offered genetic counseling and clinical genetics risk assessment (group 1). In addition, families with known mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations that were recorded in the University of Michigan Cancer Genetics Registry were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ACC (group 2). ACC tumors from patients with LS were tested for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to evaluate for MMR deficiency.ResultsNinety-four (82.5%) of 114 patients with ACC underwent genetic counseling (group 1). Three individuals (3.2%) had family histories suggestive of LS. All three families were found to have MMR gene mutations. Retrospective review of an additional 135 MMR gene-positive probands identified two with ACC (group 2). Four ACC tumors were available (group 1, 3; group 2, 1). All four tumors were microsatellite stable; three had IHC staining patterns consistent with germline mutation status. CONCLUSION The prevalence of LS among patients with ACC is 3.2%, which is comparable to the prevalence of LS in colorectal and endometrial cancer. Patients with ACC and a personal or family history of LS tumors should be strongly considered for genetic risk assessment. IHC screening of all ACC tumors may be an effective strategy for identifying patients with LS.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    Jaeil Ahn, Bhramar Mukherjee, Stephen B. Gruber, Malay Ghosh
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    ABSTRACT: The two-phase sampling design is a cost-efficient way of collecting expensive covariate information on a judiciously selected subsample. It is natural to apply such a strategy for collecting genetic data in a subsample enriched for exposure to environmental factors for gene-environment interaction (G x E) analysis. In this paper, we consider two-phase studies of G x E interaction where phase I data are available on exposure, covariates and disease status. Stratified sampling is done to prioritize individuals for genotyping at phase II conditional on disease and exposure. We consider a Bayesian analysis based on the joint retrospective likelihood of phases I and II data. We address several important statistical issues: (i) we consider a model with multiple genes, environmental factors and their pairwise interactions. We employ a Bayesian variable selection algorithm to reduce the dimensionality of this potentially high-dimensional model; (ii) we use the assumption of gene-gene and gene-environment independence to trade off between bias and efficiency for estimating the interaction parameters through use of hierarchical priors reflecting this assumption; (iii) we posit a flexible model for the joint distribution of the phase I categorical variables using the nonparametric Bayes construction of Dunson and Xing [J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 104 (2009) 1042-1051].
    The Annals of Applied Statistics 05/2013; 7(1). · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic alterations contributing to melanoma pathogenesis are incompletely defined, and few independent prognostic features have been identified beyond the clinicopathological characteristics of the primary tumor. We used transcriptome profiling of 46 primary melanomas, 12 melanoma metastases, and 16 normal skin samples to find novel genes associated with melanoma development and progression. Results were confirmed using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR and replicated in an independent set of 330 melanomas using AQUA analysis of tissue microarray. Transcriptome profiling revealed that transcription factor HMGA2, previously unrecognized in melanoma pathogenesis, is significantly upregulated in primary melanoma and metastases (P-values=1.2 × 10(-7) and 9 × 10(-5)) compared to normal skin. HMGA2 overexpression is associated with BRAF/NRAS mutations (P=0.0002). Cox-proportional hazard regression model and log-rank test showed that HMGA2 is independently associated with DFS (hazard ratio (HR)=6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8-22.3, P=0.004), OS (stratified log-rank P=0.008), and DMFS (HR=6.4, 95%CI=1.4-29.7, P=0.018) after adjusting for AJCC stage and age at diagnosis. Survival analysis in an independent replication tissue microarray (TMA) of 330 melanomas confirmed the association of HMGA2 expression with OS (P=0.0211). Our study implicates HMGA2 in melanoma progression and demonstrates that HMGA2 overexpression can serve as an independent predictor of survival in melanoma.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 30 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.197.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 04/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEProstate cancer has been described as a component tumor of Lynch syndrome (LS), with tumors obtained from mutation carriers demonstrating the DNA mismatch repair deficiency phenotype. Previous studies quantifying prostate cancer risk in LS have provided conflicting results. METHODS We examined cancer histories of probands and their first- through fourth-degree relatives for 198 independent mutation-positive LS families enrolled in two US familial cancer registries. Modified segregation analysis was used to calculate age-specific cumulative risk or penetrance estimates, with accompanying Wald-type CIs. Cumulative lifetime risks and hazard ratio (HR) estimates for prostate cancer were calculated and compared with those of the general population.ResultsNinety-seven cases of prostate cancer were observed in 4,127 men. Median age at prostate cancer diagnosis was 65 years (range, 38 to 89 years), with 11.53% of affected individuals diagnosed before age 50 years. The cumulative risk of prostate cancer at ages 60 and 80 years was 6.30% (95% CI, 2.47 to 9.96) and 30.0% (95% CI, 16.54 to 41.30), as compared with the population risk of 2.59% and 17.84%, respectively. The overall prostate cancer HR among carriers was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.31 to 3.03). CONCLUSION The cumulative lifetime risk of prostate cancer in individuals with LS is two-fold higher than in the general population and is slightly higher in carriers diagnosed before age 60 years (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.59). These estimates are clinically valuable to quantify risk for both patients and providers.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical closure of ventricular septal defects remains the most common pediatric cardiac surgical procedure. No studies, however, have comprehensively analyzed risk factors and drivers of nonmortality outcomes in the current era. The purpose of this study was to assess both baseline characteristics and outcomes of children undergoing surgical repair of ventricular septal defects in a contemporary cohort. This retrospective study examined a consecutive series of 369 ventricular septal defect closures at a single institution. Because mortality is low in nearly all centers for repair of these defects, we focused on morbidity and identified drivers of risk via multivariable linear regression modeling. For children younger than age 6 months undergoing ventricular septal defect closure, every extra kilogram in operative weight results in a 2.3-day shorter length of stay. In an analysis of composite risk, patients younger than age 6 months undergoing ventricular septal defect repair exhibited a 1.8-fold increase in composite risk for each kilogram decrease in weight, whereas patients older than age 6 months experienced no significant difference. Even in the current surgical era, weight remains a significant predictor of morbidity and driver or length of stay in young infants undergoing ventricular septal defect closure. Weight still should be considered when discussing operative risks for children younger than age 6 months undergoing this procedure, irrespective of the indication for operation.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2013; 145(3):641-7. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80158. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Heritable factors contribute to development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Identifying the genetic loci associated with colorectal tumor formation could elucidate the mechanisms of pathogenesis. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 14 studies, 12,696 cases of colorectal tumors (11,870 cancer, 826 adenoma), and 15,113 controls of European descent. The 10 most statistically significant, previously unreported findings were followed up in 6 studies; these included 3056 colorectal tumor cases (2098 cancer, 958 adenoma) and 6658 controls of European and Asian descent. RESULTS: Based on the combined analysis we identified a locus that reached the conventional genome-wide significance level at <5.0 x 10-8: an intergenic region on chromosome 2q32.3, close toNABP1 (most significant single nucleotide polymorphism: rs11903757; odds ratio [OR]=1.15 per risk allele;P =3.7 x 10-8). We also found evidence for 3 additional loci with P values <5.0 x 10-7: a locus within theLAMC1gene on chromosome 1q25.3 (rs10911251; OR=1.10 per risk allele;P =9.5 x 10-8), a locus within theCCND2gene on chromosome 12p13.32 (rs3217810 per risk allele; OR=0.84;P =5.9 x 10-8), and a locus in theTBX3gene on chromosome 12q24.21 (rs59336, OR=0.91 per risk allele;P =3.7 x 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: In a large GWAS, we associated polymorphisms close toNABP (which encodes a DNA-binding protein involved in DNA repair) with colorectal tumor risk. We also provided evidence for an association between colorectal tumor risk and polymorphisms inLAMC1 (this is the second gene in the laminin family to be associated with CRCs),CCND2 (which encodes for cyclin D2), andTBX3 (which encodes a T-box transcription factor and is a target of Wnt signaling to -catenin). The roles of these genes and their products in cancer pathogenesis warrant further investigation.
    Gastroenterology 12/2012; · 12.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,639.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Keck School of Medicine USC
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2013
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Division of Epidemiology
      Nashville, MI, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Catalan Institute of Oncology
      • Hereditary Cancer Programme
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Institut Català d'Oncologia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Medicine
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1999–2012
    • University of Michigan
      • • Department of Biostatistics
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Molecular Medicine & Genetics
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2011
    • IDIBELL Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006–2011
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Epidemiology & Biostatistics Group
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Carmel Medical Center
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Medicine
      Irvine, CA, United States