Karl C K Kuban

Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (98)594.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The authors hypothesized that among extremely preterm infants, elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in neonatal blood are associated with cerebral palsy at 24 months. In 939 infants born before 28 weeks gestation, the authors measured blood concentrations of 25 proteins on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14 and evaluated associations between elevated protein concentrations and cerebral palsy diagnosis. Protein elevations within 3 days of birth were not associated with cerebral palsy. Elevations of tumor necrosis factor-α, tumor necrosis factor-α-receptor-1, interleukin-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on at least 2 days were associated with diparesis. Recurrent-persistent elevations of interleukin-6, E-selectin, or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 were associated with hemiparesis. Diparesis and hemiparesis were more likely among infants who had at least 4 of 9 protein elevations that previously have been associated with cognitive impairment and microcephaly. Repeated elevations of inflammation-related proteins during the first 2 postnatal weeks are associated with increased risk of cerebral palsy.
    Journal of child neurology 03/2014; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Extremely preterm birth is associated with subsequent behavioral problems. We hypothesized that perinatal systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cerebral white matter injury and cognitive impairment, is associated with behavior problems observed at 2 years.Methods:In a cohort of 600 children born before 28 weeks gestation, we measured 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14, and identified behavior problems using parent responses to the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) at two years of age. A persistent or recurrent protein elevation was defined as a concentration in the highest quartile (for gestational age and postnatal age) on at least two days approximately one week apart. Behavior problems were defined by CBCL/1.5-5 subscale scores at or above the 93(rd) percentile.Results:A single-day elevation of ICAM-3 was associated with an increased risk of an attention problem, as were persistent or recurrent elevations of MPO, IL-6, TNF-RI, IL-8, ICAM-3, VEGF-R1, and VEGF-R2. These associations persisted among infants without white matter injury and cognitive impairment.Conclusions:Among children born extremely prematurely, recurrent or persistent elevations of inflammation-related proteins in blood during in the first two postnatal weeks are associated with an attention problem at age 2 years.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.41.
    Pediatric Research 03/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Very little is known about the prevalence, antecedents and correlates of impaired visual fixation in former very preterm newborns. Methods In the multi-center ELGAN Study sample of 1057 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age, we identified 73 who were unable to follow an object across the midline. We compared them to the 984 infants who could follow an object across the midline. Results In this sample of very preterm newborns, those who had impaired visual fixation were much more likely than those without impaired visual fixation to have been born after the shortest of gestations (odds ratio = 3.2; 99% confidence interval =1.4, 7.5) and exposed to maternal aspirin (OR: 5.2; 99% CI: 2.2, 12). They were also more likely than their peers to have had prethreshold ROP (OR: 4.1; 99% CI: 1.8, 9.0). At age 2 years, the children with impaired fixation were more likely than others to be unable to walk (even with assistance) (OR: 7.5; 99% CI: 2.2, 26) and have a Mental Development Index more than 3 standard deviations below the mean of a normative sample (OR:3.6; 99% CI: 1.4, 8.2). Conclusion Risk factors for brain and retinal damage, such as very low gestational age, appear to be risk factors for impaired visual fixation. This inference is further supported by the co-occurrence at age 2 years of impaired visual fixation, inability to walk, and a very low Mental Development Index
    Pediatric Neurology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The offspring of obese women are at increased risk for systemic inflammation. Blood concentrations of inflammatory proteins in preterm newborns of obese women have not been reported. To compare blood concentrations in the highest quartile for gestational age of inflammatory proteins and day of blood specimen collection on two days at least one week apart of newborns of overweight (i.e., BMI 25-29) and obese women (i.e., BMI≥30) with newborns of women with lower BMIs. Because deliveries for spontaneous indications are more likely than those for other indications to be associated with inflammation, we evaluated spontaneous indication deliveries separately from maternal or fetal indications. Prospective cohort study. We measured from 939 children born before the 28th week of gestation 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained on postnatal day 1 (range 1-3), day 7 (range 5-8) and day 14 (range 12-15). Among infants delivered for spontaneous indications, maternal BMI was not related to elevated concentrations of any protein. Among infants delivered for maternal (i.e., preeclampsia) or fetal indications, those whose mother was overweight or obese were more likely than others to have elevated concentrations of inflammation proteins. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity appear to contribute to a pro-inflammatory state in very preterm newborns delivered for maternal or fetal indications. Our failure to see a similar pattern among newborns delivered for spontaneous indications, which often have inflammatory characteristics, might reflect competing risks.
    Early human development 09/2013; · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal inflammation is associated with perinatal brain damage. We evaluated to what extent elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins supplement information about the risk of impaired early cognitive function provided by inflammation-related illnesses. From 800 infants born before the 28(th) week of gestation, we collected blood spots on days 1, 7 and 14, for analysis of 25 inflammation-related proteins, and data about culture-positive bacteremia, necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell stage IIIb), and isolated perforation of the intestine, during the first two weeks, and whether they were ventilated on postnatal day 14. We considered a protein to be persistently or recurrently elevated if its concentration was in the top quartile (for gestational age and day blood was collected) on two separate days one week apart. We assessed the children at 2 years of age with the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). The combinations of NEC and ventilation on day 14, and of bacteremia and ventilation on day 14 consistently provided information about elevated risk of MDI <55, regardless of whether or not a variable for an elevated protein concentration was included in the model. A variable for a persistently or recurrently elevated concentration of each of the following proteins provided additional information about an increased risk of MDI <55: CRP, SAA, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-8, MIP-1beta, ICAM-1, E-SEL, and IGFBP-1. We conclude that elevated blood concentrations of inflammation-related proteins provide information about the risk of impaired cognitive function at age 2 years that supplements information provided by inflammation-associated illnesses.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:We sought to disentangle the contributions of perinatal systemic inflammation and being small for gestational age (SGA) to the occurrence of low Bayley Mental Development Indices (MDIs) at the age of 2 y.Methods:We measured the concentration of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained during the first two postnatal weeks from 805 infants who were born before the 28th wk of gestation and who had MDI measurements at the age of 2 y and were able to walk independently.Results:SGA newborns who did not have systemic inflammation (a concentration of an inflammation-related protein in the top quartile for gestational age on two days a week apart) were at a greater risk of an MDI <55, but not 55-69, than their peers who had neither SGA nor systemic inflammation. SGA infants who had elevated blood concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, or IL-8 during the first 2 postnatal weeks were at even higher risk of an MDI <55 than their SGA peers without systemic inflammation and their non-SGA peers with systemic inflammation.Conclusion:SGA appears to place very preterm newborns at an increased risk of a very low MDI. Systemic inflammation adds considerably to the increased risk.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2012.188.
    Pediatric Research 12/2012; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To see if the systemic inflammation profile of 123 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had intraventricular hemorrhage without white matter injury differed from that of 68 peers who had both lesions, we compared both groups to 677 peers who had neither. Cranial ultrasound scans were read independently by multiple readers until concordance. The concentrations of 25 proteins were measured with multiplex arrays using an electrochemiluminescence system. Infants who had both hemorrhage and white matter injury were more likely than others to have elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein and interleukin 8 on days 1, 7, and 14, and elevated concentrations of serum amyloid A and tumor necrosis factor-α on 2 of these days. Intraventricular hemorrhage should probably be viewed as 2 entities: hemorrhage alone and hemorrhage with white matter injury. Each entity is associated with inflammation, but the combination has a stronger inflammatory signal than hemorrhage alone.
    Journal of child neurology 10/2012; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the association between maternal medication use during pregnancy and cerebral white matter damage and cerebral palsy (CP) among very preterm infants. This analysis of data from the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGAN) Study included 877 infants born <28 weeks' gestation. Mothers were interviewed, charts were reviewed, placentas were cultured and assessed histologically, and children were evaluated at 24 months corrected age. A diagnostic algorithm classified neurologic findings as quadriparetic CP, diparetic CP, hemiparetic CP, or no CP. After adjustment for the potential confounding of disorders for which medications might have been indicated, the risk of quadriparetic CP remained elevated among the infants of mothers who consumed aspirin (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.9) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.04-5.8). The risk of diparetic CP was also associated with maternal consumption of an NSAID, but only if the consumption was not approved by a physician (OR, 3.5; 95% CI 1.1-11.0). The possibility that aspirin and NSAID use in pregnancy could lead to perinatal brain damage cannot be excluded.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 09/2012; 207(3):192.e1-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The newborn classified as growth-restricted on fetal weight curves, but not on birth weight curves, is classified prenatally as small for gestational age (SGA), but postnatally as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). To see (1) to what extent the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months corrected age differed among three groups of infants (those identified as SGA based on birth weight curves (B-SGA), those identified as SGA based on fetal weight curves only (F-SGA), and the referent group of infants considered AGA, (2) if girls and boys were equally affected by growth restriction, and (3) to what extent neurosensory limitations influenced what we found. Observational cohort of births before the 28th week of gestation. Outcome measures: Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. B-SGA, but not F-SGA girls were at an increased risk of a PDI<70 (OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.3) compared to AGA girls. B-SGA and F-SGA boys were not at greater risk of low developmental indices than AGA boys. Neurosensory limitations diminished associations among girls of B-SGA with low MDI, and among boys B-SGA and F-SGA with PDI<70. Only girls with the most severe growth restriction were at increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at 24 months corrected age in the total sample. Neurosensory limitations appear to interfere with assessing growth restriction effects in both girls and boys born preterm.
    Early human development 06/2012; 88(9):765-71. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the hypothesis that elevated levels of inflammation-related proteins in early postnatal blood predict impaired mental and motor development in extremely preterm infants. We measured concentrations of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14 from 939 infants born before 28 weeks gestation. An elevated level was defined as a concentration in the highest quartile for gestational age and day of blood collection. We identified impaired development at age 24 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition. The primary outcomes were scores on the Mental Scale or the Motor Scale of <55 (more than 3 SDs below the mean). For 17 of the 25 inflammation-related proteins, 1 or more statistically significant associations (P<.01) was found between an elevated blood level of the protein and a developmental impairment. Elevations on multiple days were more often associated with developmental impairment than were elevations present for only 1 day. The highest number of predictive elevations was found in day-14 blood. In extremely preterm infants, elevated levels of inflammation-related proteins in blood collected on postnatal days 7 and 14, especially when sustained, are associated with impaired mental and motor development at age 2 years.
    The Journal of pediatrics 03/2012; 160(3):395-401.e4. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extremely low gestational age neonates are more likely than term infants to develop cognitive impairment. Few studies have addressed antenatal risk factors of this condition. We identified antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment determined by the Mental Development Index (MDI) portion of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), at 24 months corrected age. We studied a multicenter cohort of 921 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation during 2002 to 2004 and assessed their placentas for histologic characteristics and microorganisms. The mother was interviewed and her medical record was reviewed. At 24 months adjusted age, children were assessed with BSID-II. Multinomial logistic models were used to estimate odds ratios. A total of 103 infants (11%) had an MDI <55, and 99 infants (11%) had an MDI between 55 and 69. No associations were identified between organisms recovered from the placenta and developmental delay. Factors most strongly associated with MDI <55 were thrombosis of fetal vessels (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.7), maternal BMI >30 (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), maternal education ≤12 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), nonwhite race (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), birth weight z score < -2 (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1, 6.9), and male gender (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6, 4.5). Antenatal factors, including thrombosis of fetal vessels in the placenta, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal obesity, convey information about the risk of cognitive impairment among extremely premature newborns.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2012; 129(3):494-502. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether intraventricular hemorrhage increases the risk of adverse developmental outcome among premature infants is controversial. Using brain ultrasound, we identified intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter abnormalities among 1064 infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. We identified adverse developmental outcomes at 24 months of age using a standardized neurologic examination and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental and Motor Scales. In logistic regression models that adjusted for gestational age, sex, and public insurance, isolated intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with visual fixation difficulty but no other adverse outcome. Infants who had a white matter lesion unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage were at increased risk of cerebral palsy, low Mental and Motor Scores, and visual and hearing impairments. Except when accompanied or followed by a white matter lesion, intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with no more than a modest increase (and possibly no increase) in the risk of adverse developmental outcome during infancy.
    Journal of child neurology 01/2012; 27(1):22-9. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relationships between blood gas derangements and blood concentrations of inflammation-related proteins shortly after preterm birth. Observational cohort. Fourteen neonatal intensive care units. Seven hundred and forty five infants born before the 28th week of gestation who were classified by their blood gas derangements during the first three postnatal days and by the concentrations of 25 proteins in their blood on days 1, 7, and 14. We classified these newborns by whether or not they had a highest or lowest PaO2, PCO2, and lowest pH in the most extreme quartile, and by whether or not they had a protein concentration in the highest quartile. Blood gas derangements on two days were much more likely to be accompanied or followed by sustained or recurrent systemic inflammation than a derangement on only one day. This was most evident for acidemia, and slightly less so for hypercapnia. Our finding that protein concentration patterns indicative of systemic inflammation are associated with several blood gas derangements raises the possibility that organ damage attributed to these derangements might be accompanied by or involve an inflammatory response.
    Cytokine 08/2011; 56(2):392-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) has yielded elevated rates of screening failure for children born preterm or with low birthweight. We extended these findings with a detailed examination of M-CHAT items in a large sample of children born at extremely low gestational age. The sample was grouped according to children's current limitations and degree of impairment. The aim was to better understand how disabilities might influence M-CHAT scores. Fourteen participating institutions of the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGAN) Study prospectively collected information about 1086 infants who were born before the 28th week of gestation and had an assessment at age 24-months. The 24-month visit included a neurological assessment, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second edition (BSID-II), M-CHAT and a medical history form. Outcome measures included the distribution of failed M-CHAT items among groups classified according to cerebral palsy diagnosis, gross motor function, BSID-II scores and vision or hearing impairments. M-CHAT items were failed more frequently by children with concurrently identified impairments (motor, cognitive, vision and hearing). In addition, the frequency of item failure increased with the severity of impairment. The failed M-CHAT items were often, but not consistently, related to children's specific impairments. Importantly, four of the six M-CHAT 'critical items' were commonly affected by presence and severity of concurrent impairments. The strong association between impaired sensory or motor function and M-CHAT results among extremely low gestational age children suggests that such impairments might give rise to false positive M-CHAT screening.
    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 07/2011; 25(4):366-76. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess how well early ultrasound lesions in preterm newborns predict reduced head circumference at 2 years, the investigators followed 923 children born before the 28th week of gestation who were not microcephalic at birth. Six percent of children who had a normal ultrasound scan were microcephalic compared with 15% to 20% who had intraventricular hemorrhage, an echolucent lesion, or ventriculomegaly. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for microcephaly associated with different ultrasound images were intraventricular hemorrhage, 1.5 (0.8-3.0); ventriculomegaly, 3.3 (1.8-6.0); an echodense lesion, 1.6 (0.7-3.5); and an echolucent lesion, 3.1 (1.5-6.2). Ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion had very similar low positive predictive values (24% and 27%, respectively) and high negative predictive values (91% and 90%, respectively) for microcephaly. Ventriculomegaly had a higher sensitivity for microcephaly than did an echolucent lesion (24% vs 16%, respectively). Focal white-matter lesion (echolucent lesion) and diffuse white-matter damage (ventriculomegaly) predict an increased risk of microcephaly.
    Journal of child neurology 02/2011; 26(2):188-94. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate if concentrations of inflammation-related proteins were elevated in early postnatal blood specimens of preterm newborns who two years later had a small head. We measured 25 proteins in blood collected on days 1, 7, and 14 from 839 infants born before the 28th week of gestation and whose head circumference was measured at birth and near 24-months post-term equivalent. We excluded children whose birth head circumference was at or below the third centile. A protein concentration was considered elevated if it was in the highest quartile for gestational age and the day the specimen was obtained. When proteins were evaluated individually, elevated concentrations of SAA on day 1 and five proteins on day 14, IL-6, TNF-R2, IL-8, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were associated with significantly increased risk of microcephaly (head circumference Z-score <-2). The ten proteins whose elevated concentrations on two separate days a week apart predicted microcephaly, but did not do so when elevated on only one of these days were CRP, SAA, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, MCP-1, ICAM-1, E-SEL, IGFBP-1. Elevated protein concentrations weakly predicted a less severe reduction in head circumference (Z-score ≥ -2, < -1). Concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in the circulation shortly after preterm birth provide information about the risk of a reduced head circumference more than two years later. The ELGAN Study was supported by a cooperative agreement with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the United States.
    Early human development 02/2011; 87(5):325-30. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate, in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs), relationships between indicators of early postnatal hypotension and cranial ultrasound indicators of cerebral white matter damage imaged in the nursery and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 months follow-up. The 1041 infants in this prospective study were born at <28 weeks gestation, were assessed for three indicators of hypotension in the first 24 postnatal hours, had at least one set of protocol cranial ultrasound scans and were evaluated with a structured neurological exam at 24 months corrected age. Indicators of hypotension included: (1) lowest mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the lowest quartile for gestational age; (2) treatment with a vasopressor; and (3) blood pressure lability, defined as the upper quartile of the difference between each infant's lowest and highest MAP. Outcomes included indicators of cerebral white matter damage, that is, moderate/severe ventriculomegaly or an echolucent lesion on cranial ultrasound and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 months gestation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate relationships among hypotension indicators and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Twenty-one percent of surviving infants had a lowest blood pressure in the lowest quartile for gestational age, 24% were treated with vasopressors and 24% had labile blood pressure. Among infants with these hypotension indicators, 10% percent developed ventriculomegaly and 7% developed an echolucent lesion. At 24 months follow-up, 6% had developed quadriparesis, 4% diparesis and 2% hemiparesis. After adjusting for confounders, we found no association between indicators of hypotension, and indicators of cerebral white matter damage or a cerebral palsy diagnosis. The absence of an association between indicators of hypotension and cerebral white matter damage and or cerebral palsy suggests that early hypotension may not be important in the pathogenesis of brain injury in ELGANs.
    Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 01/2011; 31(8):524-34. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationships among cerebral palsy (CP) phenotypes and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) severity and, in the process, to generate hypotheses regarding causal pathways linking BPD to CP. We studied 1047 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Receipt of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), with or without the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) at 36 weeks PMA, defined two levels of BPD. At 24 months, the children underwent neurologic examinations and CP diagnoses were made using an algorithm based on topographic localisation. The 536 infants with BPD were at increased risk of all three CP phenotypes. In time-oriented multivariable analyses that adjusted for potential confounders, receipt of supplemental oxygen without MV at 36 weeks PMA (BPD) was not associated with increased risk of any CP phenotype. In contrast, BPD accompanied by MV at 36 weeks PMA (BPD/MV) was associated with a nearly sixfold increased risk of quadriparesis and a fourfold increased risk of diparesis. Combined treatment with both MV and supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks PMA strongly predicts the more common bilateral CP phenotypes. BPD without MV at 36 weeks PMA was not significantly associated with any form of CP.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 01/2011; 96(1):F20-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether concentrations of inflammation-related proteins are elevated in the blood of preterm newborns who develop cerebral white matter damage. We measured 25 proteins in blood collected on days 1, 7, and 14 from 939 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Brain ultrasound scans were read by at least two sonologists, who agreed on the presence or absence of lesions. A protein concentration was considered elevated if it was in the highest quartile for gestational age and the day on which the specimen was collected. In time-oriented models, elevated concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, serum amyloid A, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β on day 1 and interleukin-8 on day 7 were associated with increased risk of ventriculomegaly. Elevated concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein 1β on day 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on day 7 were associated with increased risk of an echolucent lesion. Infants with elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins on two separate days were at significantly increased risk for ventriculomegaly, but at only modestly increased risk for an echolucent lesion. Concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in the circulation in the first days after preterm birth provide information about the risk of sonographic white matter damage. The inflammatory process might begin in utero.
    The Journal of pediatrics 01/2011; 158(6):897-903.e1-5. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To see whether disorders prevalent in infants born extremely preterm cluster. Observational cohort study.   University-affiliated newborn intensive care nurseries.   One thousand two hundred and twenty-three infants born before the 28th week of gestation who survived until 36 weeks postmenstrual age when the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) could be made.   None.   Cerebral white matter damage (an echolucent lesion, or moderate or severe ventriculomegaly on a protocol cranial ultrasound scan), BPD, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and early and late bacteremia. After adjustment for gestational age, children who had severe NEC (Bell stage IIIb) were at increased risk of cerebral white matter damage, severe ROP (stage 3+), and severe BPD (defined as both oxygen and ventilator dependent). Children who had early bacteremia were at increased risk of late bacteremia and severe ROP. Those who had severe ROP were at increased risk of severe BPD and both early and late bacteremia.   Necrotizing enterocolitis is the disorder common to most of the clusters, but we do not know if its onset occurred before the others. Organ-damage-promoting substances, however, have been found in the circulation of newborn animals with bowel inflammation, supporting the view that NEC contributes to the damage of other organs.
    Acta Paediatrica 12/2010; 99(12):1795-800. · 1.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
148 Downloads
594.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Boston Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012–2013
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Division of Neonatology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Winston-Salem, NC, United States
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      East Lansing, MI, United States
    • Newton-Wellesley Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • Boston University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Biostatistics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • New Hanover Regional Medical Center
      Wilmington, North Carolina, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Neonatology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1986–2011
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • • Division of Newborn Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Medicine
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Tufts Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990–2010
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1986–2009
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • New England Baptist Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • Tufts University
      Georgia, United States