[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic disturbances are well-known, but sometimes neglected immediate consequences or late sequelae following urinary diversion (UD) using bowel segments. Whereas subclinical disturbances appear to be quite common, clinically relevant metabolic complications, however, are rare. Exclusion of bowel segments for UD results in loss of absorptive surface for its physiological function. Previous studies demonstrated that at least some of the absorptive and secreting properties of the bowel are preserved when exposed to urine. For each bowel segment typical consequences and complications have been reported. The use of ileal and/or colonic segments may result in hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, which can be prevented if prophylactic treatment with alkali supplementation is started early. The resection of ileal segments may be responsible for malabsorption of vitamin B12 and bile acids with subsequent neurological and hematological late sequelae as well as potential worsening of the patient's bowel habits. Hence, careful patient and procedure selection, meticulous long-term follow-up, and prophylactic treatment of subclinical acidosis is of paramount importance in the prevention of true metabolic complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptorchidism, or undescended testis (UDT), occurs in 1-3% of male term infant births. At least two-thirds of UDTs will descend spontaneously, typically during the first 6 months of life. UDTs are associated with loss of spermatogenic potential and testicular malignancy in the long term. Orchiopexy performed prior to puberty may significantly reduce the malignant potential by up to 4-fold. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy starting at 6 months of life has been shown to potentially improve the testicle's fertility index and should be part of the therapeutic concept. However, the use of hormonal treatment and HCG beyond the first year of life is to be challenged given a potentially negative impact on testicular function. Laparoscopic exploration and therapy is the method of choice for non-palpable testes. Ideally, surgical repair of the UDT should be completed by the age of 1 year.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravesical oxybutynin and discuss the clinical implications of the results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Open-label, randomized, three period change-over clinical study including 20 healthy adult subjects. In period 1 and 2, subjects received single doses of either 10 mg oxybutynin-HCl solution intravesically or a 5 mg tablet orally. Period 3 comprised repeated intravesical applications (7 doses) of 10 mg oxybutynin-HCl. Enantioselective concentrations of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin (NDO) were quantified by LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods, analyzed by descriptive statistics and compared using the average bioequivalence approach. RESULTS: Systemic exposure to racemic oxybutynin following intravesical administration was significantly higher, yielding 294% (90%-CI: 211-408%) of that after oral intake of immediate-release preparations, as measured by dose-normalized AUC. By contrast, systemic exposure to racemic NDO reached only 21% (90%-CI: 15%-29%). The AUC-ratio of NDO/oxybutynin was 14-fold reduced for intravesical administration. Following intravesical multi-dose administration, cumulation of oxybutynin (1.3-fold) and NDO (1.6-fold) was weak, absorption was prolonged and apparent elimination half-lives were longer. The study medication was well tolerated, with a third of participants reporting anticholinergic adverse effects. CONCLUSION: The present study provides evidence of a significantly higher bioavailability of intravesical versus oral oxybutynin administration by circumvention of the intestinal first-pass metabolism. Given the high efficacy and reduced rate of adverse effects, intravesical oxybutynin should be considered in patients with NLUTD who do not tolerate oral administration or in whom oral preparations fail to improve detrusor overactivity.
The Journal of urology 05/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In a retrospective study we analyzed the outcome of patients treated for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the bladder/prostate with special attention to radical surgery. METHODS: In 25 patients with genitourinary RMS (15 bladder/10 prostate) the median age at diagnosis was 4 years [1-18], and 8 patients had a stage II RMS, 12 stage III and 5 stage IV. In 19/25 (12 bladder/7 prostate), radical surgery and urinary diversion were performed. Urinary diversion comprised 2 continent anal diversions, 11 continent cutaneous diversions, 4 colon conduits and 2 urethral diversions (2 + 3 years of age). In the younger child with urethral diversion, a cutaneous appendix stoma was additionally constructed in case of inability to void spontaneously. RESULTS: 4/19 patients who underwent radical surgery died of metastatic RMS; 1 patient with neurofibromatosis died of a secondary tumor. After median follow-up of 132 months (14-420), 14 patients currently have no evidence of disease. 8/14 patients who survived developed 17 complications requiring operative revision. All patients with a continent diversion are continent. The patients with orthotopic bladder substitution are continent day & night and void spontaneously. CONCLUSION: For RMS confined to the bladder or bladder neck, radical cystoprostatectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution are an option. Urethral diversion using the ileocecal segment (Mainz-pouch I) offers the advantage of utilizing the appendix as an additional continent cutaneous stoma, which enables parents to evacuate residual urine in young boys, until able to empty the pouch completely themselves. For all other patients with vital tumor after primary chemotherapy, cutaneous urinary diversion is an option. Long-term complication rates in this complex group of patients are acceptable.
Journal of pediatric urology 02/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The never ending discussion about the diagnostics and treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) now includes arguments for diagnostic nihilism as well as invasive diagnostics and therapy, which is reminiscent of the debate on prostate cancer in adulthood. The common goal of all currently competing diagnostic strategies and approaches is the prevention of renal scars by the most effective and least burdensome approach. There is a difference between acquired pyelonephritic scars with VUR (acquired reflux nephropathy) and congenital reflux nephropathy (primary dysplasia) which cannot be influenced by any therapy.The VUR can be verified by conventional radiological voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), by urosonography, radionuclide cystography or even by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The guidelines of the European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology (EAU/ESPU) recommend radiological screening for VUR after the first febrile urinary tract infection. Significant risk factors in patients with VUR are recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and parenchymal scarring and the patients should undergo patient and risk-adapted therapy. Infants with dilating reflux have a higher risk of renal scarring than those without dilatation of the renal pelvis. Bladder dysfunction or dysfunctional elimination syndrome represents a well-known but previously neglected risk factor in combination with VUR and should be treated prior to any surgical intervention as far as is possible.Certainly not every patient with VUR needs therapy. The current treatment strategies take into account age and gender, the presence of dysplastic or pyelonephritic renal scars, the clinical symptoms, bladder dysfunction and frequency and severity of recurrent UTI as criteria for the therapy decision. The use of an antibacterial prophylaxis as well as the duration is controversially discussed. Endoscopic therapy can be a good alternative to antibacterial prophylaxis or a surveillance strategy in patients with low grade VUR. In patients with dilating VUR and given indications for surgery, endoscopic treatment can be offered. However, parents should be completely informed about the significantly lower success rate of endoscopic therapy compared to open surgical procedures. The open surgical techniques guarantee the highest success rates and should be used in patients with a dilating VUR and high risk of renal damage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To assess the risk for the exstrophy-epispadias-complex (EEC) following treatment for infertility with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), two assisted reproductive techniques (ART). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal malformations (CURE-Net) were compared to nationwide data of the German IVF register and the Federal Statistical Office (DESTATIS). Odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were determined to quantify associations using logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 123 EEC patients born between 1997 and 2011 in Germany, who were recruited through participating departments of paediatric urology and paediatric surgery throughout Germany and the German self-help organisations Blasenekstrophie/Epispadie e.V. and Kloakenekstrophie, were included. Controls were all German live-births (n=10,069,986) born between 1997 and 2010. Overall, 12 cases (10%) and 129,982 controls (1%) were born after treatment with IVF or ICSI. Conception by ART was associated with an over eight times higher risk of EEC compared to spontaneous conception (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 4.6-15.0; P<0.001). Separate analyses showed a significantly increased risk for EEC after treatment with IVF (OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 6.5-30.0; P<0.0001) as well as after treatment with ICSI (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.2-12.9; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence that assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF and ICSI go along with a strongly increased risk of having a child with EEC. However, it remains unclear whether our finding may be due to ART per se and/or due to underlying infertility/subfertility aetiology or characteristics of the parents.
The Journal of urology 11/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is not a rare disease: In 2010, there were more than 70 000 affected patients in the United States. Radical cystectomy for the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer necessitates urinary diversion.
We present the current options for urinary diversion and their different indications on the basis of a selective search for pertinent literature in PubMed and our own clinical experience.
When bladder cancer is treated with curative intent, continence-preserving orthotopic urinary bladder replacement is preferred. For heterotopic urinary bladder replacement, a reservoir is fashioned from an ileal or ileocecal segment. Urine is diverted to the rectum by way of the sigmoid colon. When bladder cancer is treated with palliative intent, non-continence-preserving cutaneous urinary diversion is usually performed: The creation either of a renal-cutaneous fistula or a self-retaining ureteral stent is a purely palliative procedure. In these interventions, the resorptive surface of the bowel segment used can no longer play its original physiological role in the gastrointestinal tract, even though its absorptive and secretory functions are still intact. This has metabolic consequences, because the diverted urine here comes into contact with a large area of bowel epithelium. Early preventive treatment must be provided against potentially serious complications such as metabolic acidosis and loss of bone density. The resection of ileal segments can also lead to malabsorption. The risk of secondary malignancy is elevated after either continence-preserving anal urinary diversion (>2%) or bladder augmentation (>1%).
There are four options for urinary diversion after cystectomy that can be performed when surgery is performed with either curative or palliative intent. There are also a number of purely palliative interventions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: A summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the reconstructive options after radical cystectomy (RC), their outcomes, and their complications. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding indications, surgical details, postoperative care, complications, functional outcomes, as well as quality-of-life measures of patients with different forms of urinary diversion (UD). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An English-language literature review of data published between 1970 and 2012 on patients with UD following RC for bladder cancer was undertaken. No randomized controlled studies comparing conduit diversion with neobladder or continent cutaneous diversion have been performed. Consequently, almost all studies used in this report are of level 3 evidence. Therefore, the recommendations given here are grade C only, meaning expert opinion delivered without a formal analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Indications and patient selection criteria have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. Renal function impairment is primarily caused by obstruction. Complications such as stone formation, urine outflow, and obstruction at any level must be recognized early and treated. In patients with orthotopic bladder substitution, daytime and nocturnal continence is achieved in 85-90% and 60-80%, respectively. Continence is inferior in elderly patients with orthotopic reconstruction. Urinary retention remains significant in female patients, ranging from 7% to 50%. CONCLUSIONS: RC and subsequent UD have been assessed as the most difficult surgical procedure in urology. Significant disparity on how the surgical complications were reported makes it impossible to compare postoperative morbidity results. Complications rates overall following RC and UD are significant, and when strict reporting criteria are incorporated, they are much higher than previously published. Fortunately, most complications are minor (Clavien grade 1 or 2). Complications can occur up to 20 yr after surgery, emphasizing the need for lifelong monitoring. Evidence suggests an association between surgical volume and outcome in RC; the challenge of optimum care for elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high-volume hospitals by high-volume surgeons. Preoperative patient information, patient selection, surgical techniques, and careful postoperative follow-up are the cornerstones to achieve good long-term results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epispadias is the mildest phenotype of the human bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), and presents with varying degrees of severity. This urogenital birth defect results from a disturbance in the septation process, during which separate urogenital and anorectal components are formed through division of the cloaca. This process is reported to be influenced by androgen signaling. The human PARM1 gene encodes the prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1, which is expressed in heart, kidney, and placenta.
We performed whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of Parm1 expression in mouse embryos between gestational days (GD) 9.5 and 12.5, which are equivalent to human gestational weeks 4-6. Since the spatio-temporal localization of Parm1 corresponded to tissues which are affected in human epispadias, we sequenced PARM1 in 24 affected patients.
We found Parm1 specifically expressed in the region of the developing cloaca, the umbilical cord, bladder anlage, and the urethral component of the genital tubercle. Additionally, Parm1 expression was detected in the muscle progenitor cells of the somites and head mesenchyme. PARM1 gene analysis revealed no alterations in the coding region of any of the investigated patients.
These findings suggest that PARM1 does not play a major role in the development of human epispadias. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that a larger sample size would enable detection of rare mutations in this gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common congenital urinary tract abnormality in children. There is considerable controversy regarding its management. Preservation of kidney function is the main goal of treatment, which necessitates identification of patients requiring early intervention.
To present a management approach for VUR based on early risk assessment.
A literature search was performed and the data reviewed. From selected papers, data were extracted and analyzed with a focus on risk stratification. The authors recognize that there are limited high-level data on which to base unequivocal recommendations, necessitating a revisiting of this topic in the years to come.
There is no consensus on the optimal management of VUR or on its diagnostic procedures, treatment options, or most effective timing of treatment. By defining risk factors (family history, gender, laterality, age at presentation, presenting symptoms, VUR grade, duplication, and other voiding dysfunctions), early stratification should allow identification of patients at high potential risk of renal scarring and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Imaging is the basis for diagnosis and further management. Standard imaging tests comprise renal and bladder ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography, and nuclear renal scanning. There is a well-documented link with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD); patients with LUTD and febrile UTI are likely to present with VUR. Diagnosis can be confirmed through a video urodynamic study combined with a urodynamic investigation. Early screening of the siblings and offspring of reflux patients seems indicated. Conservative therapy includes watchful waiting, intermittent or continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, and bladder rehabilitation in patients with LUTD. The goal of the conservative approach is prevention of febrile UTI, since VUR will not damage the kidney when it is free of infection. Interventional therapies include injection of bulking agents and ureteral reimplantation. Reimplantation can be performed using a number of different surgical approaches, with a recent focus on minimally invasive techniques.
While it is important to avoid overtreatment, finding a balance between cases with clinically insignificant VUR and cases that require immediate intervention should be the guiding principle in the management of children presenting with VUR.
European Urology 06/2012; 62(3):534-42. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to ureterosigmoidostomy no reliable clinical data exist for tumor risk in different forms of urinary diversion using isolated intestinal segments.In 44 German urological departments, operation frequencies, indications, patient age, and operation dates of the different forms of urinary diversion, operated between 1970 and 2007, could be registered. The secondary tumors up to 2009 were registered as well and related to the numbers of the different forms of urinary diversions resulting in tumor prevalences.In 17,758 urinary diversions 32 secondary tumors occurred. The tumor risk in ureterosigmoidostomy (22-fold) and cystoplasty (13-fold) is significantly higher than in other continent forms of urinary diversion such as neobladders or pouches (p<0.0001). The difference between ureterosigmoidostomy and cystoplasty is not significant, nor is the difference between ileocecal pouches (0.14%) and ileal neobladders (0.05%) (p=0.46). The tumor risk in ileocecal (1.26%) and colonic neobladders (1.43%) is significantly higher (p=0.0001) than in ileal neobladders (0.5%). Of the 16 tumors that occurred following ureterosigmoidostomy, 16 (94%) developed directly at the ureterocolonic borderline in contrast to only 50% following urinary diversions via isolated intestinal segments.From postoperative year 5 regular endoscopic controls of ureterosigmoidostomies, cystoplasties, and orthotopic (ileo-)colonic neobladders are necessary. In ileocecal pouches, regular endoscopy is necessary at least in the presence of symptoms or should be performed routinely at greater intervals. Following neobladders or conduits, only urethroscopies for urethral recurrence are necessary.
Der Urologe 04/2012; 51(4):500, 502-6. · 0.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypospadias repair is one of the more common operations in pediatric urology centers, with an incidence of 1 in 200 to 1 in 300. This review provides an overview of the prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of this condition. Indications for hypospadias repair and preoperative hormonal treatment are discussed. The principles of the different operations and their countless modifications are explained.Hypospadias repair has a long and flat learning curve and requires patience, experience, and great enthusiasm to achieve acceptable results. The results published on the various operative techniques need to be repeated and validated by other surgeons, and long-term results (up to adulthood) are essential to justify operative methods and identify late complications.
European Urology Supplements 04/2012; 11(2):33–45. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with a neurogenic bladder, the primary goal is preservation of renal function and prevention of urinary tract infection, with urinary continence as the secondary goal. After failure of conservative treatment (clean intermittent catheterisation and pharmacotherapy) urinary diversion should be considered. In this review, the surgical options with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. In patients with a hyper-reflexive, small-capacity and/or low-compliance bladder with normal upper urinary tract, bladder augmentation (bowel segments/ureter) is an option. To those who are unable to perform clean intermittent catheterisation via urethra, a continent cutaneous stoma can be offered. In patients with irreparable sphincter defects a continent cutaneous diversion is an option. For patients who are not suitable for a continent diversion (incompliant±chronic renal failure), a colonic conduit for incontinent diversion is preferred. Surgical complications specific to urinary diversion include: ureterointestinal stenosis, stomal stenosis, stone formation, bladder perforation, and shunt infection and obstruction. Surgical revision is required in around one third of patients. Careful lifelong follow-up of these patients is necessary, as some of these complications can occur late.
Journal of pediatric urology 04/2012; 8(2):153-61. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 19th Annual Conference of the Working Group on Kidney Transplantation (KTX) of the Academy of German Urologists took place on 10-12 November 2011 in Mainz. The main topics at the meeting were surgical and technical aspects, immunosuppressive therapy, transplant rejection, pregnancy, sexuality, and psychological conflicts of kidney transplant recipients. The speakers documented the pertinence of interdisciplinarity for KTX and were not only from the field of urology but also from anesthesiology, gynecology, surgery, dermatology, nephrology, radiology, and psychosomatic medicine. The Bernd Schönberger Prize was awarded at the end of the event.
Der Urologe 03/2012; 51(4):550-4. · 0.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When urinary diversion is indicated, patient information concerning the advantages and disadvantages of different types of urinary diversion and their choices is of utmost importance for the functional outcome and patient satisfaction. There is a variety of choices for incontinent urinary diversion (ureterocutaneostomy, ileal conduit, colonic conduit) and continent urinary diversion (continent anal urinary diversion, continent cutaneous urinary diversion and urethral bladder substitution). In the individual case, the choices may be limited by patient criteria and/or medical criteria. Important patient criteria are preference, age and comorbidity, BMI, motivation, underlying disease and indication for cystectomy. Medical criteria which possibly limit choices of type of urinary diversion are kidney function/upper urinary tract status and limitations concerning the gastrointestinal tract, concerning urethra/sphincter as well as the ability and motivation to perform intermittent self-catheterization. Preoperative information may use simulation of certain postoperative scenarios (urethral self-catheterization, fixation of water-filled conduit bags, holding test for anal liquids) to allow the individual patient to choose the optimal type of urinary diversion for his/her given situation from the mosaic of choices and possible individual limitations.
Der Urologe 03/2012; 51(4):473-6. · 0.46 Impact Factor