G Keir

UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (93)370.92 Total impact

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    Neurochemical Research 10/2011; 37(1). DOI:10.1007/s11064-011-0609-9 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has still not been clearly established whether the cognitive deficits of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are caused by a disturbance in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics or an underlying metabolic disturbance. To identify the possible associations between biochemical markers, the neuroimaging characteristics, and cognitive deficits of patients undergoing investigations for possible iNPH. A CSF sample obtained during a lumbar puncture from 10 patients with iNPH was analyzed for several biochemical markers (lactate, 8-isoprostane, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], neurofilament heavy protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, amyloid beta 1-42, and total tau). All patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological testing and imaging as part of their selection process for their suitability for CSF diversion surgical procedure. Volumetric analysis of imaging was carried out measuring the ventricular volume (VV), intracranial volume (ICV), periventricular lucencies, deep white matter hyperintensities, and white matter (WM) volume, as well as their ratios. A significant negative correlation of preoperative symptom duration and total tau levels (R = -0.841, P = .002) was found. There was a significant positive correlation (R = 0.648, P = .043) between the levels of VEGF and the VV/ICV ratio. There was a significant positive correlation of the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and the VV/deep white matter hyperintensities ratio (R = 0.828, P = .006). A significant negative correlation was observed between the levels of neurofilament heavy protein and the VV/ICV ratio (R = -0.657, P = .039) and the WM volume (R = -0.778, P = .023). Lactate levels were lower for patients performing in the normal range on the Recognition Memory Test for faces. Patients who performed better in the Recognition Memory Test words test had higher ICV volumes. All the patients in this study showed below normal performance when the subcortical function was assessed. The positive correlation of VEGF with the severity of ventriculomegaly may indicate that this is because of the transmantle pressure gradient; this response may not be because of hypoxia but represents an attempt at neuroregeneration. The degree of reactive gliosis correlates inversely with the severity of WM lesions. Neuronal degeneration is negatively correlated with the volume of the WM in these patients. The small association of volumetry and the cognitive profile of these patients may be consistent with a direct biochemical disturbance being responsible for the cognitive deficit observed. Ongoing studies with set protocols for neuropsychological assessment and volumetric analysis are warranted to further elucidate on the preliminary results of the current study.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 07/2011; 7(5):501-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.01.003 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rostrocaudal gradient (RCG) of markers present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been studied adequately due to lack of appropriate control populations and ethical restrictions. The aim of this study is to understand the rostrocaudal gradient of CSF biomarkers. We contacted a study comparing CSF levels of seven biomarkers from cisternal (rostral) and lumbar (caudal) CSF obtained from patients with trigeminal neuralgia and tension-type headache. The RCGs of CSF/serum albumin ratio, 8-isoprostane. GFAP, total tau and beta amyloid protein were higher than one. The RCGs of lactate, VEGF and the heavy chain of neurofilament protein were lower than one. The study provides new values for several commonly examined markers of cisternal CSF. Knowledge of the RCG gradient of different CSF markers is important in interpreting studies reporting ventricular CSF values.
    Neurochemical Research 03/2011; 36(3):528-32. DOI:10.1007/s11064-010-0374-1 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic value of CSF biomarkers in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) has not been adequately studied to date. The aim of this study was to identify CSF markers of favorable surgical outcome in patients with iNPH undergoing the insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Ventricular CSF was collected intraoperatively from 22 patients with iNPH and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze the levels of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) and total tau protein. The Black grading scale was used to assess outcomes at 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained and discriminant function analysis was undertaken to provide sensitivity and specificity figures for each marker as well as their combination. The mean age of the patients was 71.45 years (± 9.5 years [SD]). Follow-up was achieved in 21 patients. Seventeen patients had a favorable outcome and 4 patients had unfavorable outcome at 6 months. An Aβ(1-42) level of 180 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 20% for predicting a favorable outcome at 6 months. A total tau level of 767 pg/ml will have a sensitivity of 17% and a specificity of 20% for predicting a favorable outcome at 6 months. A combination of Aβ(1-42) and total tau levels predicted favorable outcomes with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 82.4%. In this pilot study a combination of Aβ(1-42) levels and total tau protein levels predicted favorable surgical outcomes at 6 months with adequate accuracy to be of clinical use. Further study in a larger group with longer follow-up is warranted.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 03/2011; 115(1):145-50. DOI:10.3171/2011.2.JNS101316 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: External lumbar drainage (ELD) is known as a good predictor of favourable outcome in shunting patients suffering from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Eleven patients suffering from iNPH had a lumbar drain (LD) inserted for 72 h and participated in a research study to quantify any improvement in their clinical symptoms. The lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of lactate, 8-isoprostane, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament (heavy chain) protein (NF (h)), Abeta(1-42) (beta-amyloid) and total tau were assayed samples from all three time points. The concentrations of lactate, VEGF, GFAP and tau increased significantly during the 72 h of drainage. There were also increases in 8-isoprostane and Abeta(1-42) (non significant). The concentration of NF (h) was reduced significantly following 72 h of drainage. There was a significant positive correlation between Abeta(1-42) and total tau in the first sample. GFAP was negatively correlated in a significant fashion with both Abeta(1-42) and total tau. NF (h) was negatively correlated with VEGF. Evidence is provided that ELD is producing measurable changes in the CSF composition of patients with iNPH. The present paper discusses how such changes may be implicated in the pathophysiology of the condition.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 07/2009; 80(10):1130-3. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2008.171686 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral microdialysis is an established research tool that is used by an increasing number of neurocritical care units as a component of bedside multimodality monitoring. Body fluid biomarkers are an emerging tool for the assessment of brain injury. The correct interpretation of body fluid biomarker levels depends on the degree of recovery, i.e. relative recovery and the accuracy of the analytical technique. In vitro recovery experiments were performed on 100mL volumes of cerebrospinal fluid and solutions of S100B, glucose, lactate and pyruvate comparing relative recoveries using commercially available 20 kDa (CMA70) and 100 kDa (CMA71) microdialysis catheters. We also compared the CMA 600 microdialysis analyzer with a YSI 2003 STAT Plus analyzer for glucose and lactate to determine its reliability. Significantly, we demonstrate the improved recovery of the protein S100B using a larger molecular weight (MW) cut-off catheter (20 kDa range: 0.1-9%; 100 kDa range: 1.7-18.3%) while maintaining comparable performance for the conventional markers glucose, lactate and pyruvate. Additionally we found that the CMA 600 analyzer may be prone to overestimation of lactate readings at higher concentration with implications for clinical decision-making. Our data demonstrates that the 100 kDa MW cut-off catheter allows for the improved recovery of macromolecules in cerebral microdialysis research while maintaining the value of existing MD data for routine clinical use.
    Journal of neuroscience methods 07/2009; 181(1):95-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2009.02.021 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early predictors of prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are needed to identify patients who are likely to make a poor recovery and to guide therapeutic decision-making in the acute phase. Here we investigate whether axonal protein biomarkers released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following proximal axonal damage improve the early prognostic accuracy in GBS. A prospective multicenter study including 132 patients (38 GBS, 38 neurological controls, 42 headaches, 14 chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy). CSF levels of axonal [neurofilament (NfH) and tau] and glial (S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein) protein biomarkers were measured on admission. Nerve conduction studies were performed at the time of lumbar puncture and patients were classified according to neurophysiological criteria. Outcome was assessed on the Hughes functional score (F-score). Poor outcome was defined as the inability to walk independently (F-score > or = 3). High NfH levels (>0.73 ng/ml) predicted poor outcome (P = 0.01) with an odds ratio of 7.3 and correlated with the outcome F-score (R = 0.51, P < 0.01), as did hTau levels (R = 0.47, P < 0.01). Patients with poor outcome had significantly higher CSF NfH (median 1.78 ng/ml) when compared to those with good outcome (0.03 ng/ml) or all of the control groups (neurological controls 0.18 ng/ml, headaches 0.06 ng/ml, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy 0.05 ng/ml). Except for age (P < 0.05) and need for ventilatory support (P < 0.05), none of the other features reliably predicted outcome. Improved prognostic accuracy in the acute phase of GBS seems possible using CSF NfH levels.
    Muscle & Nerve 07/2009; 40(1):42-9. DOI:10.1002/mus.21239 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of the neurological complications of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is unclear. We measured proteins and amino acids in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in children with severe falciparum malaria, to assess the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB), and look for evidence of intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins, excitotoxins and brain damage. METHODS: Proteins of different molecular sizes and immunoglobulins were measured in paired CSF and plasma samples in children with falciparum malaria and either impaired consciousness, prostrate, or seizures. RESULTS: The ratio of CSF to plasma albumin (Q(alb)) exceeded the reference values in 42 (51%) children. The CSF concentrations of the excitotoxic amino acid aspartate and many non-polar amino acids, except alanine, were above the reference value, despite normal plasma concentrations. IgM concentrations were elevated in 21 (46%) and the IgM index was raised in 22 (52%). Identical IgG oligoclonal bands were found in 9 (35%), but only one patient had an increase in the CSF IgG without a concomitant increase in plasma indicating intrathecal synthesis of IgG. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the BBB is mildly impaired in some children with severe falciparum malaria, and this impairment is not confined to cerebral malaria, but also occurs in children with prostrate malaria and to a lesser extent the children with malaria and seizures. There is evidence of intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins in children with malaria, but this requires further investigation. This finding, together with raised level of excitotoxic amino acid aspartate could contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological complications in malaria.
    The Open Tropical Medicine Journal 10/2008; 1(1):56-62. DOI:10.2174/1874315300801010056
  • Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 09/2008; 110. DOI:10.1016/S0303-8467(08)70125-2 · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 09/2008; 110. DOI:10.1016/S0303-8467(08)70060-X · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) causes widespread CNS changes and systemic abnormalities including endocrine and immune dysfunction. HD biomarkers are needed to power clinical trials of potential treatments. We used multiplatform proteomic profiling to reveal plasma changes with HD progression. Proteins of interest were evaluated using immunoblotting and ELISA in plasma from 2 populations, CSF and R6/2 mice. The identified proteins demonstrate neuroinflammation in HD and warrant further investigation as possible biomarkers.
    Journal of Proteome Research 08/2007; 6(7):2833-40. DOI:10.1021/pr0700753 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for biomarkers of onset and progression in Huntington's disease (HD), as current outcome measures lack the reliability to enable the efficient conduct of disease-modifying trials. Neurofilament heavy chain (NfH) is a neuron-specific protein for the neuro-axonal compartment that has been proposed as a marker for axonal injury, degeneration and loss and its clinical use as a biomarker has been suggested in several neurodegenerative diseases. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify NfH levels in plasma in control subjects, premanifest HD mutation carriers and subjects with early and moderate manifest HD. We found no correlation between plasma NfH level and disease stage, or calculated parameters based on CAG repeat length, the major determinant of disease course in HD, and no evidence that NfH may be a predictor of disease onset. We conclude that plasma NfH concentration is not a useful biomarker of onset or progression in HD.
    Neuroscience Letters 06/2007; 417(3):231-3. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2007.02.053 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Neurophysiology 05/2007; 118(5). DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.07.223 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of cortical neurons is a key pathological feature in neurodegenerative dementias. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilaments (Nf) are a biomarker for neuronal death and axonal loss. To perform a meta-analysis to investigate the value of CSF Nf levels for the laboratory-supported differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on CSF Nf heavy (NfH) and light (NfL) levels in patients with dementia. The dementia subgroups analysed were Alzheimer (AD), frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTLD), vascular dementia (SVD), minimal cognitive deficit (MCI). We identified 12 studies on CSF NfH and NfL levels which met the inclusion criteria and 11 were of a quality good enough to be used in this meta-analysis. CSF data was available on 818 patients (306 AD, 106 SVD, 98 FTLD, 25 MCI, 283 controls). Overall CSF NfH and NfL levels were higher in patients with AD, FTLD and SVD when compared to controls. The size of the effect ranged from 0.71 to 1.38. The strongest effect was observed for the comparison of FTLD patients with controls, both for NfL (1.38) and NfH (0.74). CSF NfL were also able to separate patients with FTLD from those with AD. At present we cannot recommend CSF NfH and NfL levels for use as a screening test in the diagnosis of dementia because of the rather small effect size. However, both neurofilament proteins may be of value for targeted investigation of some patients with FTLD, SVD and AD.
    Neurodegenerative Diseases 02/2007; 4(2-3):185-94. DOI:10.1159/000101843 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that multiple sclerosis (MS) might be a sexually transmitted disorder. There is evidence that seropositivity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) correlates well with the number of sexual partners. Accordingly, a raised overall HSV-2 seroprevalence in MS would lend support to this theory. Serum from 497 UK subjects with clinically definite MS was tested for antibodies to HSV-2 and compared with matched historical controls from within and outside London, blood donors and genito-urinary medicine (GUM) clinics. The unadjusted MS seropositivity rate was 14%. HSV-2 seroprevalence in MS patients aged 35-64 years was significantly higher overall compared with a non-London general population in an unadjusted comparison. HSV-2 seroprevalence in London MS patients compared with London blood donors was significantly greater irrespective of age, but the MS seropositive rate was lower than GUM clinic attenders. In a logistic regression analysis, increased age, female sex and MS diagnosis all independently increased the odds of seropositivity after adjustment for each other. It is concluded that there is increased likelihood of HSV-2 exposure in patients with MS and this may indicate a higher than average number of partners.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 01/2007; 114(6):363-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2006.00677.x · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term morbidity from Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is caused by axonal damage. This prospective study demonstrated that neurofilaments (NfHs), a biomarker for axonal damage, were of prognostic value in GBS. CSF NfH levels correlated with the F score and Medical Research Council summed score and were higher in patients with neurophysiologic evidence of axonal degeneration compared to those without. Pathologically high CSF NfH levels (> 0.73 ng/mL) predicted worse motor and functional outcome.
    Neurology 09/2006; 67(6):1071-3. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000237334.69665.92 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether the new Global Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS) correlated with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for axonal and glial pathology. The MSSS correlated with the phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (NfH-SM135, R=0.44, P=0.016). The degree of neurofilament phosphorylation (ratio NfH-SM134 to NfH-SM135) was 8-fold higher in severely (median MSSS 6.5) versus mildly (MSSS 3.2) disabled patients (7.3 versus 0.9, P = 0.03). The MSSS may provide a statistically powerful tool for comparing overall disease severity and be useful for validating the biomarker concept in MS.
    Multiple Sclerosis 07/2006; 12(3):325-8. DOI:10.1191/135248505ms1277oa · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of preliminary evidence from patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), axonal degeneration is thought to be an underestimated pathological feature. A longitudinal study in 17 patients with aneurysmal SAH. Ventricular CSF was collected daily for up to 14 days. The neurofilament heavy chain(SMI35) (NfH(SMI35), a biomarker for axonal damage) was quantified using a standard ELISA (upper limit of normal 0.73 ng/ml). The primary outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3 months. Of 148 samples from patients with SAH, pathologically high NfH levels in the CSF were found in 78 (52.7%) samples, compared with 20 (5%) of 416 samples from the reference population (p<0.0001). A pathological increase in NfH was observed in all patients with a bad outcome (GOS 1-3) compared with 8% of those with a good outcome (GOS 4-5, p<0.0001). This increase typically became significant 7 days after the haemorrhage (p<0.01). The result was confirmed by analysing the individual mean NfH concentrations in the CSF (3.45 v 0.37 ng/ml, p<0.01), and was reinforced by the inverse correlation of NfH in the CSF with the GOS (r = -0.65, p<0.01). Severity of injury was found to be correlated to NfH(SMI35) levels in the CSF (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons, r = 0.63, p<0.01 and Glasgow Coma Score, r = -0.61, p<0.01). Patients with SAH thus have secondary axonal degeneration, which may adversely affect their outcome.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 06/2006; 77(6):753-9. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2005.085175 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult opsoclonus-myoclonus (OM), a disorder of eye movements accompanied by myoclonus affecting the trunk, limbs, or head, is commonly associated with an underlying malignancy or precipitated by viral infection. We present the first two reports of post-streptococcal OM associated with antibodies against a 56 kDa protein. Two young girls presented with opsoclonus and myoclonus following a febrile illness and pharyngitis. Protein purification techniques were employed. Amino acid sequences of human neuroleukin (NLK) and streptococcal proteins were compared using the protein-protein BLAST application. The antigen was identified as NLK (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, GPI). GPI is present on the cell surface of streptococcus making the protein a candidate target for molecular mimicry. We have identified NLK as an antigenic target in two patients with post-streptococcal OM. The pathogenicity of the antibodies is uncertain. The potential role of anti-neuroleukin antibodies in the pathogenesis of OM is discussed. We propose that OM may represent a further syndrome in the growing spectrum of post-streptococcal neurological disorders. The role of streptococcus in OM and the frequency with which anti-NLK responses occur in both post-infectious and paraneoplastic OM should be investigated further.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 05/2006; 77(4):507-12. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2005.078105 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine how cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament heavy chain (NfH(SM134) and NfH(SM135)) levels relate to clinical outcome in optic neuritis (ON) and multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse patients treated with high dose oral methylprednisolone; and (2) to correlate neurofilament and myelin basic protein (MBP) concentrations, particularly as the latter was previously associated with clinical disability. Fifty subjects participated in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Eight/18 patients in the ON trial and 15/32 subjects in the MS attack trial were treated with oral methylprednisolone. In the MS attack trial group, CSF NfH(SM134) and NfH(SM135) measured at week 3 and deltaCSF NfH(SMI34) levels from baseline to week 3 were predictive of clinical outcome at week 8 and 52. In the ON group, no such association was seen. When both groups were combined, baseline CSF NfH(SHM134) and NfH(SM135) correlated positively with baseline enhancing lesion volume (ELV) (r(s) =0.50, P <0.01 and rS =0.53, P <0.01, respectively). Levels of NfH(SM135) at baseline and week 3 also strongly correlated with the MBP concentration. This study supports the view that acute inflammation in ON and MS results in axonal pathology and that the latter has a role in determining functional impairment.
    Multiple Sclerosis 10/2005; 11(5):532-6. DOI:10.1191/1352458505ms1218oa · 4.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
370.92 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2006
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2005
    • University College London
      • • Department of Neuroinflammation
      • • Institute of Neurology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • Karolinska Institutet
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1995–2003
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP)
      London, Ohio, United States
  • 1991
    • SickKids
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1990
    • Multiple Sclerosis Society
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom