[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. METHODS: We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. RESULTS: Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria's per capita GDP. CONCLUSIONS: Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization).
BMC Public Health 09/2012; 12(1):786. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disease simulation models of the health and economic consequences of different prevention and treatment strategies can guide policy decisions about cancer control. However, models that also consider health disparities can identify strategies that improve both population health and its equitable distribution.
We devised a typology of cancer disparities that considers types of inequalities among black, white, and Hispanic populations across different cancers and characteristics important for near-term policy discussions. We illustrated the typology in the specific example of cervical cancer using an existing disease simulation model calibrated to clinical, epidemiological, and cost data for the United States. We calculated average reduction in cancer incidence overall and for black, white, and Hispanic women under five different prevention strategies (Strategies A1, A2, A3, B, and C) and estimated average costs and life expectancy per woman, and the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy.
Strategies that may provide greater aggregate health benefit than existing options may also exacerbate disparities. Combining human papillomavirus vaccination (Strategy A2) with current cervical cancer screening patterns (Strategy A1) resulted in an average reduction of 69% in cancer incidence overall but a 71.6% reduction for white women, 68.3% for black women, and 63.9% for Hispanic women. Other strategies targeting risk-based screening to racial and ethnic minorities reduced disparities among racial subgroups and resulted in more equitable distribution of benefits among subgroups (reduction in cervical cancer incidence, white vs. Hispanic women, 69.7% vs. 70.1%). Strategies that employ targeted risk-based screening and new screening algorithms, with or without vaccination (Strategies B and C), provide excellent value. The most effective strategy (Strategy C) had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $28,200 per year of life saved when compared with the same strategy without vaccination.
We identify screening strategies for cervical cancer that provide greater aggregate health benefit than existing options, offer excellent cost-effectiveness, and have the biggest positive impact in worst-off groups. The typology proposed here may also be useful in research and policy decisions when trade-offs between fairness and cost-effectiveness are unavoidable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to quantify the benefits (life expectancy gains) and risks (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA.
We used data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women.
Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women.
Use of non-efavirenz-based initial ART in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a trade-off between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers.
HIV Medicine 02/2011; 12(2):97-108. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the comparative health and economic outcomes associated with three alternative first-trimester abortion techniques in Mexico City and to examine the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion modalities within a restrictive setting.
Reproductive-aged women with unintended pregnancy seeking first-trimester abortion.
Synthesising the best available data, a computer-based model simulates induced abortion and its potential complications and is used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative safe modalities for first-trimester pregnancy termination: (1) hospital-based dilatation and curettage (D&C), (2) hospital-based manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), (3) clinic-based MVA and (4) medical abortion using vaginal misoprostol.
Number of complications, lifetime costs, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy.
In comparison to the magnitude of health gains associated with all safe abortion modalities, the relative differences between strategies were more pronounced in terms of their economic costs. Assuming all options were equally available, clinic-based MVA was the least costly and most effective. Medical abortion with misoprostol provided comparable benefits to D&C, but cost substantially less. Enhanced access to safe abortion was always more influential than shifting between safe abortion modalities.
This study demonstrates that the provision of safe abortion is cost-effective and will result in reduced complications, decreased mortality and substantial cost savings compared with unsafe abortion. In Mexico City, shifting from a practice of hospital-based D&C to clinic-based MVA and enhancing access to medical abortion will have the best chance to minimise abortion-related morbidity and mortality.
BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 05/2009; 116(6):768-79. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent decades, extensive resources have been invested to develop cellular, molecular and genomic technologies with clinical applications that span the continuum of cancer care.
In December 2006, the National Cancer Institute sponsored the first workshop to uniquely examine the state of health services research on cancer-related cellular, molecular and genomic technologies and identify challenges and priorities for expanding the evidence base on their effectiveness in routine care.
This article summarizes the workshop outcomes, which included development of a comprehensive research agenda that incorporates health and safety endpoints, utilization patterns, patient and provider preferences, quality of care and access, disparities, economics and decision modeling, trends in cancer outcomes, and health-related quality of life among target populations.
Ultimately, the successful adoption of useful technologies will depend on understanding and influencing the patient, provider, health care system and societal factors that contribute to their uptake and effectiveness in 'real-world' settings.
Public Health Genomics 02/2009; 12(4):233-44. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) estimates that 16,000 deaths occur annually in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) due to rotavirus diarrhea; each year, another 22,000 children die from invasive pneumococcal disease and 32,000 women die from cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus. Vaccines against these priority diseases present opportunities for substantial gains in health, contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The relative value of these vaccines depends on disease burden, vaccine price, effective delivery strategies, and available resources for their introduction into National Immunization Programs. As these elements vary between countries, the decision to introduce new and more costly vaccines requires that policy decisions are grounded in high-quality evidence that reflects national conditions and programmatic capacity. This strategic approach departs from a history of policy driven by less formal regional and global mechanisms.
Since 2004, PAHO has spearheaded the ProVac Initiative, striving to enhance national evidenced-based capacity to make informed policy decisions on new vaccine introduction. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and the PneumoADIP and Rotavirus Vaccine Project of GAVI have been critical supporters. The work plan for 20082013 will continue to address the following objectives: strengthening policy infrastructure and process; developing and enhancing tools for economic analysis; collecting data and conducting analyses; making evidence-based decisions; effectively planning for vaccine introduction when appropriate; developing strategies to iteratively assess progress and periodically revisit key decisions; and promoting scientific, technical, and policy-relevant partnerships.
136st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2008; 10/2008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in low-income countries, with approximately 25% of cases worldwide occurring in India. We estimated the potential health and economic impact of different cervical cancer prevention strategies. After empirically calibrating a cervical cancer model to country-specific epidemiologic data, we projected cancer incidence, life expectancy, and lifetime costs (I$2005), and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$/YLS) for the following strategies: pre-adolescent vaccination of girls before age 12, screening of women over age 30, and combined vaccination and screening. Screening differed by test (cytology, visual inspection, HPV DNA testing), number of clinical visits (1, 2 or 3), frequency (1 x , 2 x , 3 x per lifetime), and age range (35-45). Vaccine efficacy, coverage, and costs were varied in sensitivity analyses. Assuming 70% coverage, mean reduction in lifetime cancer risk was 44% (range, 28-57%) with HPV 16,18 vaccination alone, and 21-33% with screening three times per lifetime. Combining vaccination and screening three times per lifetime provided a mean reduction of 56% (vaccination plus 3-visit conventional cytology) to 63% (vaccination plus 2-visit HPV DNA testing). At a cost per vaccinated girl of I$10 (per dose cost of $2), pre-adolescent vaccination followed by screening three times per lifetime using either VIA or HPV DNA testing, would be considered cost-effective using the country's per capita gross domestic product (I$3452) as a threshold. In India, if high coverage of pre-adolescent girls with a low-cost HPV vaccine that provides long-term protection is achievable, vaccination followed by screening three times per lifetime is expected to reduce cancer deaths by half, and be cost-effective.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2008; 99(2):230-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syphilis continues to be an important public health problem among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence rates as high as 17%. Pregnant women are a critical population to screen to prevent the devastating consequences of infection to their unborn children. Although screening and appropriate treatment of infected pregnant women can prevent fetal and maternal complications, traditional screening algorithms requiring multiple tests have proven to be difficult to implement in resource-poor settings. We assess the cost-effectiveness of on-site prenatal syphilis screening with newly available rapid point-of-care screening tests in sub-Saharan Africa.
Data from the literature were used to model the acquisition and subsequent natural history of syphilis in pregnant sub-Saharan African women over the course of their lifetime. We assessed the health and economic outcomes associated with screening strategies that differed by the initial test [rapid plasma reagin (RPR), immunochromographic strip (ICS)], need for confirmation with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay, and number of visits required. Model outcomes include adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, low birth weight, congenital syphilis, stillbirth, and neonatal death), life expectancy, lifetime costs (2004 US dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.
With no screening, for a cohort of 1000 women with an average of 6 pregnancies in their lifetime, there were 256 cases of congenital syphilis, 583 low birth weight infants, and 170 stillbirths or neonatal deaths. The most effective and least costly strategy was one-visit rapid testing with ICS, which averted 178 cases of congenital syphilis, 43 low birth weight infants, and 37 perinatal deaths, and saved $170,030 per 1000 women compared with no screening. The choice between ICS and RPR was most influenced by test kit, labor and supply costs, and test sensitivity. RPR was preferred when the ICS cost more than doubled or ICS test sensitivity fell below 88%.
Universal prenatal syphilis screening using rapid point-of-care tests will improve both maternal and infant outcomes and is cost-effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was (1) to estimate the direct medical costs of 7 major noncervical human papillomavirus (HPV)-related conditions that include genital cancers, mouth and oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2) to approximate the economic burden of noncervical HPV disease.
For each condition, we synthesized the best available secondary data to produce lifetime cost per case estimates, which were expressed in present value. Using an incidence-based approach, we then applied these costs to develop an aggregate measure of economic burden.
The economic burden that was associated with noncervical HPV-6-, -11-, -16-, and -18-related conditions in the US population in the year 2003 approximates $418 million (range, $160 million to $1.6 billion).
The economic burden of noncervical HPV disease is substantial. Analyses that assess the value of investments in HPV prevention and control programs should take into account the costs and morbidity and mortality rates that are associated with these conditions.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 06/2008; 198(5):500.e1-7. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of including boys vs girls alone in a pre-adolescent vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in Brazil. Using demographic, epidemiological, and cancer data from Brazil, we developed a dynamic transmission model of HPV infection between males and females. Model-projected reductions in HPV incidence under different vaccination scenarios were applied to a stochastic model of cervical carcinogenesis to project lifetime costs and benefits. We assumed vaccination prevented HPV-16 and -18 infections in individuals not previously infected, and protection was lifelong. Coverage was varied from 0-90% in both genders, and cost per-vaccinated individual was varied from IUSD 25 to 400. At 90% coverage, vaccinating girls alone reduced cancer risk by 63%; including boys at this coverage level provided only 4% further cancer reduction. At a cost per-vaccinated individual of USD 50, vaccinating girls alone was <USD 200 per year of life saved (YLS), while including boys ranged from USD 810-18,650 per YLS depending on coverage. For all coverage levels, increasing coverage in girls was more effective and less costly than including boys in the vaccination programme. In a resource-constrained setting such as Brazil, our results support that the first priority in reducing cervical cancer mortality should be to vaccinate pre-adolescent girls.
British Journal of Cancer 11/2007; 97(9):1322-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance testing in HIV disease may provide long-term benefits that are not evident from short-term data. Our objectives were to estimate the long-term effectiveness, cost and cost-effectiveness of genotype testing in patients with extensive antiretroviral exposure.
We used an HIV simulation model to estimate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of genotype testing. Clinical data incorporated into the model were from NARVAL, a randomized trial of resistance testing in patients with extensive antiretroviral exposure, and other randomized trials. Each simulated patient was eligible for up to three sequential regimens of antiretroviral therapy (i.e. two additional regimens beyond the trial-based regimen) using drugs not available at the time of the study, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir and enfuvirtide.
In the long term, projected undiscounted life expectancy increased from 132.2 months with clinical judgement alone to 147.9 months with genotype testing. Median survival was estimated at 11.9 years in the resistance testing arm vs 10.4 years in the clinical judgement alone arm. Because of increased survival, the projected lifetime discounted cost of genotype testing was greater than for clinical judgement alone (euro313,900 vs euro263,100; US$399,000 vs US$334,400). Genotype testing cost euro69,600 (US$88,500) per quality-adjusted life year gained compared with clinical judgement alone.
In patients with extensive prior antiretroviral exposure, genotype testing is likely to increase life expectancy in the long term as a result of the increased likelihood of receiving two active new drugs. Genotype testing is associated with cost-effectiveness comparable to that of strategies accepted in patients with advanced HIV disease, such as enfuvirtide use.
HIV Medicine 11/2007; 8(7):439-50. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer, the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries, is caused by persistent infection with "high-risk" genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPV). The most common oncogenic HPV genotypes are 16 and 18, causing approximately 70% of all cervical cancers. Types 6 and 11 do not contribute to the incidence of high-grade dysplasias (precancerous lesions) or cervical cancer, but do cause laryngeal papillomas and most genital warts. HPV is highly transmissible, with peak incidence soon after the onset of sexual activity. A quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) HPV vaccine has recently been licensed in several countries following the determination that it has an acceptable benefit/risk profile. In large phase III trials, the vaccine prevented 100% of moderate and severe precancerous cervical lesions associated with types 16 or 18 among women with no previous infection with these types. A bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine has also undergone extensive evaluation and been licensed in at least one country. Both vaccines are prepared from non-infectious, DNA-free virus-like particles produced by recombinant technology and combined with an adjuvant. With three doses administered, they induce high levels of serum antibodies in virtually all vaccinated individuals. In women who have no evidence of past or current infection with the HPV genotypes in the vaccine, both vaccines show > 90% protection against persistent HPV infection for up to 5 years after vaccination, which is the longest reported follow-up so far. Vaccinating at an age before females are exposed to HPV would have the greatest impact. Since HPV vaccines do not eliminate the risk of cervical cancer, cervical screening will still be required to minimize cancer incidence. Tiered pricing for HPV vaccines, innovative financing mechanisms and multidisciplinary partnerships will be essential in order for the vaccines to reach populations in greatest need.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 09/2007; 85(9):719-26. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death among women living in low-resource settings. In the last 3 decades, cytologic screening has -in theory -been available and yet more than 6 million women have died of this preventable disease. The necessary resources, infrastructure, and technological expertise, together with the need for repeated screenings at regular intervals, make cytologic screening difficult to implement in poor countries. As noncytologic approaches for the detection of HPV, simple visual screening methods for anogenital lesions caused by HPV, and the availability of an HPV-16/18 vaccine will enhance the linkage between screening and treatment, multiple factors will need to be considered when designing new, or modifying existing prevention strategies. Countryspecific decisions regarding the best strategy for cervical cancer control will need to rely on data from many sources and take into account complex epidemiologic, economic, social, political, and cultural factors, and be made despite uncertainty and incomplete information. A rigorous decision analytic approach using computerbased modeling methods enables linkage of the knowledge gained from empirical studies to real-world situations. This chapter provides an introduction to these methods, reviews lessons learned from cost-effectiveness analyses of cervical cancer screening in developed and developing countries, and emphasizes important qualitative themes to consider in designing cervical cancer prevention policies.
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 12/2006; 94 Suppl 1:S95-105. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate incidence rates of opportunistic diseases (ODs) and mortality for patients with and without a history of OD among HIV-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire.
Using incidence density analysis, we estimated rates of ODs and chronic mortality by CD4 count in patients in a cotrimoxazole prophylaxis trial in Abidjan before the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Chronic mortality was defined as death without a history of OD or death more than 30 days after an OD diagnosis. We used Poisson's regression to examine the effect of OD history on chronic mortality after adjusting for age, gender, and current CD4 count.
Two hundred and seventy patients (40% male, mean age 33 years, median baseline CD4 count 261 cells/microl) were followed up for a median of 9.5 months. Bacterial infections and tuberculosis were the most common severe ODs. Of 47 patients who died, 9 (19%) died within 30 days of an OD, 26 (55%) died more than 30 days after an OD, and 12 (26%) died with no OD history. The chronic mortality rate was 31.0/100 person-years for those with an OD history, and 11.1/100 person-years for those with no OD history (rate ratio (RR) 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43 - 5.54). Multivariate analysis revealed that OD history remained an independent predictor of mortality (RR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.07 - 4.33) after adjusting for CD4 count, age and gender.
Before the HAART era, a history of OD was associated with increased chronic HIV mortality in Côte d'Ivoire, even after adjusting for CD4 count. These results provide further evidence supporting OD prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients.
South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 07/2006; 96(6):526-9. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter focuses on interventions for controlling seven cancers that impose a particularly heavy burden of disease on developing countries: cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. In 2000, these seven types of cancer accounted for approximately 60 percent of all newly diagnosed cancer cases and cancer deaths in developing countries (Ferlay and others 2001). Four of the seven cancers—cervical, liver, stomach, and esophageal—have elevated incidence and mortality rates in developing countries. The other three—lung, colorectal, and breast—have lower incidence and mortality rates than the other four cancers, but they nonetheless impose a heavy disease burden and are increasing because of demographic and industrial transitions. Pediatric cancers and HIV-related cancers, two topics that are of great importance and concern, are beyond the scope of this chapter.
Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edited by Dean T Jamison, Joel G Breman, Anthony R Measham, George Alleyne, Mariam Claeson, David B Evans, Prabhat Jha, Anne Mills, Philip Musgrove, 01/2006: chapter Chapter 29; World Bank., ISBN: 0821361791
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the impact of quality-of-life adjustment on cost-effectiveness analyses, by comparing ratios from published studies that have reported both incremental costs per (unadjusted) life-year and per quality-adjusted life-year for the same intervention.
A systematic literature search identified 228 original cost-utility analyses published prior to 1998. Sixty-three of these analyses (173 ratio pairs) reported both cost/LY and cost/QALY ratios for the same intervention, from which we calculated medians and means, the difference between ratios (cost/LY minus cost/QALY) and between reciprocals of the ratios, and cost/LY as a percentage of the corresponding cost/QALY ratio. We also compared the ratios using rank-order correlation, and assessed the frequency with which quality-adjustment resulted in a ratio crossing the widely used cost-effectiveness thresholds of 20, 000 US dollars, 50,000 US dollars, and 100,000 US dollars/QALY or LY.
The mean ratios were 69,100 US dollars/LY and 103,100 US dollars/QALY, with corresponding medians of 24,600 US dollars/LY and 20,400 US dollars/QALY. The mean difference between ratios was approximately -34,300 US dollars (median difference: 1300 US dollars), with 60% of ratio pairs differing by 10,000 US dollars/year or less. Mean difference between reciprocals was 59 (QA)LYs per million dollars (median: 2.1). The Spearman rank-order correlation between ratio types was 0.86 (p<0.001). Quality-adjustment led to a ratio moving either above or below 50,000 US dollars/LY (or QALY) in 8% of ratio pairs, and across 100,000 US dollars in 6% of cases.
In a sizable fraction of cost-utility analyses, quality adjusting did not substantially alter the estimated cost-effectiveness of an intervention, suggesting that sensitivity analyses using ad hoc adjustments or 'off-the-shelf' utility weights may be sufficient for many analyses. The collection of preference weight data should be subjected to the same scrutiny as other data inputs to cost-effectiveness analyses, and should only be under-taken if the value of this information is likely to be greater than the cost of obtaining it.
Health Economics 06/2004; 13(5):429-36. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use as an adjunct to cytology for cervical cancer screening. To help provide guidance to clinicians and patients when using HPV DNA testing as an adjunct to cervical cytology for screening, a workshop was cosponsored by the National Institutes of Health-National Cancer Institute, American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Cancer Society. Consensus was reached based on a literature review, expert opinion, and unpublished results from large ongoing screening studies. The conclusions of the workshop were that HPV DNA testing may be added to cervical cytology for screening in women aged 30 years or more. Women whose results are negative by both HPV DNA testing and cytology should not be rescreened before 3 years. Women whose results are negative by cytology, but are high-risk HPV DNA positive, are at a relatively low risk of having high-grade cervical neoplasia, and colposcopy should not be performed routinely in this setting. Instead, HPV DNA testing along with cervical cytology should be repeated in these women at 6 to 12 months. If test results of either are abnormal, colposcopy should then be performed. This guidance should assist clinicians in utilizing HPV DNA testing in an effective manner, while minimizing unnecessary evaluations and treatments.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2004; 103(2):304-9. · 4.80 Impact Factor