[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) exert a variety of signaling functions in eukaryotes. We suppressed the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α using a small interfering RNA (Pik3r1 siRNA) and examined the effects on embryoid body (EB) development in hanging drop culture. We observed a 150% increase in the volume of the treated EBs within 24 h, compared to the negative controls. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) assays showed that this increase in volume is not due to increased cellular proliferation. Instead, the increase in volume appears to be due to reduced cellular aggregation and adherence. This is further shown by our observation that 40% of treated EBs form twin instead of single EBs, and that they have a significantly reduced ability to adhere to culture dishes when plated. A time course over the first 96 h reveals that the impaired adherence is transient and explained by an initial 12-hour delay in EB development. Quantitative PCR expression analysis suggests that the adhesion molecule integrin-β1 (ITGB1) is transiently downregulated by the p85α suppression. In conclusion we found that suppressing p85α leads to a delay in forming compact EBs, accompanied by a transient inability of the EBs to undergo normal cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 07/2011; 112(12):3573-81. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Horse mtDNA profiling can be useful in forensic work investigating degraded samples, hair shafts or highly dilute samples. Degraded DNA often does not allow sequencing of fragments longer than 200 nucleotides. In this study we therefore search for the most discriminatory sections within the hypervariable horse mtDNA control region. Among a random sample of 39 horses, 32 different sequences were identified in a stretch of 921 nucleotides. The sequences were assigned to the published mtDNA types A-G, and to a newly labelled minor type H. The random match probability within the analysed samples is 3.61%, and the average pairwise sequence difference is 15 nucleotides. In a "sliding window" analysis of 200-nucleotide sections of the mtDNA control region, we find that the known repetitive central motif divides the mtDNA control region into a highly diverse segment and a markedly less discriminatory segment.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 11/2010; 124(6):617-22. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present allelic data for three known and one new C-tract in the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and we measure intergenerational mutation rates at such C-tracts. In detail, in a sample of 1,172 mtDNA sequences, we demonstrate the existence of an instability threshold of eight consecutive cytosines, at and above which the phenomenon of length heteroplasmy arises. To determine mutation rates, we draw on mtDNA sequences in up to four generations of 248 pedigrees for families living in high or low-radiation environmental conditions. The high-radiation sample gives the most conservative (fastest) mutation rate likely to be encountered in any forensic context. We find that the C-tract mutation rate is up to 6% per generation, and we observe an excess of cytosine gains over losses. Case studies and guidelines for evaluating mtDNA heteroplasmy are provided.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 11/2009; 124(2):133-42. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the domestication of animals and crops in the Near East some 11,000 years ago, farming had reached much of central Europe by 7500 years before the present. The extent to which these early European farmers were immigrants or descendants of resident hunter-gatherers who had adopted farming has been widely debated. We compared new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from late European hunter-gatherer skeletons with those from early farmers and from modern Europeans. We find large genetic differences between all three groups that cannot be explained by population continuity alone. Most (82%) of the ancient hunter-gatherers share mtDNA types that are relatively rare in central Europeans today. Together, these analyses provide persuasive evidence that the first farmers were not the descendants of local hunter-gatherers but immigrated into central Europe at the onset of the Neolithic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: North Greenland Polar Eskimos are the only hunter-gatherer population, to our knowledge, who can offer precise genealogical records spanning several generations. This is the first report from Eskimos on two key parameters in population genetics, namely, generation time (T) and effective population size (Ne). The average mother-daughter and father-son intervals were 27 and 32 years, respectively, roughly similar to the previously published generation times obtained from recent agricultural societies across the world. To gain an insight for the generation time in our distant ancestors, we calculated maternal generation time for two wild chimpanzee populations. We also provide the first comparison among three distinct approaches (genealogy, variance and life table methods) for calculating Ne, which resulted in slightly differing values for the Eskimos. The ratio of the effective to the census population size is estimated as 0.6-0.7 for autosomal and X-chromosomal DNA, 0.7-0.9 for mitochondrial DNA and 0.5 for Y-chromosomal DNA. A simulation of alleles along the genealogy suggested that Y-chromosomal DNA may drift a little faster than mitochondrial DNA in this population, in contrast to agricultural Icelanders. Our values will be useful not only in prehistoric population inference but also in understanding the shaping of our genome today.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 08/2008; 275(1642):1501-8. · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modern humans have been living in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for at least 50,000 years. Largely because of the influence of linguistic studies, however, which have a shallow time depth, the attention of archaeologists and geneticists has usually been focused on the last 6,000 years--in particular, on a proposed Neolithic dispersal from China and Taiwan. Here we use complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequencing to spotlight some earlier processes that clearly had a major role in the demographic history of the region but have hitherto been unrecognized. We show that haplogroup E, an important component of mtDNA diversity in the region, evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years and expanded dramatically throughout ISEA around the beginning of the Holocene, at the time when the ancient continent of Sundaland was being broken up into the present-day archipelago by rising sea levels. It reached Taiwan and Near Oceania more recently, within the last approximately 8,000 years. This suggests that global warming and sea-level rises at the end of the Ice Age, 15,000-7,000 years ago, were the main forces shaping modern human diversity in the region.
Molecular Biology and Evolution 07/2008; 25(6):1209-18. · 10.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Alps are one of the most significant geographical barriers in Europe and several isolated Swiss and Italian valleys retain the distinctive Ladin and Romansch languages, alongside the modern majority of Italian and German languages. Linguistically, Ladin belongs to the Romance languages, but some studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have suggested a major Middle Eastern component to their genealogical origin. Furthermore, an observed high degree of within-population diversity has been interpreted as reflecting long-standing differentiation from other European populations and the absence of a major bottleneck in Ladin population history. To explore these issues further, we examined Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in two samples of Ladin speakers, two samples of German speakers and one sample of metropolitan Italian speakers. Our results (1) indicate reduced diversity in the Ladin-speaking and isolated German-speaking populations when compared to a sample of metropolitan Italian speakers, (2) fail to identify haplotypes that are rare in other European populations that other researchers have identified, and (3) indicate different Middle Eastern components to Ladin ancestry in different localities. These new results, in combination with Bayesian estimation of demographic parameters of interest (population size, population growth rate, and Palaeolithic/Neolithic admixture proportions) and phylogeographic analysis, suggest that the Ladin groups under study are small genetically isolated populations (subject to strong genetic drift), having a predominantly European ancestry, and in one locality, may have a greater Palaeolithic component to that ancestry than their neighbours.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 02/2008; 16(1):124-34. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) mutation rates, 15 loci (i.e., DYS19, DYS389 I/II, DYS390, and DYS393; DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, and DYS385; DYS391, DYS392, YCA II, and DXYS156) were analyzed in a sample of 1,029 father/son pairs from Westphalia, northwestern Germany. Among 15,435 meiotic allele transfers, 32 mutations were observed; thus, the mutation rate across all 15 Y-STR loci was 2.1 x 10(-3) per locus (95% C.I.: 1.5-3.0 x 10(-3)). With the exception of a three-repeat mutation at DYS385, all remaining mutations were single repeat mutations. Repeat losses were more frequent than gains (20:12), and the mutation rate appeared to increase with age. The Y haplogroups that were detected in the individuals showing a mutation reflect the haplogroup distribution in the Westphalian population. Additionally, the correlation of surnames and haplotypes was tested: Only 49 surnames occurred more than once, and only two men with the same rare surname shared the same haplotype. All other men with identical surnames carried different haplotypes.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 10/2007; 121(5):359-63. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Published and new samples of Aboriginal Australians and Melanesians were analyzed for mtDNA (n=172) and Y variation (n=522), and the resulting profiles were compared with the branches known so far within the global mtDNA and the Y chromosome tree. (i) All Australian lineages are confirmed to fall within the mitochondrial founder branches M and N and the Y chromosomal founders C and F, which are associated with the exodus of modern humans from Africa approximately 50-70,000 years ago. The analysis reveals no evidence for any archaic maternal or paternal lineages in Australians, despite some suggestively robust features in the Australian fossil record, thus weakening the argument for continuity with any earlier Homo erectus populations in Southeast Asia. (ii) The tree of complete mtDNA sequences shows that Aboriginal Australians are most closely related to the autochthonous populations of New Guinea/Melanesia, indicating that prehistoric Australia and New Guinea were occupied initially by one and the same Palaeolithic colonization event approximately 50,000 years ago, in agreement with current archaeological evidence. (iii) The deep mtDNA and Y chromosomal branching patterns between Australia and most other populations around the Indian Ocean point to a considerable isolation after the initial arrival. (iv) We detect only minor secondary gene flow into Australia, and this could have taken place before the land bridge between Australia and New Guinea was submerged approximately 8,000 years ago, thus calling into question that certain significant developments in later Australian prehistory (the emergence of a backed-blade lithic industry, and the linguistic dichotomy) were externally motivated.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2007; 104(21):8726-30. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only approximately 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2007; 80(1):29-43. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of mitochondrial type N1a in Central European Neolithic skeletons at a high frequency enabled us to answer the question of whether the modern population is maternally descended from the early farmers instead of addressing the traditional question of the origin of early European farmers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ancestry of modern Europeans is a subject of debate among geneticists,
archaeologists, and anthropologists. A crucial question is the extent to which
Europeans are descended from the first European farmers in the Neolithic Age
7500 years ago or from Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were present in Europe
since 40,000 years ago. Here we present an analysis of ancient DNA from early
European farmers. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of
maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 24 out of 57 Neolithic
skeletons from various locations in Germany, Austria, and Hungary. We found
that 25% of the Neolithic farmers had one characteristic mtDNA type and that
this type formerly was widespread among Neolithic farmers in Central Europe.
Europeans today have a 150-times lower frequency (0.2%) of this mtDNA type,
revealing that these first Neolithic farmers did not have a strong genetic influence
on modern European female lineages. Our finding lends weight to a proposed
Paleolithic ancestry for modern Europeans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celtic languages are now spoken only on the Atlantic facade of Europe, mainly in Britain and Ireland, but were spoken more widely in western and central Europe until the collapse of the Roman Empire in the first millennium a.d. It has been common to couple archaeological evidence for the expansion of Iron Age elites in central Europe with the dispersal of these languages and of Celtic ethnicity and to posit a central European "homeland" for the Celtic peoples. More recently, however, archaeologists have questioned this "migrationist" view of Celtic ethnogenesis. The proposition of a central European ancestry should be testable by examining the distribution of genetic markers; however, although Y-chromosome patterns in Atlantic Europe show little evidence of central European influence, there has hitherto been insufficient data to confirm this by use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here, we present both new mtDNA data from Ireland and a novel analysis of a greatly enlarged European mtDNA database. We show that mtDNA lineages, when analyzed in sufficiently large numbers, display patterns significantly similar to a large fraction of both Y-chromosome and autosomal variation. These multiple genetic marker systems indicate a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone, from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia, that dates back to the end of the last Ice Age.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 11/2004; 75(4):693-702. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modern DNA, in particular maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), is now routinely used to trace ancient human migration routes and to obtain absolute dates for genetic prehistory. The errors on absolute genetic dates are often large (50% or more) and depend partly on the inherent evolutionary signal in the DNA data, and partly on our imperfect knowledge of the DNA mutation rate. Despite their imprecision, the genetic dates do provide an independent, consistent and global chronology linking living humans with their ancestors. Combining this chronology with archaeological and climatological data, most of our own mtDNA studies during the past decade strongly imply a major role for palaeoclimate in determining conditions for prehistoric migrations and demographic expansions. This paper summarizes our interpretation of the genetic findings, covering the initial and modest spread of humans within Africa more than 100 ka, the striking re-expansion within Africa 60-80 ka, leading ultimately to the out-of-Africa migration of a single, small group which settled in Australia, Eurasia and America during windows of opportunity at least partly dictated by fluctuations in sea-levels and climatic conditions.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 03/2004; 359(1442):255-64; discussion 264. · 6.23 Impact Factor