[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An obstructed biliary system is usually drained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and when this is unsuccessful, the standard alternative technique is percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Surgical biliary bypass may also be required. In recent years, endosonography has transformed from a solely diagnostic procedure to one with therapeutic capabilities. Endosonography-guided biliary drainage is now being performed as an alternative to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. This is an evolving field, with challenges that must be addressed before it can become a routine clinical practice. This review summarises the current status of endosonography-guided biliary drainage.
Singapore medical journal 10/2010; 51(10):762-6. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sonazoid is a new second-generation microbubble contrast for ultrasonography. In this pilot study, the diagnostic role of contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) with Sonazoid was prospectively evaluated in preoperative T-staging of pancreaticobiliary malignancies.
Patients with suspected pancreaticobiliary malignancies underwent CH-EUS by a single examiner. After the lesions were observed carefully with conventional harmonic imaging EUS (H-EUS), CH-EUS was performed with intravenous injection of Sonazoid. A reviewer who was blinded reviewed the recordings of H-EUS and CH-EUS and assessed the T-staging. The accuracy of H-EUS and CH-EUS for T-staging was compared to the results of surgical histopathology in patients who underwent surgery.
Twenty-six patients underwent surgical resection and could be included in the study. The final diagnosis were pancreatic cancer in 11, bile duct cancer in 7, gallbladder cancer in 4 and ampullary cancer in 4. The overall accuracy of H-EUS and CH-EUS for T-staging were 69.2 (18/26) and 92.4% (24/26), respectively (p < 0.05). There were disagreement in six cases between H-EUS and CH-EUS. CH-EUS staged correctly in all of these six cases, whereas H-EUS misdiagnosed the depth of invasion in one case of gallbladder cancer and one case of ampullary cancer, and invasion of portal vein in two cases of pancreatic cancer and two cases of bile duct cancer.
The depth of invasion of biliary cancer and vascular invasion of pancreatic and biliary cancer could be demonstrated more clearly with CH-EUS compared to H-EUS. CH-EUS has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative T-staging of pancreaticobiliary malignancies.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2010; 45(6):732-8. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Asia, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection varies markedly in different countries. Higher prevalence rates are found in developing Asian countries while lower rates have been reported in more industrialized and developed countries. Within a country, the seroprevalence rates may vary between distinct geographic regions. H. pylori infection is an important etiological factor for the occurrence of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma. The incidence rate of gastric adenocarcinoma in Asia tends to mirror the seroprevalence rate of H. pylori infection; however, there are populations with high seroprevalence rates of H. pylori infection that paradoxically have low incidence rates of gastric adenocarcinoma. These diverse clinical outcomes are related to bacterial virulence factors, concomitant environmental factors, host susceptibility and immune response. This review summarizes the current epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Asia and analyzes these data in the context of gastric cancer epidemiology.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2010; 25(3):479-86. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) constitutes the majority of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophageal pH monitoring is useful in distinguishing patients with NERD from functional heartburn. The gastroenterologist often faces the dilemma of choosing the most appropriate investigative modality. The wireless Bravo capsule allows prolonged 48 hour monitoring with improved patient tolerance, but concerns regarding its reduced sensitivity compared to conventional pH catheter have been raised. We compared the prevalence of high esophageal acid exposure and positive symptom correlation profiles (using the symptom index [SI] and symptom association probability [SAP]) in patients who underwent Bravo compared to patients who underwent conventional pH catheter, and evaluated the efficacy of Bravo monitoring in a multiracial Asian cohort.
Retrospective analysis of all pH studies performed between January 2004 and February 2009 for patients with persistent reflux symptoms and a normal gastroscopy.
66 (27 Male, 42.4 +/- 13.4 years) and 55 (24 Male, 47.1 +/- 13.3 years) patients underwent wireless and pH catheter evaluation respectively. "True NERD" (abnormal acid exposure) was diagnosed in 26 (39.4%) and 20 (36.4%) patients (pNS) while "acid-sensitive esophagus" (SI > or = 50% and/or SAP > or = 95%) occurred in 14 (21.2%) and 12 (21.8%) patients (pNS) using the wireless and pH catheter respectively. Extended recording time with Bravo led to an incremental diagnostic yield of 30%.
The wireless capsule was well tolerated. The diagnostic yield was similar using both modalities. With the increasing availability of impedance-pH technology, it is uncertain if devices that detect only acid-reflux events will be surpassed.
Journal of Digestive Diseases 02/2010; 11(1):19-27. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The overall prognosis of gastric cancer is generally poor due to late presentation and diagnosis. When detected early, the prognosis for gastric cancer is excellent, and curative endoscopic resection may be possible, without the need for surgery. Careful endoscopic examination is important so as to avoid missed lesions. Endoscopic resection, especially with the technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection, is a viable alternative to surgery for the curative treatment of early gastric cancer, with similar long term results, as long as strict inclusion criteria are adhered to.
Singapore medical journal 02/2010; 51(2):93-100. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Asia-Pacific Consensus Conference was convened to review and synthesize the most current information on Helicobacter pylori management so as to update the previously published regional guidelines. The group recognized that in addition to long-established indications, such as peptic ulcer disease, early mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma and family history of gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication was also indicated for H. pylori infected patients with functional dyspepsia, in those receiving long-term maintenance proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for gastroesophageal reflux disease, and in cases of unexplained iron deficiency anemia or idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In addition, a population 'test and treat' strategy for H. pylori infection in communities with high incidence of gastric cancer was considered to be an effective strategy for gastric cancer prevention. It was recommended that H. pylori infection should be tested for and eradicated prior to long-term aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy in patients at high risk for ulcers and ulcer-related complications. In Asia, the currently recommended first-line therapy for H. pylori infection is PPI-based triple therapy with amoxicillin/metronidazole and clarithromycin for 7 days, while bismuth-based quadruple therapy is an effective alternative. There appears to be an increasing rate of resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole in parts of Asia, leading to reduced efficacy of PPI-based triple therapy. There are insufficient data to recommend sequential therapy as an alternative first-line therapy in Asia. Salvage therapies that can be used include: (i) standard triple therapy that has not been previously used; (ii) bismuth-based quadruple therapy; (iii) levofloxacin-based triple therapy; and (iv) rifabutin-based triple therapy. Both CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and cigarette smoking can influence future H. pylori eradication rates.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2009; 24(10):1587-600. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of endoscopic drainage and endoscopic necrosectomy in the management of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collection.
The clinical data of patients with symptomatic pancreatic fluid collection referred for endoscopic drainage were captured prospectively and analyzed. Pancreatic duct disruption was treated with stenting. Endosonography-guided transmural drainage and endoscopic necrosectomy were performed when indicated.
Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 53.7 years; range 23-82 years) underwent endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collections (pseudocysts: six; abscesses: six; infected walled-off necrosis: three). Pancreatic duct fistulas were present in 13 patients. The drainage techniques used were: (i) transpapillary drainage; five; (ii) transmural drainage; two (these two patients had no pancreatic duct fistulas); and (iii) combined transpapillary and transmural drainage; eight. An additional transgastric endoscopic necrosectomy was performed in five patients. The endoscopic treatment was successful in all cases. The only complication was asymptomatic pneumo-peritoneum that occurred in one patient. Combined transpapillary and transmural drainage led to the faster resolution of the fluid collection compared to transpapillary drainage (75.6 vs 147 days, P = 0.03). No recurrence occurred over a mean follow up of 486 days.
Endoscopic drainage and endoscopic necrosectomy are safe and effective techniques for the treatment of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collection.
Journal of Digestive Diseases 09/2009; 10(3):213-24. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hot saline may be potentially useful for inducing necrosis of pancreatic tissue. However, the local and systemic effects are largely unknown. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of EUS-guided injection of hot saline into the pancreas in the porcine model.
Boiling hot saline was injected into the tail of normal porcine pancreas under EUS guidance in six pigs via a transgastric approach. Three pigs were killed 4 hours later to study the acute effect of the hot saline injection (acute study). The remaining three pigs were killed after 7 days of clinical observation (survival study).
Injection of 5 mL, 2 mL and 1 mL of hot saline produced localized necrosis (7 - 10 mm) of pancreatic tissue in the acute study. However, there was pooling of hot saline on the surface of the pancreas when 5mL was injected. On the basis of the results of the acute study, the volume of hot saline injected in the survival study was 1 mL. One milliliter of hot saline produced localized or sporadic necrosis of pancreatic tissue without any signs of pancreatitis in all three pigs in the survival study; hot saline was observed to pool on the pancreatic surface of one pig. There was no histological evidence of necrosis in the pancreatic tissue adjacent to the pooled hot saline in either the acute or the survival study.
EUS-guided hot saline injection of pancreatic tissue in the porcine model was technically successful and led to localized necrosis of pancreatic tissue without any sign of pancreatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two consecutive female patients presented with progressive jaundice, epigastric pain and weight loss. Cross-sectional imaging with computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging did not show any mass lesions whereas magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed common bile duct strictures. Both patients were then referred for endosonographic evaluation. Endoscopic ultrasound showed occult pancreatic head masses in both cases and endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Both patients then successfully underwent endoscopic palliation with endoscopic ultrasound guided celiac plexus neurolysis and insertion of self expandable metallic biliary stents. This case is reported to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of endoscopic ultrasound in the management of occult pancreatic head cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound is useful in the management of pancreatic cancer. It can detect occult pancreatic lesions, provide tissue diagnosis and facilitate pain palliation.