[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To promote glucose uptake into fat and muscle cells, insulin causes the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface. Previous data support a model in which TUG traps GLUT4-containing vesicles and tethers them intracellularly in unstimulated cells and in which insulin mobilizes this pool of vesicles by releasing this tether. Here we show that TUG undergoes site-specific endoproteolytic cleavage, which separates a GLUT4-binding, N-terminal region of TUG from a C-terminal region previously suggested to bind an intracellular anchor. Cleavage is accelerated by insulin stimulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is highly dependent upon adipocyte differentiation. The N-terminal TUG cleavage product has properties of a novel 18-kDa ubiquitin-like modifier, which we call TUGUL. The C-terminal product is observed at the expected size of 42 kDa and also as a 54-kDa form that is released from membranes into the cytosol. In transfected cells, intact TUG links GLUT4 to PIST and also binds Golgin-160 through its C-terminal region. PIST is an effector of TC10α, a GTPase previously shown to transmit an insulin signal required for GLUT4 translocation, and we show using RNAi that TC10α is required for TUG proteolytic processing. Finally, we demonstrate that a cleavage-resistant form of TUG does not support highly insulin-responsive GLUT4 translocation or glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Together with previous results, these data support a model whereby insulin stimulates TUG cleavage to liberate GLUT4 storage vesicles from the Golgi matrix, which promotes GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface and enhances glucose uptake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin released by the beta-cell is thought to act locally to regulate glucagon secretion. The possibility that insulin might also act centrally to modulate islet glucagon secretion has received little attention.
Initially the counterregulatory response to identical hypoglycemia was compared during intravenous insulin and phloridzin infusion in awake chronically catheterized nondiabetic rats. To explore whether the disparate glucagon responses seen were in part due to changes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) exposure to insulin, bilateral guide cannulas were inserted to the level of the VMH and 8 days later rats received a VMH microinjection of either 1) anti-insulin affibody, 2) control affibody, 3) artificial extracellular fluid, 4) insulin (50 microU), 5) insulin receptor antagonist (S961), or 6) anti-insulin affibody plus a gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor agonist muscimol, prior to a hypoglycemic clamp or under baseline conditions.
As expected, insulin-induced hypoglycemia produced a threefold increase in plasma glucagon. However, the glucagon response was fourfold to fivefold greater when circulating insulin did not increase, despite equivalent hypoglycemia and C-peptide suppression. In contrast, epinephrine responses were not altered. The phloridzin-hypoglycemia induced glucagon increase was attenuated (40%) by VMH insulin microinjection. Conversely, local VMH blockade of insulin amplified glucagon twofold to threefold during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Furthermore, local blockade of basal insulin levels or insulin receptors within the VMH caused an immediate twofold increase in fasting glucagon levels that was prevented by coinjection to the VMH of a GABA(A) receptor agonist.
Together, these data suggest that insulin's inhibitory effect on alpha-cell glucagon release is in part mediated at the level of the VMH under both normoglycemic and hypoglycemic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin regulates glucose uptake and storage in peripheral tissues, and has been shown to act within the hypothalamus to acutely regulate food intake and metabolism. The machinery for transduction of insulin signaling is also present in other brain areas, particularly in the hippocampus, but a physiological role for brain insulin outside the hypothalamus has not been established. Recent studies suggest that insulin may be able to modulate cognitive functions including memory. Here we report that local delivery of insulin to the rat hippocampus enhances spatial memory, in a PI-3-kinase dependent manner, and that intrahippocampal insulin also increases local glycolytic metabolism. Selective blockade of endogenous intrahippocampal insulin signaling impairs memory performance. Further, a rodent model of type 2 diabetes mellitus produced by a high-fat diet impairs basal cognitive function and attenuates both cognitive and metabolic responses to hippocampal insulin administration. Our data demonstrate that insulin is required for optimal hippocampal memory processing. Insulin resistance within the telencephalon may underlie the cognitive deficits commonly reported to accompany type 2 diabetes.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 02/2010; 93(4):546-53. DOI:10.1016/j.nlm.2010.02.002 · 3.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 beta (PGC-1beta) is known to be a transcriptional coactivator for SREBP-1, the master regulator of hepatic lipogenesis. Here, we evaluated the role of PGC-1beta in the pathogenesis of fructose-induced insulin resistance by using an antisense oligonucletoide (ASO) to knockdown PGC-1beta in liver and adipose tissue. PGC-1beta ASO improved the metabolic phenotype induced by fructose feeding by reducing expression of SREBP-1 and downstream lipogenic genes in liver. PGC-1beta ASO also reversed hepatic insulin resistance induced by fructose in both basal and insulin-stimulated states. Furthermore, PGC-1beta ASO increased insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal due to a threefold increase in glucose uptake in white adipose tissue. These data support an important role for PGC-1beta in the pathogenesis of fructose-induced insulin resistance and suggest that PGC-1beta inhibition may be a therapeutic target for treatment of NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance associated with increased de novo lipogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by redistributing GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular membranes to the cell surface. We previously proposed that, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TUG retains GLUT4 within unstimulated cells and insulin mobilizes this retained GLUT4 by stimulating its dissociation from TUG. Yet the relative importance of this action in the overall control of glucose uptake remains uncertain. Here we report that transient, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of TUG causes GLUT4 translocation and enhances glucose uptake in unstimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, similar to insulin. Stable TUG depletion or expression of a dominant negative fragment likewise stimulates GLUT4 redistribution and glucose uptake, and insulin causes a 2-fold further increase. Microscopy shows that TUG governs the accumulation of GLUT4 in perinuclear membranes distinct from endosomes and indicates that it is this pool of GLUT4 that is mobilized by TUG disruption. Interestingly, in addition to translocating GLUT4 and enhancing glucose uptake, TUG disruption appears to accelerate the degradation of GLUT4 in lysosomes. Finally, we find that TUG binds directly and specifically to a large intracellular loop in GLUT4. Together, these findings demonstrate that TUG is required to retain GLUT4 intracellularly in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the absence of insulin and further implicate the insulin-stimulated dissociation of TUG and GLUT4 as an important action by which insulin stimulates glucose uptake.