Leena Taittonen

University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Northern Savo, Finland

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Publications (74)499.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, P<0.001) and diastolic (r=0.35 versus 0.17, P<0.001) blood pressure. In addition, 2 abnormal childhood/youth blood pressure observations increased the prediction of hypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth.
    Hypertension 11/2015; DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06395 · 6.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Age, education, and sex associate with cognitive performance. We investigated associations between age, sex, education, and cognitive performance in young or middle-aged adults and evaluated data reduction methods to optimally capture cognitive performance in our population-based data. Method: This study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The 3,596 randomly selected subjects (aged 3-18 years in 1980) have been followed up for 30 years. In 2011, a computer-based cognitive testing battery (the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery [CANTAB]) was used to assess several cognitive domains. Principal component analysis, categorical and standardized classifications were applied to the cognitive data. Results: Among 34- to 49-year-old participants, cognitive performance declined with age, while education associated with better cognitive functions in several cognitive domains. Men had higher performance on all cognitive domains except visual or episodic memory, in which women outperformed men. The results were similar regardless of the data reduction method used. Conclusions: The associations between sex, age, education, and cognitive performance are already apparent in young adulthood or middle age. Principal component analyses, categorical and standardized classifications are useful tools to analyze CANTAB cognitive data. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Neuropsychology 11/2015; DOI:10.1037/neu0000239 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying childhood determinants of adult cardiometabolic disease would facilitate early-life interventions. There are few longitudinal data on the contribution of childhood infections. Therefore, we investigated whether hospitalization with childhood infection is associated with adult anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in a large, well-phenotyped longitudinal cohort. A total of 1376 subjects from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, aged 3 to 9 years at baseline (1980), who had lifetime data from birth onward on infection-related hospitalization (IRH) had repeated assessments through childhood and adolescence and at least once in adulthood (age 30-45 years in 2001-2011). Early childhood (<5 years), childhood/adolescence (5-18 years), adult (>18 years), and total lifetime IRHs were related to adiposity, BMI, and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Analyses were adjusted for childhood and adulthood risk factors and potential confounders. Early-childhood IRH correlated with adverse adult but not childhood metabolic variables: increased BMI (P = .02) and metabolic syndrome (risk ratio: 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.35; P = .03), adjusted for age, gender, birth weight, childhood BMI and other risk factors, and family income. The age at which differences in adult BMI became persistent was related to age of IRH in childhood. The greatest increase in adult BMI occurred in those with >1 childhood IRH. Childhood IRH was independently associated with adverse adult metabolic variables. This finding suggests that infections and/or their treatment in childhood may contribute to causal pathways leading to adult cardiometabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2015; 136(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2015-0825 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Population and sex-specific reference limits produced with modern ultrasound equipment are needed for accurate clinical echocardiography diagnostics. We report a comprehensive set of reference limits of cardiac function and dimensions in a group of young and middle-aged Finnish men and women produced by the recommendations of European Society of Echocardiography and American Society of Cardiology. Cardiac structure and function was studied in a standardized comprehensive echocardiographic examination in 1,079 healthy volunteers without cardiovascular diseases or major known risk factors participating in the population-based Young Finns study (444 men and 635 women, age range 34 and 49 years). We present sex-specific reference values for echocardiographic parameters reflecting cardiac structure (ventricular and atrial dimensions and volumes, left ventricular wall thickness and mass, aortic root) and function. From the 86 measured parameters, only 7 were not statistically significantly different between sexes. The Young Finns study provides echocardiographic reference ranges for cardiac structure and function quantification that can be utilized to enhance the accuracy or echocardiography diagnostics. The results emphasize the need for sex-specific assessment for most echocardiographic parameters. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Echocardiography 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/echo.13025 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both fetal growth restriction and prematurity have been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, their combined effects on adult BP are unclear. Our analyses were based on 1756 participants in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had information on birth weight and gestational age, together with longitudinal data on cardiovascular risk markers from age 3-18 years in 1980 to age 34-49 years in 2011. Three groups were defined by birth data: those born at term (term); those born preterm (<37 weeks) with an appropriate birth weight (>-1 SD z score according to national sex and gestational week-stratified data) for gestational age (preterm appropriate birth weight for gestational age); and those born preterm with low birth weight (≤-1 SD z score) for gestational age [preterm small birth weight for gestational age (SGA)]. There were no differences between the three groups in BP at baseline, but at the 31-year follow-up (mean age 41 years), mean SBP in the preterm SGA group was 7.2 mmHg (95% confidence interval = 2.3-12.1 mmHg, P = 0.004) higher than the preterm appropriate birth weight for gestational age group and 7.3 mmHg (95% confidence interval = 5.2-9.4 mmHg, P < 0.0001) higher than the term group, adjusted for age and sex. In addition, preterm SGA individuals had a higher prevalence of adult hypertension compared with those born at term (36.9 vs. 25.4%; age, sex, and risk factors adjusted P = 0.006). These longitudinal data suggest that elevated BP levels associated with prematurity are more likely to be present in those with fetal growth restriction.
    Journal of Hypertension 08/2015; 33(8). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000612 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -The association between passive smoking exposure in childhood and adverse cardiovascular health in adulthood is not well understood. Using a 26-year follow-up study, we examined if childhood exposure to passive smoking was associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque in young adults. -Participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (N=2,448). Information on childhood exposure to parental smoking was collected in 1980 and 1983. Carotid ultrasound data was collected in adulthood in 2001 or 2007. Childhood serum cotinine levels from 1980 were measured from frozen samples in 2014 (N=1,578). The proportion of children with non-detectable cotinine levels was highest among households where neither parent smoked (84%), decreased in households where one parent smoked (62%), and was lowest among households where both parents smoked (43%). Irrespective of adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, the relative risk (RR) of developing carotid plaque in adulthood increased among those where one or both parents smoked (RR=1.7, 95%CI=1.0-2.8, P=0.04). Although children whose parents exercised good "smoking hygiene" (smoking parents whose children had non-detectable cotinine levels) had increased risk of carotid plaque compared with non-smoking parents (RR=1.6, 95%CI=0.6-4.0, P=0.34), children of smoking parents with poor smoking hygiene (smoking parents whose children had detectable serum cotinine levels) had substantially increased risk of plaque as adults (RR=4.0, 95%CI=1.7-9.8, P=0.002). -Children of parents that smoke have increased risk of developing carotid atherosclerotic plaque in adulthood. However, parents who exercise good smoking hygiene can lessen their child's risk of developing plaque.
    Circulation 03/2015; 131(14). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013485 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Heart Association recently defined 7 ideal health behaviors and factors that can be used to monitor ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) over time. These relate to smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood glucose and total cholesterol. Associations between repeated measures of ICH across the life-course with outcomes of subclinical atherosclerosis in adult life have not been reported. The sample comprised 1465 children and young adults aged 12 to 24years (mean age 17.5years) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort. Participants were followed-up for 21years since baseline (1986) and had complete ICH data available at baseline and follow-up. Average lifetime ICH index was associated with reduced risk of coronary artery calcification (CAC) (P=0.0004), high-risk carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (P=0.0005) and high-risk carotid distensibility (<0.0001) in middle age. Participants with persistently low ICH status (lower than the median), as compared with persons with persistently high ICH status (higher than the median), had an increased risk of CAC (P=0.02), high-risk IMT (P=0.02), and high-risk distensibility (P<0.0001). Participants who improved their ICH status from low to high did not have a different risk of CAC (P=0.90), high-risk IMT (P=0.25), or high-risk distensibility (P=0.80) than participants who always had high ICH status. The results show that ICH can be lost and regained, and importantly that regaining of ICH has a beneficial effect on cardiometabolic health. Health care providers should work to improve health behaviors especially in those who have lost ICH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International journal of cardiology 03/2015; 185:186-191. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.03.051 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Low vitamin D levels in adulthood have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Objective: To investigate if low vitamin D levels in childhood are related with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: The analyses included 2148 subjects from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, aged 3-18 years at baseline (in 1980). Subjects were re-examined at age 30-45 years (in 2007). Childhood levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D were measured from stored serum in 2010. Main Outcome Measure: The carotid artery IMT from 2007 was used. Results: When adjusted for age, sex, and childhood risk factors, continuous data of childhood 25-OH vitamin was inversely associated with adulthood carotid IMT levels among females (β ± SE -0.006 ± 0.003, P = 0.03), but not among males (0.001 ± 0.004, P = 0.88). Children with 25-OH vitamin D levels in the lowest quartile (<40 nmol/L) had significantly increased odds of having high-risk IMT (highest decile of common carotid or carotid bulb IMT or carotid plaque) as adults, in analyses adjusted for age, sex and either childhood risk factors (odds ratio 1.70 [95 % CI 1.15-2.31], P = 0.0007) or adult risk factors, including adult vitamin D levels (odds ratio 1.80 [1.30-2.48], P = 0.0004). In sex-specific analyses, these associations were significant both in females and males (P always <0.05). In sensitivity analyses, those with childhood vitamin D levels in the lowest quintile (<37 nmol/L), gave similar results to those using a quartile cut-point. Conclusions: Low 25-OH vitamin D levels in childhood were associated with increased carotid IMT in adulthood.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 02/2015; 100(4):jc20143944. DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-3944 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Fatty liver may have different determinants in normal-weight and in obese individuals. We measured factors associated with fatty liver in 863 normal-weight (BMI < 25) and 1135 overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25) young and middle-aged adults (45% male, age 34-49 years) in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Methods and results: The prevalence of fatty liver detected with ultrasound was 29% in overweight/obese and 5% in normal-weight participants. In overweight/obese, the independent correlates were waist circumference (odds ratio for 1 standard deviation increase = 3.78), alanine transaminase (2.11), BMI (2.00), male sex (1.74), triglycerides (1.44), systolic blood pressure (1.31), fasting insulin (1.23), and physical activity (0.76). In normal weight, the independent correlates included alanine transaminase (3.05), smoking (2.56), systolic blood pressure (1.54), and alcohol intake (1.41). In normal-weight participants, the associations with fatty liver were stronger for alcohol intake and smoking, and weaker for triglycerides, than in overweight/obese participants (P for interaction < 0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence of fatty liver was 29% in overweight/obese and 5% in normal-weight adults. Differences in factors associated with fatty liver were seen between these two groups: alcohol intake and smoking were more strongly and triglycerides more weakly associated in normal-weight than in overweight/obese participants.
    Journal of Hepatology 10/2014; 47(1):1-7. DOI:10.3109/07853890.2014.966752 · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Cardiovascular risk factor levels in 2011 and 4-year changes between 2007 and 2011 were examined using data collected in follow-ups of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Methods: The study population comprised 2063 Finnish adults aged 34-49 years (45% male). Lipid and blood pressure levels, glucose and anthropometry were measured and life style risk factors examined with questionnaires. Results: Mean total cholesterol level in 2011 was 5.19 mmol/l, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol 3.27 mmol/l, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol 1.33 mmol/l, and triglycerides 1.34 mmol/l. Using American Diabetes Association criteria, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was observed in 4.1% and prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or glycated hemoglobin 5.7-6.4%) diagnosed for 33.8% of the participants. Significant changes (P < 0.05) between 2007 and 2011 included an increase in waist circumference (3.3%) in women. In both sexes, systolic (-3.0% in women, -4.0% in men) and diastolic (-3.0% in women, -3.3% in men) blood pressure and triglycerides (-3.4% in women, -6.5% in men) decreased during follow-up. Conclusions: Previously observed favorable trends in ldl-cholesterol levels have leveled off among a sample of young and middle-aged adults in finland triglyceride and blood pressure levels have decreased over one-third of the study population had prediabetes and may be at increased risk for T2D:
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 07/2014; 42(7). DOI:10.1177/1403494814541597 · 1.83 Impact Factor

  • Heart, Lung and Circulation 05/2014; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.hlc.2014.04.027 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Our objective was to assess cardiovascular risk and metabolic complications in adulthood in subjects with or without overweight and metabolic disturbances (i.e., elevated blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high LDL cholesterol) and their combinations as youth.METHODS Using data from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, we examined the utility of four age- and sex-specific youth phenotypes (group I: normal weight, no metabolic disturbances; group II: normal weight, one or more metabolic disturbances; group III: overweight/obese, no metabolic disturbances; group IV: overweight/obese, one or more metabolic disturbances) in predicting adult high carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study included 1,617 participants 9-24 years of age at baseline who were followed-up 21-25 years later.RESULTSIMT (mean ± SEM) was higher among participants in groups II (0.627 ± 0.005 mm, P = 0.05), III (0.647 ± 0.010 mm, P = 0.005), and IV (0.670 ± 0.010 mm, P < 0.0001) compared with group I (0.616 ± 0.003 mm). In addition, subjects in group IV had significantly higher IMT compared with those in group II (P = 0.002). Participants in groups II, III, and IV were at increased risk of the development of MetS in adulthood compared with those in the control group. For group II participants, the difference was attenuated after risk factor adjustments. Additionally, participants in group III and IV were at increased risk of the development of T2DM compared with those in groups I and II.CONCLUSIONS While metabolic risk factors associated with overweight increase future risk for MetS, T2DM, and increased IMT, overweight in isolation is also a risk factor. Therefore, overweight should be prevented and treated wherever possible.
    Diabetes care 04/2014; 37(7). DOI:10.2337/dc14-0008 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 03/2014; 34(5). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.302934 · 6.00 Impact Factor

  • Heart, Lung and Circulation 01/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • L Taittonen · Ph Korhonen · O Palomäki · T Luukkaala · O Tammela ·
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    ABSTRACT: To study the opinions of paediatric and obstetric personnel on the perinatal treatment and delivery outcome of infants from 22(+0) to 27(+6) weeks' gestation. An email questionnaire was sent to 2,963 professionals in 32 maternity hospitals in Finland. The questionnaire survey was completed by 856 (28%) professionals in 30 hospitals. Opinions on outcome were most pessimistic if the infant was very premature. More than a third (37%) assumed no survival at the earliest gestational age, but none dismissed the possibility at 26 weeks' gestation. Paediatric professionals took a more active approach to the treatment of a premature birth and baby than obstetric personnel. Opinions on treatment activity were based firstly on what was best for the baby and secondly on experience. Gynaecologists reported discussing matters regarding premature birth with the parents more often than paediatricians and were much more likely to be influenced by these discussions. Paediatric personnel showed a more positive attitude and a more active approach to extremely premature deliveries and babies than obstetric personnel. There would appear to be some inconsistency between prenatal counselling and treatment activity after birth at the limit of viability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Paediatrica 11/2013; 103(3). DOI:10.1111/apa.12498 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP) levels in childhood have been associated with subsequent atherosclerosis. However, it is uncertain whether this risk is attenuated in individuals who acquire normal BP by adulthood. The present study examined the effect of child and adult BP levels on carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in adulthood. Methods and results: The cohort consisted of 4210 participants from 4 prospective studies (mean follow-up, 23 years). Childhood elevated BP was defined according to the tables from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. In adulthood, BP was classified as elevated for individuals with systolic BP ≥120 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg or with self-reported use of antihypertensive medications. Carotid artery IMT was measured in the left common carotid artery. High IMT was defined as an IMT ≥90th percentile according to age-, sex-, race-, and cohort-specific levels. Individuals with persistently elevated BP and individuals with normal childhood BP, but elevated adult BP had increased risk of high carotid artery IMT (relative risk [95% confidence interval]) 1.82[1.47-2.38] and 1.57[1.22-2.02], respectively) in comparison with individuals with normal child and adult BP. In contrast, individuals with elevated BP as children but not as adults did not have significantly increased risk (1.24[0.92-1.67]). In addition, these individuals had a lower risk of increased carotid artery IMT (0.66[0.50-0.88]) in compared with those with persistently elevated BP. The results were consistent when controlling for age, sex, and adiposity and when different BP definitions were applied. Conclusions: Individuals with persistently elevated BP from childhood to adulthood had increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis. This risk was reduced if elevated BP during childhood resolved by adulthood.
    Circulation 06/2013; 128(3). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.001614 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate whether the body mass index (BMI) of a child's mother is associated with an increased future risk of type 2 diabetes, independent of genetic risk or childhood metabolic, behavioral, and environmental factors. Study design: The analyses were based on the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study including 1835 individuals aged 3-18 years at baseline with data on maternal BMI, childhood metabolic factors, as well as 34 newly identified type 2 diabetes susceptibility alleles. These subjects were then followed-up over 21-27 years. Results: Maternal BMI (OR for 1-SD increase 1.54 [95% CI 1.12-2.11], P = .008) and child's systolic blood pressure (1.54 [1.01-2.35], P = .04) were significantly associated with increased odds for later type 2 diabetes, in a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, type 2 diabetes genetic risk score, childhood BMI, insulin, lipids, dietary factors, socioeconomic status, and mother's age, and history of type 2 diabetes. A risk prediction model, which included maternal BMI status outperformed one which utilized only child's BMI data (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.720 vs 0.623, P = .02). The inclusion of genetic risk score and other baseline risk variables did not additionally improve prediction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.720 vs 0.745, P = .40). Conclusions: Maternal BMI is a useful variable in determining offspring risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2012; 162(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.10.062 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Impaired fetal growth is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. Prevention strategies that can be implemented during adulthood have not been identified. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether habitual omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid intake is associated with the rate of increase of carotid intima-media thickness during adulthood in individuals with impaired fetal growth. DESIGN: This was a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1573 adults in Finland. Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed in 2001 (at ages 24-39 y) and in 2007. Participants were categorized as having had impaired fetal growth (term birth with birth weight <10th percentile for sex or preterm birth with birth weight <25th percentile for gestational age and sex; n = 193) or normal fetal growth (all other participants; n = 1380). Omega-3 fatty acid intake was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire and on the basis of serum fatty acid concentrations. RESULTS: In multivariable models, the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness was inversely associated with dietary omega-3 fatty acids in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04). Similarly, serum omega-3 fatty acid concentrations were inversely associated with the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04) but were not noted in those with normal fetal growth (P = 0.94 and P = 0.26, respectively). CONCLUSION: Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a slower rate of increase in carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2012; 97(1). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.112.044198 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of resolution from metabolic syndrome (MetS) between youth and adulthood on carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Published findings demonstrate that youth with MetS are at increased risk of cardio-metabolic outcomes in adulthood. It is not known whether this risk is attenuated in those who resolve their MetS status. Participants (n = 1,757) from 2 prospective cohort studies were examined as youth (when 9 to 18 years of age) and re-examined 14 to 27 years later. The presence of any 3 components (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, high glucose, high blood pressure, or high body mass index) previously shown to predict adult outcomes defined youth MetS; the harmonized MetS criteria defined adulthood MetS. Participants were classified according to their MetS status at baseline and follow-up and examined for risk of high IMT and T2DM. Those with MetS in youth and adulthood were at 3.4 times the risk (95% confidence interval: 2.4 to 4.9) of high IMT and 12.2 times the risk (95% confidence interval: 6.3 to 23.9) of T2DM in adulthood compared with those that did not have MetS at either time-point, whereas those that had resolved their youth MetS status by adulthood showed similar risk to those that did not have MetS at either time-point (p > 0.20 for all comparisons). Although youth with MetS are at increased risk of adult high IMT and T2DM, these data indicate that the resolution of youth MetS by adulthood can go some way to normalize this risk to levels seen in those who have never had MetS.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2012; 60(17):1631-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.05.056 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to study the associations of childhood lifestyle factors (the frequency of consumption of vegetables, fruit, fish, and meat, butter use on bread, and physical activity) with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. The study cohort consisted of 2,128 individuals, 3-18 years of age at the baseline, with a follow-up time of 27 years. We used the average of lifestyle factor measurements taken in 1980, 1983, and 1986 in the analyses. Childhood dietary factors and physical activity were assessed by self-reported questionnaires, and a harmonized definition of MetS was used as the adult outcome. Childhood vegetable consumption frequency was inversely associated with adult MetS (odds ratio [OR] 0.86 [95% CI 0.77-0.97], P = 0.02) in a multivariable analysis adjusted with age, sex, childhood metabolic risk factors (lipids, systolic blood pressure, insulin, BMI, and C-reactive protein), family history of type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and socioeconomic status. The association remained even after adjustment for adulthood vegetable consumption. Associations with the other childhood lifestyle factors were not found. Of the individual components of MetS, decreased frequency of childhood vegetable consumption predicted high blood pressure (0.88 [0.80-0.98], P = 0.01) and a high triglyceride value (0.88 [0.79-0.99], P = 0.03) after adjustment for the above-mentioned risk factors. Childhood vegetable consumption frequency is inversely associated with MetS in adulthood. Our findings suggest that a higher intake of vegetables in childhood may have a protective effect on MetS in adulthood.
    Diabetes care 07/2012; 35(9):1937-43. DOI:10.2337/dc12-0019 · 8.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
499.45 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University of Eastern Finland
      Kuopio, Northern Savo, Finland
  • 2006-2015
    • Vaasa Central Hospital
      Vaasa, Ostrobothnia, Finland
  • 1996-2015
    • University of Oulu
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Uleoborg, Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland