[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 ms before training and 100 ms after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links.
Vision research 03/2012; 62:93-101. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnic variations in accommodative amplitude (AA) are not uncommon. Accommodation can become reduced in response to short-term wear of first near spectacles. Whether ethnicity has an influence on the magnitude of this adaptation is not well understood. We investigated the impact of first near spectacles on changes in AA and on convergence cross-link interactions in incipient presbyopes of Chinese and Caucasian ethnicities.
Forty-one subjects (22 Caucasians and 19 Chinese) aged 36 to 44 years completed the study. Accommodative stimulus response function, AA, and AC/A and CA/C ratios were measured before and after single vision reading spectacles were used for near tasks over a 2-month period and then again 2 months after discontinuing near spectacle wear.
After wearing reading spectacles for 2 months, the accommodative stimulus response slopes and AC/A and CA/C ratios remained invariant irrespective of ethnicity. The accommodative, but not vergence, bias decreased (p < 0.05). The nearpoint of accommodation shifted distally producing an average decrease in AA of 0.52 D from baseline (p < 0.05). Recovery to near baseline values occurred after discontinuing the reading glasses for 2 months. Differences based on ethnicity were not significant. The baseline AA vs. age plots showed steeper slopes for Chinese than the Caucasian subjects in the sample.
The pattern of adaptation by accommodation and cross-link interactions to short-term first reading spectacles is not influenced by ethnicity.
Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 03/2012; 89(4):435-45. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perisaccadic spatial distortion (PSD) occurs when a target is flashed immediately before the onset of a saccade and it appears displaced in the direction of the saccade. In previous studies, the magnitude of PSD of a single target was affected by multiple experimental parameters, such as the target's luminance and its position relative to the central fixation target. Here we describe a contextual effect in which the magnitude of the PSD for a target was influenced by the synchronous presentation of another target: PSD for simultaneously presented targets was more uniform than when each was presented individually. Perisaccadic compression was ruled out as a causal factor, and the results suggest that both low- and high-level perceptual grouping mechanisms may account for the change in PSD magnitude. We speculate that perceptual grouping could play a key role in preserving shape constancy during saccadic eye movements.
Journal of Vision 01/2012; 12(10). · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate objective measures of the effects of accommodative training of a pseudophakic eye implanted with a Crystalens AT-52SE (eyeonics Inc) intraocular lens (IOL) on reading performance, accommodation, and depth of focus.
Objective dynamic measures of accommodation, pupil size, and depth of focus were quantified from wavefront measures before and after 1 week of accommodative training that began 29 months after implantation of an accommodating IOL in one patient. Depth of focus was estimated from 50% cut-off of peak performance levels for defocus curves that were computed from the image quality metric VSOTF based on ocular wavefront aberrations.
The patient reported improved near vision reading performance after completing the training procedure. After training, there was a shift in conjugate focus in the hyperopic direction, yet the depth of focus increased significantly for near objects. Simulated retinal images and the calculated modulation transfer function of the eye both demonstrated improved quality for near vision after training.
The subjective report of improved near vision after training was correlated with improvement of objective measures. Depth of focus increased for near objects with attempts to accommodate after training. This change was linked to increases in aberrations and pupil size and occurred despite the conjugate focus shifting in the hyperopic direction. These results demonstrate that accommodative training may be useful in improving near vision in patients with accommodating IOLs.
Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 10/2010; 26(10):772-9. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Main sequences, the function describing the relationship between eye movement amplitude and velocity, have been used extensively in oculomotor research as an indicator of first-order dynamics yet it is difficult to find main sequence analyses for accommodative vergence or for disparity vergence in isolation when all mitigating factors have been well controlled and there are no studies in which accommodative vergence and disparity vergence main sequences have been generated for the same group of subjects. The present study measured main sequences in: (1) accommodative vergence with disparity vergence open loop, (2) disparity vergence with accommodation open loop, and (3) combinations of accommodative and disparity vergence. A dynamic AC/A ratio was defined and was found to be similar to the traditional static AC/A ratio. Vergence acceleration was measured for all conditions. A pulse-step model of accommodation and convergence was constructed to interpret the dynamics of the crosslinked interactions between the two systems. The model supports cross-coupling of both the pulse and step components and simulates the primary empirical findings that: (1) disparity vergence has a higher main sequence slope than accommodative vergence, (2) both accommodative and disparity vergence acceleration increase with response amplitude whereas accommodation acceleration does not.
Vision research 08/2010; 50(17):1728-39. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When an object is viewed binocularly, unequal perspective projections of the two eyes' half images (binocular disparity) provide a cue for the sensation of stereo depth. For almost 200 years, binocular disparity has remained synonymous with retinal disparity, which is computed by subtracting the distance of each half image from its respective fovea. However, binocular disparity could also be coded in headcentric instead of retinal coordinates, by combining eye position and retinal image position in each eye and representing disparity as differences between visual directions of half images relative to the head. Although these two disparity-coding schemes suggest very different neural mechanisms, both offer identical predictions for stereopsis in almost every viewing condition, making it difficult to empirically distinguish between them. We designed a novel stimulus that uses perisaccadic spatial distortion to generate inconsistency between headcentric and retinal disparity. Foveal half images flashed asynchronously just before a horizontal saccade have zero retinal disparity, yet they produce a sensation of depth consistent with a nonzero headcentric disparity. Furthermore, this headcentric disparity can cancel and reverse the perceived depth stimulated with nonzero retinal disparity. This is the first demonstration that a coding scheme other than retinal disparity has a role in human stereopsis.
Current biology: CB 07/2010; 20(13):1176-81. · 10.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The “rotating snakes” (Kitoaka 2003) is a well-known illusion in which a static image of a repetitive pattern moves as it is examined during free viewing (the apparent movement ceases after several seconds of stable fixation). We have discovered that it is possible to eliminate this illusion by viewing the image through either a pinhole or defocused by a +2D plus lens.We posit a largely optical, rather than neural, explanation of the effect. The optics of the eye are not uniform over visual space nor stationary over time. Under natural viewing conditions (>3mm pupil) the MTF varies significantly when measured at different visual eccentricities. Fluctuations in accommodation create temporal variations in the magnitude of defocus of the retinal image. Viewing the image through pinholes or a plus lens produces a uniformity in the MTF regardless of eccentricity, and also reduces or eliminates the impact of temporal fluctuation of accommodation on retinal image quality.The “rotating snakes” illusion can be viewed online at http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/~akitaoka/rotsnake.gif.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical restoration of accommodation with accommodating intra-ocular lenses (A-IOLs) presents a complex set of problems involving the design of the prosthetic mechanism. A variety of designs are currently employed that either translate the A-IOL toward the cornea along the sagittal axis, shear two lens components laterally, or deform lens shape to change dioptric power of the eye during attempts to accommodate. Effective biomechanical properties (elasticity and viscosity) of these lenses depend on both material properties and structural design of the A-IOL. Inevitable mismatches between the neuromuscular control of accommodation and the effective biomechanical properties of the prosthetic lens could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation; however, optimal dynamic responses may possibly be restored by neural recalibration. A model of dynamic accommodation is used to predict the consequences of these mismatches on dynamic accommodation, and reverse engineering is used to test the feasibility of neuromuscular recalibration. Empirical measures verify that neuromuscular adaptation of dynamic accommodation is possible in response to optically simulated increases and decreases of ocular-lens stiffness. Other design issues for A-IOLs include stability of optical properties, aberrations and image quality, and interactions of restored accommodation with binocular eye alignment (the near response).
Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 09/2009; 86(9):E1028-41. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binocular eye alignment is continuously recalibrated and readjusted to maintain a single view of the world. Once this process is complete, visual feedback is no longer required to maintain alignment. Rather, alignment is maintained through non-visual or extra-retinal information. The calibration process can be demonstrated by producing a cross-coupling or association between vertical vergence and another type of eye movement. This paper presents a neural net model of a plausible biological mechanism that could be involved with maintaining alignment in the context of vertical vergence. The model couples conjugate eye-position-sensitive neurons with a vertical vergence response. Weight training of the input neurons is accomplished with a modified Hebbian rule that minimizes the vertical eye alignment error during adaptation to vertical disparities. The experimental results are simulated with a class of input neurons that has randomly distributed sensitivities and thresholds similar to those found in premotor sites in the brainstem. For simultaneous adaptation to three vertical disparities, the weighted inputs of the input class are reshaped such that the inputs qualitatively obtain a sensitivity - threshold relationship similar to that of motoneurons in the brainstem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The near response is composed of cross-coupled interactions between convergence and other distance-related oculomotor responses including accommodation, vertical vergence, and cyclovergence. The cross-coupling interactions are analogous to the body postural reflexes that maintain balance. Near-response couplings guide involuntary motor responses during voluntary shifts of distance and direction of gaze without feedback from defocus or retinal-image disparity. They optimize the disparity stimulus for stereoscopic depth perception and can be modified by optically induced sensory demands placed on binocular vision. In natural viewing conditions, the near response is determined by passive orbital mechanics and active-adaptable tonic components. For example, the normal coupling of vertical vergence with convergence in tertiary gaze is partly a byproduct of passive orbital mechanics. Both, adapted changes of vertical vergence in response to anisophoria, produced by unequal ocular magnification (aniseikonia), and adapted changes in the orientation of Listing's plane in response to torsional disparities can be achieved by a combination of passive orbital mechanics and neural adjustments for the control of the vertical vergence and cyclovergence. Adaptive adjustments are coupled with gaze direction, convergence angle, and head tilt. Several adaptation studies suggest that it is possible to achieve non-linear changes in the coupling of both vertical vergence and cyclovergence with gaze direction. This coupling can be achieved with changes in neural control signals of ocular elevator muscles that are cross-coupled with both convergence and direction of tertiary gaze. These linear and non-linear coupling interactions can be adapted to compensate for (1) anisophoria induced by spectacle corrections for anisometropia, (2) accommodative esotropia, (3) convergence excess and insufficiency, and (4) non-concomitant deviations with ocular torticollis associated with trochlear palsy. The adaptable near-response couplings form the basis of an area of orthoptics that optimizes visual performance by facilitating our natural ability to calibrate neural pathways underlying binocular postural reflexes.
Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 07/2009; 86(7):E788-802. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accommodation and convergence can adapt to blur and disparity stimuli and to age-related changes in accommodative amplitude. Does this ability decline with age? The authors investigated short-term adaptation to first near-spectacle reading correction on the accommodative-stimulus response (ASR) function, accommodative amplitude (AA), AC/A, and CA/C ratios in a pre-presbyopic and an incipient presbyopic population and determined whether changes in these functions recovered after discontinuation of the use of near spectacles.
Thirty subjects with normal vision participated; their ages ranged from 21 to 30 years (n = 15) and 38 to 44 years (n = 15). Oculomotor functions were measured before and after single-vision reading spectacles were worn for near tasks over a 2-month period and then 2 months after the use of near spectacles was discontinued.
The slope of the ASR function and the AC/A and CA/C ratios did not change significantly after near spectacles were worn. There was a hyperopic shift of the ASR function that significantly reduced the near point of accommodation (NPA) and lowered the far-point refraction. These changes were age invariant and did not recover after 2 months of discontinuation of near spectacle wear.
These results imply that the NPA may be enhanced normally by tonic bias of accommodation that elevates the entire ASR function and produces myopic refraction bias. When this bias relaxes after reading spectacles are worn, there is a hyperopic shift of the refractive state and a reduction of the NPA, specified from optical infinity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indirect observations suggest that the neural control of accommodation may undergo adaptive recalibration in response to age-related biomechanical changes in the accommodative system. However, there has been no direct demonstration of such an adaptive capability. This investigation was conducted to demonstrate short-term adaptation of accommodative step response dynamics to optically induced changes in neuromuscular demands.
Repetitive changes in accommodative effort were induced in 15 subjects (18-34 years) with a double-step adaptation paradigm wherein an initial 2-D step change in blur was followed 350 ms later by either a 2-D step increase in blur (increasing-step paradigm) or a 1.75-D step decrease in blur (decreasing-step paradigm). Peak velocity, peak acceleration, and latency of 2-D single-step test responses were assessed before and after 1.5 hours of training with these paradigms.
Peak velocity and peak acceleration of 2-D step responses increased after adaptation to the increasing-step paradigm (9/12 subjects), and they decreased after adaptation to the decreasing-step paradigm (4/9 subjects). Adaptive changes in peak velocity and peak acceleration generalized to responses that were smaller (1 D) and larger (3 D) than the 2-D adaptation stimulus. The magnitude of adaptation correlated poorly with the subject's age, but it was significantly negatively correlated with the preadaptation dynamics. Response latency decreased after adaptation, irrespective of the direction of adaptation.
Short-term adaptive changes in accommodative step response dynamics could be induced, at least in some of our subjects between 18 and 34 years, with a directional bias toward increasing rather than decreasing the dynamics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When the aging lens is replaced with prosthetic accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs), with effective viscoelasticities different from those of the natural lens, mismatches could arise between the neural control of accommodation and the biomechanical properties of the new lens. These mismatches could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation. Using computer simulations, we investigated whether optimal accommodative responses could be restored through recalibration of the neural control of accommodation. Using human experiments, we also investigated whether the accommodative system has the capacity for adaptive recalibration in response to changes in lens biomechanics.
Dynamic performance of two accommodating IOL prototypes was simulated for a 45-year-old accommodative system, before and after neural recalibration, using a dynamic model of accommodation. Accommodating IOL I, a prototype for an injectable accommodating IOL, was less stiff and less viscous than the natural 45-year-old lens. Accommodating IOL II, a prototype for a translating accommodating IOL, was less stiff and more viscous than the natural 45-year-old lens. Short-term adaptive recalibration of dynamic accommodation was stimulated using a double-step adaptation paradigm that optically induced changes in neuromuscular effort mimicking responses to changes in lens biomechanics.
Model simulations indicate that the unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation resulting from mismatches between neural control and lens biomechanics might be restored through neural recalibration.
Empirical measures reveal that the accommodative system is capable of adaptive recalibration in response to optical loads that simulate effects of changing lens biomechanics.
Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 12/2008; 24(9):984-90. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accommodation and convergence systems are cross-coupled so that stimulation of one system produces responses by both systems. Ideally, the cross-coupled responses of accommodation and convergence match their respective stimuli. When expressed in diopters and meter angles, respectively, stimuli for accommodation and convergence are equal in the mid-sagittal plane when viewed with symmetrical convergence, where historically, the gains of the cross coupling (AC/A and CA/C ratios) have been quantified. However, targets at non-zero azimuth angles, when viewed with asymmetric convergence, present unequal stimuli for accommodation and convergence. Are the cross-links between the two systems calibrated to compensate for stimulus mismatches that increase with gaze-azimuth? We measured the response AC/A and stimulus CA/C ratios at zero azimuth, 17.5 and 30 deg of rightward gaze eccentricities with a Badal Optometer and Wheatstone-mirror haploscope. AC/A ratios were measured under open-loop convergence conditions along the iso-accommodation circle (locus of points that stimulate approximately equal amounts of accommodation to the two eyes at all azimuth angles). CA/C ratios were measured under open-loop accommodation conditions along the iso-vergence circle (locus of points that stimulate constant convergence at all azimuth angles). Our results show that the gain of accommodative-convergence (AC/A ratio) decreased and the bias of convergence-accommodation increased at the 30 deg gaze eccentricity. These changes are in directions that compensate for stimulus mismatches caused by spatial-viewing geometry during asymmetric convergence.
Vision Research 04/2008; 48(7):893-903. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three signals are used to visually localize targets and stimulate saccades: (1) retinal location signals for intended saccade amplitude, (2) sensory-motor transform (SMT) of retinal signals to extra-ocular muscle innervation, and (3) estimates of eye position from extra-retinal signals. We investigated effects of adapting saccade amplitude to a double-step change in target location on perceived direction. In a flashed-pointing task, subjects pointed an unseen hand at a briefly displayed eccentric target without making a saccade. In a sustained-pointing task, subjects made a horizontal saccade to a double-step target. One second after the second step, they pointed an unseen hand at the final target position. After saccade-shortening adaptation, there was little change in hand-pointing azimuth toward the flashed target suggesting that most saccade adaptation was caused by changes in the SMT. After saccade-lengthening adaptation, there were small changes in hand-pointing azimuth to flashed targets, indicating that 1/3 of saccade adaptation was caused by changes in estimated retinal location signals and 2/3 by changes in the SMT. The sustained hand-pointing task indicated that estimates of eye position adapted inversely with changes of the SMT. Changes in perceived direction resulting from saccade adaptation are mainly influenced by extra-retinal factors with a small retinal component in the lengthening condition.
Journal of Vision 02/2008; 8(8):3.1-16. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of empirical corresponding points in the two retinas has been well studied along the horizontal and the vertical meridians, but not in other parts of the visual field. Using an apparent-motion paradigm, we measured the positions of those points across the central portion of the visual field. We found that the Hering-Hillebrand deviation (a deviation from the Vieth-Müller circle) and the Helmholtz shear of horizontal disparity (backward slant of the vertical horopter) exist throughout the visual field. We also found no evidence for non-zero vertical disparities in empirical corresponding points. We used the data to find the combination of points in space and binocular eye position that minimizes the disparity between stimulated points on the retinas and the empirical corresponding points. The optimum surface is a top-back slanted surface at medium to far distance depending on the observer. The line in the middle of the surface extending away from the observer comes very close to lying in the plane of the ground as the observer fixates various positions in the ground, a speculation Helmholtz made that has since been misunderstood.
Journal of Vision 02/2008; 8(3):7.1-20. · 2.48 Impact Factor