Claire Sunyach

University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France

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Publications (28)168.49 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In physiological conditions, both β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and cellular prion (PrP(c)) undergo similar disintegrin-mediated α-secretase cleavage yielding N-terminal secreted products referred to as soluble amyloid precursor protein-α (sAPPα) and N1, respectively. We recently demonstrated that N1 displays neuroprotective properties by reducing p53-dependent cell death both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the potential of N1 as a neuroprotector against amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated toxicity. We first show that both recombinant sAPPα and N1, but not its inactive parent fragment N2, reduce staurosporine-stimulated caspase-3 activation and TUNEL-positive cell death by lowering p53 promoter transactivation and activity in human cells. We demonstrate that N1 also lowers toxicity, cell death, and p53 pathway exacerbation triggered by Swedish mutated βAPP overexpression in human cells. We designed a CHO cell line overexpressing the London mutated βAPP (APP(LDN)) that yields Aβ oligomers. N1 protected primary cultured neurons against toxicity and cell death triggered by oligomer-enriched APP(LDN)-derived conditioned medium. Finally, we establish that N1 also protects neurons against oligomers extracted from Alzheimer disease-affected brain tissues. Overall, our data indicate that a cellular prion catabolite could interfere with Aβ-associated toxicity and that its production could be seen as a cellular protective mechanism aimed at compensating for an sAPPα deficit taking place at the early asymptomatic phase of Alzheimer disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(7):5021-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of the ubiquitin ligase parkin account for most autosomal recessive forms of juvenile Parkinson's disease (AR-JP). Several studies have suggested that parkin possesses DNA-binding and transcriptional activity. We report here that parkin is a p53 transcriptional repressor. First, parkin prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced caspase-3 activation in a p53-dependent manner. Concomitantly, parkin reduced p53 expression and activity, an effect abrogated by familial parkin mutations known to either abolish or preserve its ligase activity. ChIP experiments indicate that overexpressed and endogenous parkin interact physically with the p53 promoter and that pathogenic mutations abolish DNA binding to and promoter transactivation of p53. Parkin lowered p53 mRNA levels and repressed p53 promoter transactivation through its Ring1 domain. Conversely, parkin depletion enhanced p53 expression and mRNA levels in fibroblasts and mouse brains, and increased cellular p53 activity and promoter transactivation in cells. Finally, familial parkin missense and deletion mutations enhanced p53 expression in human brains affected by AR-JP. This study reveals a ubiquitin ligase-independent function of parkin in the control of transcription and a functional link between parkin and p53 that is altered by AR-JP mutations.
    Nature Cell Biology 10/2009; 11(11):1370-5. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: La protéine prion cellulaire (PrPc) est impliquée dans le développement des Encéphalopathies Spongiformes Transmissibles (EST). Sa maturation physiologique produit un fragment N-terminal soluble, N1 et sa contrepartie C-terminale C1, ancrée à la membrane. Lors du développement des EST, une coupure alternative a lieu plus en amont : il en résulte un fragment N-terminal plus court, N2 et sa contrepartie C2. Les fonctions respectives des fragments sécrétés N1 et N2 demeurent méconnues. Nous avons produit des fragments N1 et N2 recombinants afin d’étudier leurs effets sur l’apoptose. In vitro, l’apoptose est induite par un traitement à la Staurosporine ou par privation de glucose et d’oxygène (OGD). In vivo, nous avons utilisé, chez le rat, un modèle d’ischémie rétinienne par hyperpression de l’œil. Au cours de nos expériences in vitro, un traitement avec le fragment N1 induit une diminution du nombre de cellules positives au marquage TUNEL ainsi qu’une baisse de l’activation de la caspase 3. Cette protection contre l’apoptose est liée à une régulation de la transcription et de l’activité transcriptionnelle de p53. De plus, les mêmes effets sont retrouvés en stimulant la production endogène de N1. Cette fonction neuroprotectrice est confirmée in vivo lors d’expériences d’ischémie rétinienne. Elle se caractérise au niveau cellulaire par une réduction du nombre de cellules ganglionnaires positives lors d’un marquage TUNEL et une diminution de l’immunoréactivité p53. De plus, aux niveaux tissulaire et fonctionnel, la protection se traduit par un maintien de la structure de la rétine et une récupération partielle de l’activité mesurée par électrorétinogramme. Le fragment N2 est inerte dans ces paradigmes. Nos travaux sont la première démonstration de la fonction neuroprotectrice d’un fragment sécrété issu de la protéolyse de la PrPc. Ils montrent in vitro et in vivo que les différents produits dérivés des clivages N-terminaux de la PrPc portent des activités biologiques distinctes. D’autre part, le fragment sAPPα produit de la maturation non amyloidogénique de la βAPP, porte également une fonction neuroprotectrice renforçant l’hypothèse d’un dialogue fonctionnel entre la Prpc et la βAPP déjà mise en évidence au laboratoire.
    Revue Neurologique 10/2009; 165(10):58-58. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) undergoes a disintegrin-mediated physiological cleavage, generating a soluble amino-terminal fragment (N1), the function of which remained unknown. Recombinant N1 inhibits staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activation by modulating p53 transcription and activity, whereas the PrP(c)-derived pathological fragment (N2) remains biologically inert. Furthermore, N1 protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis, reduces the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling-positive and p53-immunoreactive neurons in a pressure-induced ischemia model of the rat retina and triggers a partial recovery of b-waves but not a-waves of rat electroretinograms. Our work is the first demonstration that the alpha-secretase-derived PrP(c) fragment N1, but not N2, displays in vivo and in vitro neuroprotective function by modulating p53 pathway. It further demonstrates that distinct N-terminal cleavage products of PrP(c) harbor different biological activities underlying the various phenotypes linking PrP(c) to cell survival.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(51):35973-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DJ-1 was recently identified as a gene product responsible for a subset of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms by which mutations in DJ-1 alter its function and account for PD-related pathology remained largely unknown. We show that DJ-1 is processed by caspase-6 and that the caspase-6-derived C-terminal fragment of DJ-1 fully accounts for associated p53-dependent cell death. In line with the above data, we show that a recently described early-onset PD-associated mutation (D149A) renders DJ-1 resistant to caspase-6 proteolysis and abolishes its protective phenotype. Unlike the D149A mutation, the L166P mutation that prevents DJ-1 dimerization does not impair its proteolysis by caspase-6 although it also abolishes DJ-1 antiapoptotic function. Therefore, we show here that DJ-1 loss of function could be due to impaired caspase-6 proteolysis and we document the fact that various DJ-1 mutations could lead to PD pathology through distinct molecular mechanisms.
    Cell death and differentiation 09/2009; 17(1):158-69. · 8.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) conditions the length of the amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) that accumulate in the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease-affected brains. This, together with an additional presenilin-mediated epsilon-secretase cleavage, generates intracellular betaAPP-derived fragments named amyloid intracellular domains (AICDs) that regulate the transcription of several genes. We establish that presenilins control the transcription of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) by a gamma-secretase inhibitor-sensitive and AICD-mediated process. We demonstrate that AICD-dependent control of PrP(c) involves the tumor suppressor p53. Thus, p53-deficiency abolishes the AICD-mediated control of PrP(c) transcription. Furthermore, we show that p53 directly binds to the PrP(c) promoter and increases its transactivation. Overall, our study unravels a transcriptional regulation of PrP(c) by the oncogene p53 that is directly driven by presenilin-dependent formation of AICD. Furthermore, it adds support to previous reports linking secretase activities involved in betaAPP metabolism to the physiology of PrP(c).
    Journal of Neuroscience 06/2009; 29(20):6752-60. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2008; 4(4). · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is by far the most common form of dementia in the elderly and concerns one out of three individuals over 85. Like other neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson, Hungtington or prion diseases, AD is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaques in the central nervous system. In the brain of AD patients, the main component of these abnormal deposits is an aggregated form of the so-called amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which is produced from a large trans-membrane type-1 protein, the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP), by the sequential action of the beta- and gamma-secretases. Beside these two amyloidogenic proteolytic attacks, betaAPP is targeted by a third enzyme termed alpha-secretase. Of utmost importance, this cleavage, which can be of constitutive or regulated origin, occurs right in the middle of the Abeta sequence, thus precluding its production. For this reason, and because the sAPPalpha secreted fragment derived from this cleavage displays beneficial effects, tremendous efforts have been made recently in order to both identify the proteases involved and the way they are regulated. More recently, it emerged that alpha-secretase was also responsible for the physiological processing of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) in the middle of its toxic 106-126 sequence. This review will focus on the recent advances in the alpha-secretase pathways regulation and will discuss the putative therapeutic approaches that could be envisioned concerning the treatment of two apparently distinct diseases that share common denominators according to their metabolism.
    Current Alzheimer Research 05/2008; 5(2):202-11. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The trafficking of normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is believed to control its conversion to the altered conformation (designated PrPSc) associated with prion disease. Although anchored to the membrane by means of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), PrPC on neurons is rapidly and constitutively endocytosed by means of coated pits, a property dependent upon basic amino acids at its N-terminus. Here, we show that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), which binds to multiple ligands through basic motifs, associates with PrPC during its endocytosis and is functionally required for this process. Moreover, sustained inhibition of LRP1 levels by siRNA leads to the accumulation of PrPC in biosynthetic compartments, with a concomitant lowering of surface PrPC, suggesting that LRP1 expedites the trafficking of PrPC to the neuronal surface. PrPC and LRP1 can be co-immunoprecipitated from the endoplasmic reticulum in normal neurons. The N-terminal domain of PrPC binds to purified human LRP1 with nanomolar affinity, even in the presence of 1 muM of the LRP-specific chaperone, receptor-associated protein (RAP). Taken together, these data argue that LRP1 controls both the surface, and biosynthetic, trafficking of PrPC in neurons.
    Journal of Cell Science 04/2008; 121(Pt 6):773-83. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is by far the most common form of dementia in the elderly and concerns one out of three individuals over 85. Like other neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson, Hungtington or prion diseases, AD is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaques in the central nervous system. In the brain of AD patients, the main component of these abnormal deposits is an aggregated form of the so-called amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), which is produced from a large trans-membrane type-1 protein, the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP), by the sequential action of the β- and γ-secretases. Beside these two amyloidogenic proteolytic attacks, βAPP is targeted by a third enzyme termed α- secretase. Of utmost importance, this cleavage, which can be of constitutive or regulated origin, occurs right in the middle of the Aβ sequence, thus precluding its production. For this reason, and because the sAPPα secreted fragment derived from this cleavage displays beneficial effects, tremendous efforts have been made recently in order to both identify the proteases involved and the way they are regulated. More recently, it emerged that α-secretase was also responsible for the physiological processing of the cellular prion protein (PrPc) in the middle of its toxic 106-126 sequence. This review will focus on the recent advances in the α-secretase pathways regulation and will discuss the putative therapeutic approaches that could be envisioned concerning the treatment of two apparently distinct diseases that share common denominators according to their metabolism.
    Current Alzheimer Research 03/2008; 5(2):202-211. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which plays a central role in Alzheimer Disease, is generated by presenilin-dependent and presenilin-independent gamma-secretase cleavages of beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP). We report that the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) also regulate p53-associated cell death. Thus, we established that PS deficiency, catalytically inactive PS mutants, gamma-secretase inhibitors and betaAPP or APLP2 depletion reduced the expression and activity of p53, and lowered the transactivation of its promoter and mRNA levels. p53 expression was also reduced in the brains or betaAPP-deficient mice or in brains where both PS had been invalidated by double conditional knock out. AICDC59 and AICDC50, the gamma- and epsilon-secretase-derived C-terminal fragments of betaAPP, respectively, trigger the activation of caspase-3, p53-dependent cell death, and increase p53 activity and mRNA. Finally, HEK293 cells expressing PS1 harboring familial AD (FAD) mutations or FAD-affected brains, all display enhanced p53 activity and p53 expression. Our studies demonstrate that AICDs control p53 at a transcriptional level, in vitro and in vivo and unravel a still unknown function for presenilins.
    Current Alzheimer Research 10/2007; 4(4):423-6. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) undergoes a physiological processing yielding the N-terminal fragment referred to as N1, the production of which can be constitutive or protein kinase C regulated. We show that activation of endogenous muscarinic receptors by carbachol and by the M1-selective agonist AF267B increases N1 recovery in an atropine-sensitive manner, in mouse embryonic primary neurons. To identify the muscarinic receptor subtype involved, we used human embryonic kidney HEK293 (HEK) cells stably overexpressing M1, M2, M3, or M4 receptor subtype. Carbachol and the selective M1 agonist AF267B dose dependently increased N1 release by HEK-M3 and HEK-M1 cells, respectively, whereas carbachol did not modify N1 production by HEK-M2 or HEK-M4 cells. We demonstrate that the increase of N1 was not attributable to modified trafficking to the membrane of either PrP(c) or the disintegrin metalloproteases ADAM10 or ADAM17. Furthermore, we establish that carbachol affects the overall phosphorylation of ADAM17 on its threonine and tyrosine but not serine residues, whereas levels of phosphorylated ADAM9 were not affected. Interestingly, carbachol also increases the hydrolysis of the fluorimetric substrate JMV2770, which mimicked the sequence encompassing the N1 site cleavage and was shown previously to behave as an ADAM protease substrate. Mutations of threonine 735 but not of tyrosine 702 of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic tail abolishes the carbachol-induced increase of N1, ADAM17 phosphorylation, and JMV2770-hydrolyzing activity in M1- and M3-expressing HEK293 cells. Thus, our data provide strong evidence that muscarinic receptor activation increases the physiological processing of PrP(c) by upregulating the phosphorylation state and activity of ADAM17 protease.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2007; 27(15):4083-92. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Neuron 03/2007; 53(4):483-6. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) undergoes various endopro-teolytic attacks within its N-terminal domain, leading to the production of C-terminal fragments (C) tethered to the plasma membrane and soluble N-terminal peptides (N). One of these cleavages occurs at position 110/111, thereby generating C1 and N1 products. We have reported that disintegrins ADAM-10, -9, and -17 participate either directly or indirectly to this proteolytic event. An alternative proteolytic event taking place around residue 90 yields C2 and N2 fragments. The putative function of these proteolytic fragments remained to be established. We have set up two novel human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines stably overexpressing either C1 or C2. We show that C1 potentiates staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activation through a p53-dependent mechanism. Thus, C1 positively controls p53 transcription and mRNA levels and increases p53-like immunoreactivity and activity. C1-induced caspase-3 activation remained unaffected by the blockade of endocytosis in HEK 293 cells and was abolished in p53-deficient fibroblasts. Conversely, overexpression of the C2 fragment did not significantly sensitize HEK 293 cells to apoptotic stimuli and did not modify p53 mRNA levels or activity. Therefore, the nature of the proteolytic cleavage taking place on PrP(c) yielded C-terminal catabolites with distinct function and could be seen as a switch mechanism controlling the function of the PrP(c) in cell survival.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2007; 282(3):1956-63. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Current Alzheimer Research - CURR ALZHEIMER RES. 01/2007; 4(4):423-426.
  • Parkinsonism & Related Disorders - PARKINSONISM RELAT DISORD. 01/2007; 13.
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    ABSTRACT: Presenilins (PSs) are part of the gamma-secretase complex that produces the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) from its precursor [beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP)]. Mutations in PS that cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) increase Abeta production and trigger p53-dependent cell death. We demonstrate that PS deficiency, catalytically inactive PS mutants, gamma-secretase inhibitors, and betaAPP or amyloid precursor protein-like protein 2 (APLP2) depletion all reduce the expression and activity of p53 and lower the transactivation of its promoter and mRNA expression. p53 expression also is diminished in the brains of PS- or betaAPP-deficient mice. The gamma- and epsilon-secretase-derived amyloid intracellular C-terminal domain (AICD) fragments (AICDC59 and AICDC50, respectively) of betaAPP trigger p53-dependent cell death and increase p53 activity and mRNA. Finally, PS1 mutations enhance p53 activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and p53 expression in FAD-affected brains. Thus our study shows that AICDs control p53 at a transcriptional level, in vitro and in vivo, and that FAD mutations increase p53 expression and activity in cells and human brains.
    Journal of Neuroscience 07/2006; 26(23):6377-85. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: beta-Amyloid peptide accumulates in the brain of patients affected by sporadic or familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. It derives from the proteolytic attacks of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) by beta- and gamma-secretase activities. An additional epsilon cleavage taking place a few residues C-terminal to the gamma-site has been reported, leading to the formation of an intracellular fragment referred to as APP intracellular domain C50. This epsilon cleavage received particular attention because it resembles the S3 Notch cleavage generating Notch intracellular domain. Indeed, APP intracellular domain, like its Notch counterpart, appears to mediate important physiological functions. gamma and epsilon cleavages on betaAPP appear spatio-temporally linked but pharmacologically distinct and discriminable by mutagenesis approaches. As these cleavages could be seen as either deleterious (gamma-site) or beneficial (epsilon-site), it appears of most interest to set up models aimed at studying these activities separately, particularly to design specific and bioavailable inhibitors. On the other hand, it is important to respect the topology of the substrates in order to examine physiologically relevant cleavages. Here we describe the obtention of cells overexpressing APPepsilon, the epsilon-secretase-derived N-terminal fragment of betaAPP. Interestingly, this N-terminal fragment of betaAPP was shown by biochemical and immunohistochemical approaches to behave as a genuine membrane-bound protein. APPepsilon undergoes constitutive and protein kinase C-regulated alpha-secretase cleavages. Furthermore, APPepsilon is targeted by the beta-secretase beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme and is subsequently cleaved by gamma-secretase. The resulting beta-amyloid peptide production is fully prevented by various gamma-secretase inhibitors. Altogether, our study shows that APPepsilon is a relevant betaAPP derivative to study gamma-secretase activities and to design specific inhibitors without facing any rate-limiting effect of epsilon-secretase-derived cleavage.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2006; 97(3):807-17. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease. A subset of genetic forms of Parkinson disease has been attributed to alpha-synuclein, a synaptic protein with remarkable chaperone properties. Synphilin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein that has been identified as a partner of alpha-synuclein (Engelender, S., Kaminsky, Z., Guo, X., Sharp, A. H., Amaravi, R. K., Kleiderlein, J. J., Margolis, R. L., Troncoso, J. C., Lanahan, A. A., Worley, P. F., Dawson, V. L., Dawson, T. M., and Ross, C. A. (1999) Nat. Gen. 22, 110-114), but its function remains totally unknown. We show here for the first time that synphilin-1 displays an antiapoptotic function in the control of cell death. We have established transient and stable transfectants overexpressing wild-type synphilin-1 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, telecephalon-specific murine 1 neurons, and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and we show that both cell systems display lower responsiveness to staurosporine and 6-hydroxydopamine. Thus, synphilin-1 reduces procaspase-3 hydrolysis and thereby caspase-3 activity and decreases poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, two main indicators of apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, we establish that synphilin-1 drastically reduces p53 transcriptional activity and expression and lowers p53 promoter transactivation and mRNA levels. Interestingly, we demonstrate that synphilin-1 catabolism is enhanced by staurosporine and blocked by caspase-3 inhibitors. Accordingly, we show by transcription/translation assay that recombinant caspase-3 and, to a lesser extent, caspase-6 but not caspase-7 hydrolyze synphilin-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mutated synphilin-1, in which a consensus caspase-3 target sequence has been disrupted, resists proteolysis by cellular and recombinant caspases and displays drastically reduced antiapoptotic phenotype. We further show that the caspase-3-derived C-terminal fragment of synphilin-1 was probably responsible for the antiapoptotic phenotype elicited by the parent wild-type protein. Altogether, our study is the first demonstration that synphilin-1 harbors a protective function that is controlled by the C-terminal fragment generated by its proteolysis by caspase-3.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2006; 281(17):11515-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Article: O3-03-01
    Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2006; 2(3).

Publication Stats

886 Citations
168.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2011
    • University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis
      • Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IPMC/UMR6097 CNRS-UNS)
      Valbonne, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France
  • 2005–2009
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IPMC)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • IPMC
      Akra, Greater Accra, Ghana
  • 2004–2007
    • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 2003
    • King's College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom